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Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences 25건

  1. [국내논문]   Further Evidence of Linkage at the tva and tvc Loci in the Layer Lines and a Possibility of Polyallelism at the tvc Locus  

    Ghosh, A.K. (Indian Veterinary Research Institute ) , Pani, P.K. (Central Avian Research Institute)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.18 no.5 ,pp. 601 - 605 , 2005 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Three lines of White Leghorn (WL) chickens (IWJ, IWG and IWC) maintained at Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar (UP), were used for chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and liver tumour (LT) assay. Eleven-day-old embryos of each line were partitioned into three groups and inoculated with 0.2 ml of subgroup A, subgroup C and an equal mixture of subgroup A and C Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). Subgroup virus receptor on the cell surface membrane for subgroup A is coded for by tumour virus a (tva) locus and for subgroup C by tumour virus c (tvc) locus. The random association of the genes at the tva and tvc loci in IWJ and IWC line was assessed and the $x^2$ -values for phenotypic classes were found to be significant, indicating the linkage between the tva and tvc loci. The linkage value was estimated to be 0.09 on pooled sex and pooled line basis. On the basis of four subclass tumour phenotypes a 4-allele model was proposed for tva locus having $a^{s1}$ , $a^{s2}$ , $a^{r1}$ and $a^{r2}$ alleles and the frequencies were calculated as 0.47, 0.13, 0.13 and 0.27 for IWJ line, 0.31, 0.33, 0.14 and 0.22 for IWG line and 0.44, 0.11, 0.21 and 0.24 for IWC line, respectively. Similarly, for tvc locus the frequencies of four alleles i.e. $c^{s1}$ , $c^{s2}$ , $c^{r1}$ and $c^{r2}$ were calculated as 0.42, 0.20, 0.21 and 0.17 for IWJ line, 0.42, 0.17, 0.27 and 0.14 for IWG line and 0.30, 0.21, 0.16 and 0.33 for IWC line, respectively. The $x^2$ -values for all classes of observations were not significant (p>0.05), indicating a good fit to the 4-allele model for the occurrence of 4-subclass tumour phenotypes for tva and tvc loci. On the basis of the 2-allele model both tva and tvc locus carries three genotypes each. But, on the basis of the 4-allele model tva and tvc locus carries 10 genotypes each. The interaction between A-resistance and C-resistance (both CAM and LT death) was ascertained by taking the 10 genotypes of tva locus and 3 genotypes of tvc locus by pooling the lines and partitioning the observations into 3 classes. The $x^2$ -values for the genotypic classes of CAM (-) LT (+) and CAM (-) LT (-) phenotypes to mixed virus (A+C) infection were found to be highly significant (p $a^r$ and $c^r$ genes, suggesting the existence of close linkage between the tva and tvc loci. Therefore, an indirect selection approach using subgroup C viruses can be employed to generate stocks resistant to subgroup A LLV, obviating contamination with the most common agent causing LL in field condition.

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  2. [국내논문]   Modeling the Productivity of a Breeding Sheep Flock for Different Production Systems   피인용횟수: 1

    Kamalzadeh, A. (Islamic Azad, University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.18 no.5 ,pp. 606 - 612 , 2005 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Individual production traits, such as reproduction and mortality rates, are partial measures, but may be used to evaluate the performance of different systems by comparing the rate of flock growth and potential offtake. The productivity of two existing sheep production systems, one extensive, one intensive, was compared with an alternative semi-intensive system. The future flock sizes, offtakes and structures were predicted based on the age structure of the flock and age-specific reproduction, mortality and growth rates. The measurements were illustrated with reference to growth of a sheep flock of different age and sex categories. The flock was in a socalled dynamic situation. During the dry period, the digestible organic matter intake of the animals in the intensive system and both extensive and semi-extensive systems was 36 and 20.1 g kg $^{-0.75}$ d $^{-1}$ , respectively. During the cold period, the digestible organic matter intake of the animals in extensive, intensive and semi-extensive systems was 34, 34.5 and 41 g kg $^{-0.75}$ d $^{-1}$ , respectively. During the dry period, the animals in the both extensive and semi-intensive systems lost in body weight at a rate of 19 g per day, but the rate of gain in body weight of the animals in intensive system was 57 g per day. During the cold period, the animals in extensive, intensive and semiintensive systems gained in body weight at rates of 56, 67 and 97 g per day, respectively. The higher gain of animals during the cold period in the semi-intensive system was related to a sustained higher intake of low-quality roughage and more efficient use of the available feed. Compared to the intensive system, the annual concentrate input of the semi-intensive system was about 48% lower for each livestock unit. The productivity of the semi-intensive system was higher than that of the extensive system.

