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The Journal of dairy research 19건

  1. [해외논문]   DAR volume 36 issue 1 Cover and Back matter  


    The Journal of dairy research v.36 no.1 ,pp. b1 - b2 , 1969 , 0022-0299 ,

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  2. [해외논문]   DAR volume 36 issue 1 Cover and Front matter  


    The Journal of dairy research v.36 no.1 ,pp. f1 - f2 , 1969 , 0022-0299 ,

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  3. [해외논문]   Activities of rumen micro-organisms in water buffalo (Bos bubalus L.) and in Zebu cattle  

    Naga, M. A. , el-Shazly, K.
    The Journal of dairy research v.36 no.1 ,pp. 1 - 10 , 1969 , 0022-0299 ,

    초록

    Summary Two fistulated adult bulls of the Zebu breed and 2 fistulated adult buffalo steers were given a diet consisting of concentrate mixture (rice bran and cotton-seed cake in equal portions +2% calcium hydroxide + 1% common salt) and straw. This was later changed to an all-roughage diet of first cut berseem ( Trifolium alexandrinum ) Samples of the rumen contents were taken for determination of protozoal differential counts, concentration and relative proportions of volatile fatty acids (VFA), rate of cellulose digestion, fermentation rate, and net growth of rumen micro-organisms. Further data were obtained for the 2 buffalo steers fed sweet Sudan grass. When the feed consisted of concentrate and straw there were significant differences in the numbers of protozoa and in volatile fatty acid concentration in the 2 species of animals. Higher protozoal counts were observed in the rumen of bulls (7·2−8·1 × 10 5 organisms/ml) than in the rumen of buffaloes (2·6−3·6 × 10 5 organisms/ml). Greater concentration of VFA was found in the rumen of buffaloes (5·3−11·2 mequiv/100 ml rumen liquor) than in bulls (4·8−10·4 m-equiv/100 ml rumen liquor). With berseem, the concentration of VFA in the rumen was generally higher (6·73−11·0 m-equiv/100 ml rumen liquor) and the protozoal counts were lower (2·8−5·2 × 10 5 organisms/ml) but there were no significant differences between bulls and buffaloes. The rates of cellulose digestion and the maximum fermentation rates were similar in the 2 species indicating a microbial population of the same order. Higher rates of cellulose digestion and of maximum fermentation when the ration consisted of berseem than when it consisted of concentrate + straw indicated a higher concentration of micro-organisms, mostly bacteria.

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  4. [해외논문]   The action of calf rennet and other proteolytic enzymes on κ-casein  

    Lawrence, R. C. , Creamer, L. K.
    The Journal of dairy research v.36 no.1 ,pp. 11 - 20 , 1969 , 0022-0299 ,

    초록

    Summary The hydrolysis of κ-casein by a number of rennets and other proteolytic enzymes has been followed by measuring the increase in opacity due to the formation of insoluble aggregates of para-κ-caseins. The stability of these precipitates varied markedly, some being solubilized rapidly by the further action of the enzyme. The turbidity obtained with certain enzymes was dependent upon the calcium ion concentration, indicating that the para-κ-caseins produced were not identical for all enzymes. For high concentrations of calf rennet, the rate of aggregation was linear with respect to time. With low concentrations of enzyme, increase in turbidity was preceded by a lag period which was lengthened by decreasing the enzyme concentration or increasing the κ-casein concentration. This increase in lag is favoured by a high κ-casein/para-κ-casein ratio, suggesting that the aggregation of newly formed para-κ-casein is prevented by the unchanged κ-casein. In addition, small amounts of α s 1 - or β-caseins present in the κ-casein also markedly affected the aggregation of para-κ-casein, indicating that all 3 major casein components can inhibit the aggregation of para-κ-casein in the absence of calcium ions. In the light of these observations the possible role of protein-protein interactions in casein coagulation by calf rennet is discussed.

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  5. [해외논문]   A micro-method for the quantitative estimation of rennets and other proteolytic enzymes  

    Lawrence, R. C. , Sanderson, W. B.
    The Journal of dairy research v.36 no.1 ,pp. 21 - 30 , 1969 , 0022-0299 ,

    초록

    Summary An agar diffusion slide assay using a thin layer of calcium caseinate has been developed as a micro-method for the quantitative study of calf rennet and other proteolytic enzymes. The number and width of the precipitation zones formed as a result of proteolytic activity depended upon the enzyme used, the concentration of calcium ion, pH and temperature. The assay was highly reproducible and particularly suitable for the measurement of large numbers of samples. It was considerably more sensitive than the milk clotting technique and, in general, more sensitive than other standard methods for measuring proteolytic activity.

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  6. [해외논문]   Weed taints in diary produce. I. Lepidium taint  

    Park, R. J.
    The Journal of dairy research v.36 no.1 ,pp. 31 - 35 , 1969 , 0022-0299 ,

    초록

    Summary A re-investigation has been made of the nature of the tainting substances present in butterfat possessing the weed taint which arises through the ingestion of Lepidium spp. by dairy cattle. Some 0.5 ppm of skatole were isolated from Lepidium tainted butterfat, along with 0.3 ppm indole. Flavour evaluation tests demonstrated that the skatole was principally responsible for the flavour defect, somewhat modifying the conclusions arrived at by earlier investigators.

