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한국초지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Grassla... 12건

  1. [국내논문]   식물육종에 있어서 비환원 ( 2n ) 배우자의 중요성  

    Rim, Yong-Woo (National Livestock Research Institute, RDA)
    한국초지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland Science v.17 no.1 ,pp. 1 - 10 , 1997 , 1013-9354 ,

    초록

    Unreduced (2n) gametes are meiotic products (pollen or egg) having a sporophytic (somatic) chromosome number, resulting from abnormalities during either microsporogenesis or megasporogenesis. They occur naturally at a low frequency in many plant species. Unreduced (2n) gametes in plants can be identified for four possible ways as follow i) pollen size and/or shape differences between haploid (n) and diploid (2n) pollen, ii) ploidy analysis (chromosome number) of progeny or meiotic analysis (presence of dyads andlor triads at the microspore stage), iii) progeny performance and fertility and iv) dosage of isozyme and DNA markers. Unreduced (2n) gametes can be an effective breeding tool in synthesizing new cultivars, providing a unique method to maximizing heterozygosity, i.e., transferring a large proportion of the non-additive genetic effects (intra- and inter- locus interactions) h m parent to offspring and can also be used to overcome infertility of interploidy crosses. Sexual polyploidization through 2n gametes has been a major route to the formation of naturally occurring polyploids. The three mechanisms of 2n pollen formation in potato have been discovered as follow: i) parallel spindles (ps) or tripolar spindles (ts), ii) premature cytokinesis (pc-I, pc-2) and iii) synaptic mutants (sy-2, sy-3, sy-4). Genetic analysis indicated that the mechanisms of 2n gamete formation were controlled by single recessive gene in potato, alfalfa, red clover, etc., and by two recessive genes in wheat. The use of 2n gametes which can efficiently transfer germplasm fiom wild relatives to cultivated species, especially fiom diploid to tetraploid could make a contribution to the improvement of germplasm base in breeding programs.

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  2. [국내논문]   Bacillus spp.의 원형질체 형성 및 재생  

    최기춘 (전남대학교 농과대학 ) , 김광현 (전남대학교 농과대학 ) , 전우복 (전남대학교 농과대학)
    한국초지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland Science v.17 no.1 ,pp. 11 - 18 , 1997 , 1013-9354 ,

    초록

    This study was to provide the basic data in improving protoplast formation and regeneration of antagonistic bacteria against phytopathogenic fungi and pest. The antagonistic rhizobacterium, BS 101, against Rhizoctonia solrmi and Fusurium oxyspomm was isolated and identified as Bacillus subtilis. Another bacterium for protoplast formation and regeneration was B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstcJtiHD-l (BT 37669) which have insectcidal toxin in the orders Coleopteria, Dipteria etc.. Auxotrophic mutants, BS 1013 and BT 69, were isolated by treating with NTG 300 ug/ml for 40 min. at $37^{\circ}C$ , and with NTG 300 ug/ml for 30 min. at $37^{\circ}C$ , respectively. The BS 1013 and BT 69 were converted to protoplas by treating with lysozyme 300 ugh1 for 30 min. at 37C, and lysozyme 9 mglml for 60 min. at $37^{\circ}C$ , respectively. The fequencies of the protoplast formation of BS 1013 and BT 69 were 90.00 and 92.83% respectively, after 1~2 day at $37^{\circ}C$ . The regeneration kequencies of the protoplasts BS 1013 and B T 69 were 0.52 and 0.10%, respectively, after 4~6 days at $37^{\circ}C$ .