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  3. [국내논문]   Genetic Contribution of Indigenous Yakutian Cattle to Two Hybrid Populations, Revealed by Microsatellite Variation  

    Li, M.H. (Animal Production Research, MTT Agrifood Research Finland ) , Nogovitsina, E. (Yakut State Agricultural Academy ) , Ivanova, Z. (Yakut State Agricultural Academy ) , Erhardt, G. (Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics, Justus-Liebig University ) , Vilkki, J. (Animal Production Research, MTT Agrifood Research Finland ) , Popov, R. (Department of Farm Animals and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Resources of Sakha ) , Ammosov, I. (Batagay-Alyta ) , Kiselyova, T. (All-Russian Research Institute for Farm Animal Genetics and Breeding, Department of Biotechnology ) , Kantanen, J. (Animal Production Research, MTT Agrifood Research Finland)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.18 no.5 ,pp. 613 - 619 , 2005 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Indigenous Yakutian cattle' adaptation to the hardest subarctic conditions makes them a valuable genetic resource for cattle breeding in the Siberian area. Since early last century, crossbreeding between native Yakutian cattle and imported Simmental and Kholmogory breeds has been widely adopted. In this study, variations at 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 5 populations of Yakutian, Kholmogory, Simmental, Yakutian-Kholmogory and Yakutian-Simmental cattle were analysed to estimate the genetic contribution of Yakutian cattle to the two hybrid populations. Three statistical approaches were used: the weighted least-squares (WLS) method which considers all allele frequencies; a recently developed implementation of a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method called likelihood-based estimation of admixture (LEA); and a model-based Bayesian admixture analysis method (STRUCTURE). At population-level admixture analyses, the estimate based on the LEA was consistent with that obtained by the WLS method. Both methods showed that the genetic contribution of the indigenous Yakutian cattle in Yakutian-Kholmogory was small (9.6% by the LEA and 14.2% by the WLS method). In the Yakutian-Simmental population, the genetic contribution of the indigenous Yakutian cattle was considerably higher (62.8% by the LEA and 56.9% by the WLS method). Individual-level admixture analyses using STRUCTURE proved to be more informative than the multidimensional scaling analysis (MDSA) based on individual-based genetic distances. Of the 9 Yakutian-Simmental animals studied, 8 showed admixed origin, whereas of the 14 studied Yakutian-Kholmogory animals only 2 showed Yakutian ancestry (>5%). The mean posterior distributions of individual admixture coefficient (q) varied greatly among the samples in both hybrid populations. This study revealed a minor existing contribution of the Yakutian cattle in the Yakutian-Kholmogory hybrid population, but in the Yakutian-Simmental hybrid population, a major genetic contribution of the Yakutian cattle was seen. The results reflect the different crossbreeding patterns used in the development of the two hybrid populations. Additionally, molecular evidence for differences among individual admixture proportions was seen in both hybrid populations, resulting from the stochastic process in crossing over generations.

