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Textures and microstructures 11건

  1. [해외논문]   Texture in Films and Coatings  

    Szpunar, Jerzy A.
    Textures and microstructures v.34 no.2/3 ,pp. 63 - 64 , 2000 , 0730-3300 ,

    초록

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  2. [해외논문]   Texture Analysis in LD-MOCVD Processed Thin Film Giant Magnetoresistant (LaM)MnO3 Materials  

    Garmestani, H. (MARTECH, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4351, USA ) , Dong, X. (MARTECH, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4351, USA ) , Brandao, L. (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA ) , Dahmen, K. -H. (MARTECH, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4351, USA)
    Textures and microstructures v.34 no.2/3 ,pp. 65 - 74 , 2000 , 0730-3300 ,

    초록

    Thin films of La0.67M0.33MnO3 (M=Sr), LSMO were deposited on three different substrates of LAO, Sapphire, and Y-ZrO2 (YSZ) using metal–organic chemical vapor deposition methods. The effect of texture and orientation on the resistance (0 and 6T) and magnetoresistance (MR) of (LSMO) thin films on various substrates has been investigated. X-ray pole figures were measured using Philips X'Pert X-ray diffractometer equipped with the PopLa analysis package. A direct correlation was observed between the lattice mismatch strain and the structure of the thin film growth. LSMO/LAO seems to be the most perfect system for epitaxial growth due to the negligible lattice-mismatch (∼2%). The dominant orientation changes for the films deposited on LAO [100] and LAO [110] substrates while the transition temperature from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic state of the film on LAO [100] is 50 K higher than that of the film on LAO [100]. The MR data and TMI temperature were measured using standard 4-point resistivity devices and SQUID.

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  3. [해외논문]   Simulation of Texture Formation in a ZrO2 Film Grown on Zr–2.5%Nb  

    Li, H. (Department of Metallurgical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2B2, Canada ) , Glavicic, M. (Department of Metallurgical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2B2, Canada ) , Szpunar, J. A. (Department of Metallurgical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2B2, Canada)
    Textures and microstructures v.34 no.2/3 ,pp. 75 - 90 , 2000 , 0730-3300 ,

    초록

    A computer model is developed which is capable of simulating the texture and microstructure of the oxide grown on a Zr substrate. In this computer model, the effects of both substrate texture and microstructure in the formation of oxide texture and microstructure are taken into account. The substrate and oxide are represented with digitized unit cells. Each unit cell has an orientation characterized by three Euler angles. In the nucleation and re-nucleation stage, the orientation of each oxide cell is determined by substrate orientation and microstructure. In the oxide grain growth stage, the orientation of each oxide cell is determined by minimizing the stress at the oxide/metal interface. In this paper, the model is applied to the simulation of the texture formation of the ZrO2 grown on a Zr–2.5%Nb substrate. Three substrates with completely different orientations and microstructures are used in the study. Good agreement between the simulated and the experimental results is obtained.

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  4. [해외논문]   In-Plane Texturing in Sputtered Films  

    Whitacre, J. F. (University of Michigan, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 2300 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA ) , Yalisove, S. M. (University of Michigan, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 2300 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA ) , Bilello, J. C. (University of Michigan, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 2300 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA)
    Textures and microstructures v.34 no.2/3 ,pp. 91 - 103 , 2000 , 0730-3300 ,

    초록

    Films consisting of Mo, Cr, and Ta have all been found to display well-defined biaxial textures when grown under certain conditions. A well-defined out-of-plane texture evolves within the first ~ 100 nm of the film, followed by the evolution of a preferred crystallographic orientation in the plane of the film. These effect were studied using X-ray pole figure analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), and high resolution grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS). It has been found that in-plane texture evolves only when there is, on average, oblique adatom flux incident onto the substrate. Further, the type of out-of-plane texture can be controlled by altering the deposition conditions. Parameters including cathode-to-substrate distance, deposition rate, average angle of adatom incidence, and sputter gas pressure, have been shown to determine the type out-of-plane texture, as well as the rate of in-plane texture evolution. The studies conducted have shown that it is possible to create and control biaxially textured films and multilayers made of a variety of materials. A recent model which describes this phenomena is discussed.