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  3. [국내논문]   초지에 대한 인산질비료의 잔류효과에 의한 연구 II. 혼파초지의 식생구성 및 목초의 무기태함량에 대한 인산질비료의 잔류효과  

    박근제 (축산기술연구소 ) , 김정갑 (축산기술연구소 ) , 서성 (축산기술연구소 ) , 김맹중 (축산기술연구소)
    한국초지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland Science v.17 no.1 ,pp. 19 - 26 , 1997 , 1013-9354 ,

    초록

    To find out the residual effect of phosphate fertilization on botanical composition, mineral contents and mineral nutrient deprivation of pasture plants, this experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with six treatments(0-0, 50-50, 100-65, 150-65, 200-65 and 250-65kg $P_2O_5$ /ha), those were composed of three P,O, fertilization level(0, 50 and 65kg P,OJha) after phosphate fertilization trial with six treatments(0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250kg $P_2O_5$ /ha) from 1989 to 1992, and conducted at hilly land in Kwangju, Kyonggi Province 60m 1993 to 1994. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The botanical composition of pasture plants without phosphate fertilization was very poor. With increasing available phosphate of soil, the percentage of grasses and legumes were remarkably increased and weeds was decreased. With 150-65kg $P_2O_5$ /ha application for two years, the average DM yield was composed of 80.6% grasses, 15.4% legume and 4.0% weeds, the percentage was similar to that of 200-65kg $P_2O_5$ /ha. As available phosphate of soil increase, P, K and Mg content of pasture plants were increased, but Ca/P ratio was lowed and the other mineral contents tended not to be regular. The mineral nutrient contents deprived by DM yield was increased as available phosphate of soil was increased, but those were not different between 150-65 and 250-65kg $P_2O_5$ /ha. However, mineral nutrient of $P_2O_5$ , $K_2O$ and MgO were higher in 200-65 and 250-65kg $P_2O_5$ /ha. Most of applied mineral elements were accumulated at a subsurface(0-2.5cm) of grasslands, and mineral tended to be decrease than that of soil chemical analysis before the experiment of residual effect of phosphate fertilization.

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  4. [국내논문]   조.만생 Orchargrass 품종의 생육특성과 수량성 및 사료가치 비교 연구   피인용횟수: 1

    서성 (축산기술연구소 ) , 신동은 (축산기술연구소 ) , 정의수 (축산기술연구소 ) , 강우성 (축산기술연구소 ) , 양종성 (축산기술연구소)
    한국초지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland Science v.17 no.1 ,pp. 27 - 34 , 1997 , 1013-9354 ,

    초록

    This experiment was carried out to determine growth characteristics, dry matter (DM) yield, seasonal yield distribution and nutritive value of early- and late maturity orchardgrass, 1990 to 1992. The cultivars used in this study were Potomac, Hallmark (early maturing cultivar) and Lidacta, Rancho (late maturing cultivar), and a mixture plot (Potomac 25% + Hallmark 25% + Lidacta 25% + Rancho 25%) was involved. The seeding rate was 20 kgha in all treatments. Plant height of Potomac and Hallmark was longer than that of Lidacta and Rancho. The dates of initial heading and 50% heading of early maturing cultivars (Apr. 30 and May 10) were 10 days earlier than those of late matuing cultivars. Potomac and Hallmark were upright, and Lidacta and Rancho were semi-upright type, and severe disease and weeds (30 ~ 40%) were observed at Lidacta plot. On an average of three years, the DM yields of Potomac (10,549 kglna), Hallmark (10,435 kg) and mixture (10,356 kg) were significantly (P

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  5. [국내논문]   목초생산성과 초지 생태계에 미치는 액상분뇨의 시용효과   피인용횟수: 2

    류종원 (상지대학교 농학과 )
    한국초지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland Science v.17 no.1 ,pp. 35 - 42 , 1997 , 1013-9354 ,

    초록

    Many farmers apply cattle slurry on grassland, often in excess of crop N requirements, resulting in groundwater contamination. Our research objective was the development of grassland management systems that reduce undesirable sideeffects on other compartment of the ecosystem. Field experiment was conducted during 1991~1993 on sandy loam soil at AllgZiu south western Germany. Different sets of conditions were tested such as : zero fertilization, reduced sluny application $(l20kg N ha^{-1}yr^{-1})$ , intensive sluny application(conventional sluny application, $240kg N ha^{-1}yr^{-1}$ ). The plots of the reduced slurry application had no significant effect on dry matter yields, digestible dry matter and net energy of herbage. Dry matter yield of zero fertilization was significantly lower than that of usual slurry application, however the content of Ca and Mg in herbage tended to increase. We conclude that reduced sluny application can be applied on grassland without adverse effects on dry matter production and quality of herbage.