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  4. [국내논문]   Correlations of Genic Heterozygosity and Variances with Heterosis in a Pig Population Revealed by Microsatellite DNA Marker  

    Zhang, J.H. (Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University ) , Xiong, Y.Z. (Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University ) , Deng, C.Y. (Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.18 no.5 ,pp. 620 - 625 , 2005 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Correlation of microsatellite heterozygosity with performance or heterosis was reported in wild animal populations and domestic animal populations, but the correlation with heterosis in a crossbreeding F $_1$ pig population remained uncertain. To explore this, we had random selected and mated Yorkshire ${\times}$ Meishan (F, n = 82) and their reciprocal (G, n = 47) to F $_1$ , and used the two straightbreds as control groups (Yorkshire = 34, Meishan = 55), and observed the heterosis of birth weight (BWT), average daily gain (ADG) and feed and meat ratio (FMR). Two Kinds of measurement-individual heterozygosity (IH) and individual mean d $^2$ (lg value, ID) were used as index of heterozygosity and variance from 39 microsatellite marker loci to perform univariate regression analysis against heterosis. We detected significant correlation of IH with BWT in all of F $_1$ (F+G) and in F. We observed significant correlation of ID with ADG in all of F $_1$ (F+G), and with FMR in all of F $_1$ (F+G) and in F. There was significant maternal effect on heterosis, which was indicated by significant difference of means and distribution of heterosis between F and G. This difference was consistent with distributions of IH and ID, and with difference of means in F and G. From this study, it would be suggested that the two kinds of genetic index could be used to explore the genetic basis of heterosis in crossbreeding populations but could not determine which is better.

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  5. [국내논문]   Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Luteal Cell DNA Fragmentation of Porcine Cyclic Corpora Lutea  

    Tao, Yong (Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University ) , Fu, Zhuo (Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University ) , Xia, Guoliang (Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University ) , Lei, Lei (Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University ) , Chen, Xiufen (Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University ) , Yang, Jie (Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.18 no.5 ,pp. 626 - 631 , 2005 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is involved in cell apoptosis, which contributes to luteal regression and luteolysis in some species. In large domestic animals, no direct evidence for the relationship between NO and cell apoptosis in the process of corpus luteum regression is reported. The present study was conducted to investigate the localization of iNOS on porcine corpora lutea (CL) during the oestrus cycle and its relation to cell DNA fragmentation and CL regression. According to morphology, four luteal phases throughout the estrous cycle were defined as CL1, CL2, CL3 and CL4. By isoform-specific antibody against iNOS, the immunochemial staining was determined. Luteal cell DNA fragmentation was determined by flow cytometry. The results showed that no positive staining for iNOS was in CL1 and that iNOS was produced but limited to the periphery of CL2, while in the CL3, the spreading immunochemical staining was found inside the CL. No iNOS positive staining was detected in CL4. Meanwhile, DNA fragmentation increased dramatically when CL developed from CL2 to CL3 (p

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  6. [국내논문]   Effect of Removal of Follicles through Repeated Transvaginal Follicle Aspiration on Subsequent Follicular Populations in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis   피인용횟수: 3

    Akshey, Y.S. (Animal Biotechnology Centre, National Dairy Research Institute ) , Palta, P. (Animal Biotechnology Centre, National Dairy Research Institute ) , Manik, R.S. (Animal Biotechnology Centre, National Dairy Research Institute ) , Vivekananad, Vivekananad (Animal Biotechnology Centre, National Dairy Research Institute ) , Chauhan, M.S. (Animal Biotechnology Centre, National Dairy Research Institute)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.18 no.5 ,pp. 632 - 636 , 2005 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of removal of all ovarian follicles through repeated transvaginal follicle aspiration (TVFA) on the subsequent follicular populations in buffaloes. This information is crucial for determining the optimum time interval between successive aspirations for recovering oocytes from live buffaloes through Transvaginal Oocyte Retrieval (TVOR). The oestrus of cycling buffaloes (n=5) were synchronized by a single PGF injection schedule. All the ovarian follicles were removed once every 7 days for 6 weeks through TVFA, starting from Day 7 of the oestrous cycle (Day 0 = day of oestrus). The number and size of individual ovarian follicles was recorded at Day 3 and Day 5 (Day 0 = day of TVFA) through transrectal ultrasonography. The follicles were classified on the basis of their diameter as small (3-5 mm), medium (6-9 mm) and large ( $\geq$ 10 mm). There was no difference in the number of small and medium follicles, and the number of total follicles between Day 3 and Day 5. However, the number of large follicles was significantly higher (p