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  5. [해외논문]   Texture Control in Thin Films Using Ion Bombardment  

    Was, G. S. (Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, The University of Michigan, 1921 Cooley Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104, USA ) , Ji, H. (Department of Physics, The University of Michigan, 1921 Cooley Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104, USA ) , Ma, Z. (Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, The University of Michigan, 1921 Cooley Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104, USA)
    Textures and microstructures v.34 no.2/3 ,pp. 105 - 118 , 2000 , 0730-3300 ,

    초록

    The development of texture in thin films under ion bombardment is believed to occur due to the preferential growth of the aligned grains in the film relative to the unaligned grains. The difference in growth rates between aligned and unaligned grains results in the development of texture with increasing thickness. Both out-of-plane (fiber) and in-plane texture can be controlled during ion bombardment. Experiments were performed to create a (110) out-of-plane texture in thin aluminum films and to create a (110) in-plane texture in niobium films. Results showed that the texture in both cases increases in strength with depth, and that for 500 nm Al films, the (110) texture was stronger than the thermodynamically-preferred (111) texture obtained by physical vapor deposition. Results confirm a texturing mechanism based on ion channeling and preferential sputtering.

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  6. [해외논문]   The Microstructural Characterization of Electrogalvanized Zinc–Iron and Zinc–Nickel Coatings  

    Park, H. (Department of Metallurgical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, PQ H3A 2B2, Canada ) , Szpunar, J. A. (Department of Metallurgical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, PQ H3A 2B2, Canada)
    Textures and microstructures v.34 no.2/3 ,pp. 119 - 146 , 2000 , 0730-3300 ,

    초록

    In this study, the development of the microstructure of zinc–iron and zinc–nickel coatings on steel sheet electrodeposited at various deposition conditions, is analyzed. The evolution of the coating microstructure – texture, surface morphology, crystallographic lattice, microstress, alloy composition and phase of coatings – is investigated at different current densities and deposition times. The microstructure of zinc alloy coatings varies significantly with the change of deposition parameters. The present study proposes that the transformarion of texture during the alloy codeposition is closely related to the morphological characteristics of the coating surface and the change of alloy and phase composition of the deposit. Anomalous codeposition behavior, is considered responsible for the change or transformation of the microstructure of coatings. The texture of zinc–iron coatings changes from the combined texture of the basal fiber and non-fiber pyramidal component to the pyramidal fiber texture with the current density increase. In the case of zinc–nickel coatings, the intensity of the {101} texture of γ phase increases with increasing nickel content, while the intensity of the {100} texture decreases. A correlation between the texture, morphology and alloy content in the deposits is discussed.

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  7. [해외논문]   Texture and Microstructure Control in Zinc Coated Steel Sheets. Effect on Formability of the Coatings  

    Gaignard, S. (LETAM URA CNRS, 2090 Metz University, BP 80794, Metz Cedex F 57012, France ) , Lazik, S. (LETAM URA CNRS, 2090 Metz University, BP 80794, Metz Cedex F 57012, France ) , Lietzau, J. (LETAM URA CNRS, 2090 Metz University, BP 80794, Metz Cedex F 57012, France ) , Wegria, J. (UNION MINIERE Research, Olen B-2250, Belgium ) , Dubois, M. (COCKERILL SAMBRE, Flemalle B-4400, Belgium ) , Philippe, M. J. (LETAM URA CNRS, 2090 Metz University, BP 80794, Metz Cedex F 57012, France ) , Esling, C. (LETAM URA CNRS, 2090 Metz University, BP 80794, Metz Cedex F 57012, France)
    Textures and microstructures v.34 no.2/3 ,pp. 147 - 157 , 2000 , 0730-3300 ,

    초록

    Many commercial galvanised steel sheets have been characterised before deformation (grain size, grain distribution in the coatings, pre-cracking, individual orientations, misorientations between neighbouring grains, local and global textures) in connection with the zinc alloy which was used and the process parameters. The samples were bent by a biaxial expansion and examined afterwards. All the coatings were pre-cracked before deformation. The extent of the pre-cracking depends on the intensity and the sharpness of the basal planes texture of the coating and also on the misorientations across the grain boundaries. In the same way, zinc primary dendrites and recrystallised grains can hinder the crack propagation, limiting their extent. We can establish a correlation between the texture, the microstructure of the coatings (using a concept that corresponds to the mean free path of the crack) and the formability. As we know the process parameters, it is now conceivable that the texture of the coatings could be controlled.