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  6. [국내논문]   목초 생산성과 액상분뇨 시용이 토양의 질소동태와 $NO_3$ 용탈에 미치는 영향  

    류종원 (상지대학교 농학과)
    한국초지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland Science v.17 no.1 ,pp. 43 - 50 , 1997 , 1013-9354 ,

    초록

    The aim of the study is to describe the fate and transformation of nitrogen in grassland ecosystems. Field experiments were conducted using sandyloam soil under variabling conditions: Zen, fertilization, reduced slurry application(l20kg N $ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ ), usual sluny application (240 kg N $ha^{-1}\;yr^{-1}$ ).Soil water samples were gathered with 120cm ceramic cups with initial pressure of 0.5 bar. Samples were collected twice a month and analysed for NO, colormetrically. Percolation was calculated as the difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, and leaching as the product of percolation and nitrate content of the water h m the ceramic cups. The N $H_4$ -N content in soil had no significant effect on slurry application, but high slurry application on grassland resulted in high N $O_3$ -N content in soil. The NO, concentration in soil water was remarkably variable during the year. The average N $O_3$ , concentration during experiment became the lowest(8.5 mg/e ) without slurry application and highest with 240kOa cattle sluny(25.3 mg4 ). For each of the three different amounts of cattle sluny applied (0, 120, and 240kOa), the amount of N $O_3$ -N leached per year were 12, 23 and 29kg/ha respectively. On grassland under the climatic conditions of Allgau showed enormous nitrate leaching, which has a p a t potential of polluting the ground water. The high pool of mineral N in the soil are the source for N $O_3$ leaching. The leaching of N $O_3$ cannot be avoided completely, but minimized by optimizing N fertilization rate.

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  7. [국내논문]   사료용 수수 ( Sorghum bicolor X S. bicolor ) 생육에 대한 정수 슬러지 ( alum sludge ) 의 시용효과  

    김상덕 (중부대학교 동물자원학과 ) , 장기운 (충남대학교 농과대학 ) , 임재신 (한국과학기술원 토목공학과 ) , 김영한 (한국수자원공사 수자원연구소)
    한국초지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland Science v.17 no.1 ,pp. 51 - 58 , 1997 , 1013-9354 ,

    초록

    An experiment of alum sludge application was carried out on a mountainous site, to know its effect on the growth of forage sorghum hybrid, Pioneer 93 1 (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor). When alum sludge with 80% water content was applied at the level of 133 ton per ha, the effect of the application on the growth of Pioneer 931 was much smaller than that of chemical fertilizer. But Eresh yield of the forage, with the sludge application, was greater than that without fertilizer when the soil is not fertile. But when the soil was comparatively fertile, the sludge application gave an adverse affect on the growth of the forage plant. The content of exchangeable K in the soil has a very close positive relation with the Eresh yield and plant height of the plant, while that of exchangeable Ca has a close negative relation with those growing factors. There was a tendency of yield decrease of the forage plant, when alum or compost was applied with NPK to the comparatively infertile soil especially for alum sludge. As a result, when soil is not fertile more attention will be necessary for applying alum sludge with chemical fertilizers. But to soil with better fertility, it is recommended to use alum sludge with chemical fertilizer to obtain more yield of the forage plant.

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  8. [국내논문]   호밀의 수확시기 및 잔주의 처리방법이 사일리지용 옥수수의 생장과 수량에 미치는 영향  

    김원호 (축산기술연구소 남원지소 ) , 김동암 (서울대학교 농업생명과학대학)
    한국초지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland Science v.17 no.1 ,pp. 59 - 66 , 1997 , 1013-9354 ,

    초록

    This experiment was conducted at the forage experimental field, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Suweon in 1992 and 1993 to investigate the effects of tillage method-conventional and rotary-till, rye (Secde cereale L.) harvest date-early (April 14) and late (April 26), and rye residue treatmentno paraquat(1, 1-dinethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride) and paraquat in minimizing the adverse effects of the rye residue on growth and yield of succeeding corn(Zea mays L.). Corn plant height during the growing season was slighly taller with conventional tillage relative to rotary-till when rye was harvested in early and treated by paraquat. Corn LA1 during the growing season was slighly increased when rye was harvested in early and where conventional tillage was used with paraquat treatment. There were no differences in the leaf number and silking dates of corn among the tillage methods, harvest dates of rye and paraquat treatments. The dry matter yield of corn was significantly increased by paraquat treatment when rye was harvest in early, but no differences were found in the dry matter percentage, ear percent to total dry matter, and stover, ear and estimated TDN yields of corn among the treatments.