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  7. [해외논문]   Weed taints in dairy produce. II. Coronopus or land cress taint in milk  

    Park, R. J. , Armitt, J. D. , Stark, W.
    The Journal of dairy research v.36 no.1 ,pp. 37 - 46 , 1969 , 0022-0299 ,

    초록

    Summary Unheated Coronopus -tainted milk yielded butterfat from which benzyl methyl sulphide, benzyl isothiocyanate, benzyl cyanide, indole and skatole were isolated by high-vacuum distillation. The first 3 of these compounds were also isolated from the corresponding skim-milk, buttermilk and butter serum by vacuum steam distillation: identification was by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The flavour threshold of benzyl methyl sulphide in milk and butter oil was found to be respectively, 1 part in 10 8 and 1 part in 10 7 , whereas the amount isolated from butterfat was approximately 1 part in 10 6 . This evidence, together with the similarity in flavour of the Coronopus taint in milk and butter oil with that of untainted milk and butter oil to which had been added respectively, 1 part in 10 7 and 1 part in 10 6 of benzyl methyl sulphide, demonstrates that benzyl methyl sulphide is a principal contributor to the flavour defect. A hypothesis is proposed to explain the origin of the sulphide and related components in the milk. The possibility remains that in commercial weed-tainted butter, which is made from heated cream, other compounds may be present.

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  8. [해외논문]   The induction by exogenous hormones of enzymes metabolising glucose 6-phosphate in the mammary gland of the pseudopregnant rabbit  

    Heitzman, R. J.
    The Journal of dairy research v.36 no.1 ,pp. 47 - 52 , 1969 , 0022-0299 ,

    초록

    Summary A study was made of the effects of the hormones, prolactin and cortisol acetate, on the activities in the mammary gland of the pseudopregnant rabbit of the enzymes concerned with lactose biosynthesis and glucose 6-phosphate metabolism, namely: UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, UDP-glucose-4'-epimerase, phosphofructokinase, phosphoglucomutase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Significant increases in enzyme activities were observed in rabbits examined 3 or 4 days after receiving a mammary intraductal injection of prolactin. The activities were not significantly increased at examination 2 days after injection of prolactin. Rabbits receiving cortisol acetate each day for 3 days also showed no significant increases in mammary enzyme activity. However, when prolactin and cortisol acetate were given simultaneously over a period of 3 days, increased enzyme activities were found suggesting synergistic action of the hormones.

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  9. [해외논문]   The use of high-temperature short-time scalding in continuous curd-making  

    Berridge, N. J. , Scurlock, P. G.
    The Journal of dairy research v.36 no.1 ,pp. 53 - 64 , 1969 , 0022-0299 ,

    초록

    Summary Experiments with continuously made curd leading to the use of a 4-min scalding period at 48°C for Cheddar curd-making are described. The short time at 48°C had only a slightly adverse effect on the starter, and the moisture content of the drained curd was within the range usually found in conventionally made curd at the same stage. The starter was allowed to grow in the drained curd during cheddaring. After 3–6 h the pH and moisture content were the same as those of normal cheddared curd.

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  10. [해외논문]   Hydrolysis of fat and protein in small cheeses made under aseptic conditions  

    Reiter, B. , Sorokin, Y. , Pickering, A. , Hall, A. J.
    The Journal of dairy research v.36 no.1 ,pp. 65 - 76 , 1969 , 0022-0299 ,

    초록

    Summary Aseptically drawn milk was made into small cheeses (100 g) under aseptic conditions. The influence of the cow's feeding rEgime on the composition of the cheese fat, and the hydrolysis of the cheese fat and protein by bacterial and native milk enzymes, was studied. In the absence of a strongly lipolytic bacterial cheese flora, the free fatty acid (FFA) content of cheese appeared to depend on several variables: 1. The initial FFA content of the milk varied according to the mode of milking (the lowest was obtained by cannulation of the udder) and the feeding rEgime of the cow. When one of a pair of monozygotic twin cows was maintained on pasture and the other on winter feed (hay and concentrates), the cheese made from the milk of the latter contained less FFA than did that from the former. 2. The major changes in the composition of the milk fat of the cows on winter regime were an increase of myristic and palmitic acids from 8 to 11% and 21 to 28%, respectively, and a decrease in stearic and oleic acid from 11 to 7·5% and 38 to 28%; minor changes in the other fatty acids were also observed. 3. The milk lipase in raw milk cheese liberated substantially more FFA than did the weakly lipolytic lactic acid streptococci. Milk lipase was active at the low pH value of cheese, but was inactivated when the milk was pasteurized at 63°C for 30 min. 4. Although rennet did not produce any amino acids in the mature cheeses it hydrolysed some of the cheese protein to nitrogen soluble in water (WS), trichloroacetic acid (TCA-S) or phosphotungstic acid (PTA-S). Some of the WS-N appeared to be utilized by the lactic acid streptococci. The native milk protease resisted the heat treatment used and liberated amino acids at the low pH value of cheese, but its contribution to the proteolysis was relatively less important than the contribution of the milk lipase to the fat breakdown in cheese. 5. The free amino acids of the milk, which appeared in the whey, were not recovered in the cheese. The cheese made from unheated milk with δ-gluconic acid lactone contained low amounts of free amino acids apparently due to the action of milk protease. The proteolytic activity of the lactic acid bacteria increased the amino acid content appreciably.

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