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  8. [해외논문]   Initial and Recrystallization Textures of Nickel Electrodeposits  

    Kim, Insoo (School of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Kum Oh National University of Technology, Kumi, Kyung Buk 730-701, Korea ) , Lee, Sae Gwang (School of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Kum Oh National University of Technology, Kumi, Kyung Buk 730-701, Korea)
    Textures and microstructures v.34 no.2/3 ,pp. 159 - 169 , 2000 , 0730-3300 ,

    초록

    The texture of electrodeposits vary with deposition conditions. Electrodeposits texture is also related to microstructure, surface morphology and mechanical properties. When the electrodeposits annealed, the recrystallization texture may be different from the original deposition texture. The surface morphology, the microstructure and the initial and recrystallization textures of nickel electrodeposits vary with deposition conditions. The 〈100〉 and 〈110〉 textures of nickel electrodeposits can be obtained from nickel sulfate, nickel chloride and boric acid baths. The size of surface asperities decreases with increasing current density and decreasing temperature. The 〈100〉 and 〈110〉 textures of nickel electrodeposits changed to the 〈100〉 and 〈310〉 texture, when recrystallized, respectively.

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  9. [해외논문]   Texture of Electrodeposited Copper Coatings as Related to Their Substructure, Granular Structure and Surface Morphology  

    Girin, O. B. (State Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine, Prospekt Gagarina 4, Dnipropetrovsk 320635, Ukraine ) , Proshenko, Yu. O. (State Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine, Prospekt Gagarina 4, Dnipropetrovsk 320635, Ukraine ) , Kalinushkin, E. P. (State Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine, Prospekt Gagarina 4, Dnipropetrovsk 320635, Ukraine)
    Textures and microstructures v.34 no.2/3 ,pp. 171 - 179 , 2000 , 0730-3300 ,

    초록

    Results of comprehensive studies into crystallographic texture of electrodeposited copper coatings are presented in relation to their substructure, granular structure and surface morphology. Quantitative texture evaluation involving anisotropy of substructure characteristics, and determination of characteristics of substructure and granular structure in the axial and random components are addressed. Effects of texture anisotropy of substructure and texture nonhomogeneity of granular structure discovered in copper layers are dealt with. Influence of the deposition current density on quantitative characteristics of oriented structure in copper deposits is discussed. The effects of various thermodynamic factors on texture formation in copper electroplates are considered for the stages of (i) nucleation and (ii) growth of grains in the major component of texture. Anisotropy of shape is also treated for the elements of oriented structure in copper electrodeposits.

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  10. [해외논문]   The Evolution of Texture During Annealing of Nanocrystalline Electroless Nickel Alloy Deposits  

    Lee, Dong Nyung (School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea ) , Hur, Kang-Heon (Materials Research Laboratory, R & D Center, Samsung ElectroMechanics, Suwon 442-743, Korea)
    Textures and microstructures v.34 no.2/3 ,pp. 181 - 195 , 2000 , 0730-3300 ,

    초록

    The electroless Ni–Co–P alloy films containing up to 13.4% Co and 7.6% P were deposited on a 5086 aluminum alloy sheet using baths consisting of NiSO4, CoSO4, (NH4)2SO4, NaH2PO2, sodium citrate and thiourea. The deposits were solid solutions having a grain size of 6–7 nm and strong 〈111〉 texture. When the deposits were annealed for 2 h, Ni5P2 was precipitated at 325°C and transformed into the stable Ni3P phase at higher temperatures. During annealing the texture of deposit changed from 〈111〉 to 〈100〉. The texture change was attributed to preferential growth of 〈100〉 grains at the expense of 〈111〉 grains to decrease the thermal strain energy of the deposits. On the other hand, the electroless Ni–Cu–P alloy films containing Cu and P deposited on 5086 aluminum alloy sheet had the microstructures and textures which are similar to these of the Ni–Co–P alloy films. However, their initial 〈111〉 texture remained relatively stable even after annealing. The differences in annealing textures of Ni–Co–P and Ni–Cu–P alloy films have been discussed.

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