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  7. [국내논문]   Influence of Varying Levels of Dietary Undegraded Intake Protein Intake on Nutrient Intake, Body Weight Change and Reproductive Parameters in Postpartum Awassi Ewes   피인용횟수: 1

    Haddad, S.G. (Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology ) , Kridli, R.T. (Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology ) , Al-Wadi, D.M. (Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.18 no.5 ,pp. 637 - 642 , 2005 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary undegradable protein (UP) level on body weight change, nutrient intake, milk production and postpartum reproductive performance of Awassi ewes. Twenty-seven multiparous Awassi ewes (initial body weight = 53.3 ${\pm}$ 1.6 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (9 ewes/treatment) for 62 days using a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were isonitrogenous (15.5% CP), isocaloric, and were formulated to contain 17.9 (LUP), 27.1 (MUP), and 34.0% (HUP) of the dietary CP as UP. On day 10 ${\pm}$ 3 (day 0 = parturition) ewes were housed in individual pens for 5 weeks. Feed offered and refused was recorded daily. At the end of this period, animals were removed from their pens and combined into 3 separate groups (LUP, MUP and HUP). One fertile, harnessed ram was allowed with each group for 34 days. Rams were rotated every 2 days among the three groups. Each group was offered the corresponding experimental diet. Organic matter, CP, UP and metabolizable energy intakes were higher (p

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  8. [국내논문]   Effect of Sample Preparation on Prediction of Fermentation Quality of Maize Silages by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy  

    Park, H.S. (National Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Rural Development Administration ) , Lee, J.K. (Hanwoo Experiment Station, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA ) , Fike, J.H. (Crop and Soil Environmental Science Department, Virginia Tech. ) , Kim, D.A. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University ) , Ko, M.S. (National Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Rural Development Administration ) , Ha, Jong Kyu (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.18 no.5 ,pp. 643 - 648 , 2005 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has become increasingly used as a rapid, accurate method of evaluating some chemical constituents in cereal grains and forages. If samples could be analyzed without drying and grinding, then sample preparation time and costs may be reduced. This study was conducted to develop robust NIRS equations to predict fermentation quality of corn (Zea mays) silage and to select acceptable sample preparation methods for prediction of fermentation products in corn silage by NIRS. Prior to analysis, samples (n = 112) were either oven-dried and ground (OD), frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground (LN) and intact fresh (IF). Samples were scanned from 400 to 2,500 nm with an NIRS 6,500 monochromator. The samples were divided into calibration and validation sets. The spectral data were regressed on a range of dry matter (DM), pH and short chain organic acids using modified multivariate partial least squares (MPLS) analysis that used first and second order derivatives. All chemical analyses were conducted with fresh samples. From these treatments, calibration equations were developed successfully for concentrations of all constituents except butyric acid. Prediction accuracy, represented by standard error of prediction (SEP) and $R^2_{v}$ (variance accounted for in validation set), was slightly better with the LN treatment ( $R^2$ 0.75-0.90) than for OD ( $R^2$ 0.43-0.81) or IF ( $R^2$ 0.62-0.79) treatments. Fermentation characteristics could be successfully predicted by NIRS analysis either with dry or fresh silage. Although statistical results for the OD and IF treatments were the lower than those of LN treatment, intact fresh (IF) treatment may be acceptable when processing is costly or when possible component alterations are expected.