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  9. [국내논문]   호밀의 수확 및 제초제 처리시기가 후작 사일리지용 옥수수에 미치는 영향  

    김원호 (축산기술연구소 남원지소 ) , 김동암 (서울대학교 농업생명과학대학 ) , 김종덕 (서울대학교 농업생명과학대학)
    한국초지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland Science v.17 no.1 ,pp. 67 - 74 , 1997 , 1013-9354 ,

    초록

    This experiment was conducted in 1992 and 1993 at the forage experimental field, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Suweon to determine timing of rye(Secde cemde L.) harvest and residue chemical treatment prior to tillage in minimizing the adverse effects of the rye residue on growth and yield of succeeding corn(Zea muys L.). Eight treatments were established in 1993 which included four treatments such as no paraquat (1, l'diiethyl- 4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride), paraquat treatment at 10, 23, and both 23 and 10 days prior to tillage when rye was harvested on April 14, and another four treatments such as no paraquat, paraquat treatment at 1, 5 and 10 days prior to tillage when rye was harvested on April 26. No paraquat treatment significantly resulted in reductions in corn plant height on June 3 and 10 when rye was harvested on April 14, but differences in the plant height and leaf number of corn among treatments were generally nonsignificant. Corn LA1 and silk emergence were not affected by paraquat treatment times regardless of rye harvested dates, but silk emergence was delayed by 1 to 2 days with no paraquat when rye harvested on April 14. Corn dry matter and TDN yields were significantly increased by paraquat treatment at 10 and 5 days prior to tillage treatment when rye was harvested on April 14 and 26, respectively, but other agronomic characteristics such as dry matter percentage, ear percent to total dry matter, and stover and ear yields of corn at harvest showed little or no response to paraquat treatment times.

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  10. [국내논문]   액상구비의 시용시기와 시용수준이 호밀 (Secale cereale L.) 의 생산성에 미치는 영향  

    육완방 (건국대학교 축산대학 동물자원연구센터 ) , 차용복 (건국대학교 축산대학 동물자원연구센터 ) , 금종성 (건국대학교 축산대학 동물자원연구센터 ) , 이종민 (경기도 도립종축장 ) , 한영근 (축산업협동조합중앙회)
    한국초지학회지 = Journal of the Korean Society of Grassland Science v.17 no.1 ,pp. 75 - 81 , 1997 , 1013-9354 ,

    초록

    This study was wnducte to investigate the effects of treatment level and seasons of sluny hm bovine feces on the productivity of rye, N efficiency and improvement of soil fertility under the Korean climate condition. The results obtained fiom this study summarized as follows ; 1. The highest dry matter yield of rye was obtained in the partial fertilization of sluny in spring or autumn. There is no differences of dry matter yield between spring and autumn application. 2. With increasing the amount of slurry-N, the dry matter yield of rye was signigicantly increased up to 100Kg sluny Nha. As the level of slurry-N rises above about 100Kg N/ha, the maximal yield of dry matter was unchanged or declined. 3. As the level of sluny fertilization rises, the crude protein content of rye increases significantly. However the contents of crude protein was less affected by the application seasons. 4. The amount of nitrogen which produced 6om rye is dependent upon the level of slurry-N. The highest nitrogen yield of rye was obtained by the partial fertilization of sluny-N. 5. The season or amount of slurry treatments did not affect the organic matter content in soil. N-content in soil was the lowest by the partial fertilization of slurry in spring or autumn. However, N-content was increased with the higher level of sluny-N.

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