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  9. [국내논문]   Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and Buffered Propionic Acid on Preservation and Nutritive Value of Alfalfa and Timothy High-moisture Hay  

    Baah, J. (Lethbridge Research Centre Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada ) , McAllister, T.A. (Lethbridge Research Centre Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre ) , Bos, L. (Wageningen University, Department of Animal Sciences ) , Herk, F. Van (Lethbridge Research Centre Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada ) , Charley, R.C. (Lallemand Animal Nutrition Canada)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.18 no.5 ,pp. 649 - 660 , 2005 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    The effects of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and buffered propionic acid on preservation, intake and digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and timothy (Phleum pratense) hay were investigated. During baling, forages were treated with L. buchneri 40788 (1.2 ${\times}$ 10 $^6$ CFU/g) as a liquid (LLB) or as a granular preparation (GLB), with buffered propionic acid (10 mL/kg, BPA), or left untreated (control). Triplicate 500 kg round bales of each treatment were put up at two moisture levels for each forage: 17% ${\pm}$ 0.33% and 20% ${\pm}$ 0.30% for timothy and 17% ${\pm}$ 0.20% and 19% ${\pm}$ 0.27% for alfalfa (mean ${\pm}$ SD). Bales were sampled for chemical and microbiological analyses after 0, 30 and 60 d of storage. Compared to controls, all preservatives reduced (p 0.05) among treatments, however, voluntary DM intake of LLB-treated timothy (1.32 kg/d) was 22.3% higher (p

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  10. [국내논문]   Effect of Pre-partum Feeding of Crossbred Cows on Growth Performance, Metabolic Profile and Immune Status of Calves  

    Panigrahi, B. (Division of Livestock Production & Management, Indian Veterinary Research Institute ) , Pandey, H.N. (Division of Livestock Production & Management, Indian Veterinary Research Institute ) , Pattanaik, A.K. (Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute)
    Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences v.18 no.5 ,pp. 661 - 666 , 2005 , 1011-2367 ,

    초록

    The effects of pre-partum feeding management in terms of birth weight, growth, metabolic profile and immunity of calves were studied using 24 crossbred (Bos taurus ${\times}$ Bos indicus) cows, divided into three equal groups. The dietary treatments included feeding of either 3.0 kg concentrate/head/d throughout the 60 d pre-partum (T $_1$ ), or 3.0 kg concentrate during 60-22 d pre-partum and thereafter at an increased allowance at 0.25 kg/d during the next 21 d till it reached 1% of live weight (T $_2$ ). The third group of cows was fed similar to T $_2$ , except that the concentrate feeding during 60-22 d pre-partum was reduced to 2.0 kg (T $_3$ ). All the groups had access to ad libitum green fodder throughout. The results revealed that the mean daily dry matter (DM) intake by the cows was similar (p>0.05) among the three groups during the 60 days of the pre-partum but T2 animals tended to gain more live weight (41.25 kg) than T $_1$ (38.12 kg) and T $_3$ (36.25 kg). The body condition score of the cows did not change appreciably over the experimental period. The mean birth weight of the calves was 24.00 ${\pm}$ 1.10, 24.63 ${\pm}$ 1.17 and 23.25 ${\pm}$ 1.19 kg for the three groups, respectively, with the corresponding average daily gain of 154.2, 155.0 and 169.7 g during the subsequent 60 days; both these parameters did not vary significantly ascribable to prepartum feeding regimens of their dams. The total immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration in the colostrum was 6.31 ${\pm}$ 0.34, 5.80 ${\pm}$ 0.21 and 6.13 ${\pm}$ 0.30 g/dl for the three groups, respectively, showing no influence of dietary treatments. The mean serum Ig levels (T $_1$ 2.10 ${\pm}$ 0.09, T $_2$ 2.05 ${\pm}$ 0.09 and T $_3$ 2.10 ${\pm}$ 0.12 g/dl) of calves at 5 d of age were similar among the dietary groups as was the case with various serum biochemical constituents. It is concluded that the variations in pre-partum dietary management elicited no significant influence on the calf performance including the immune status.

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