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Journal of microbiology and biotechnology 36건

  1. [국내논문]   Photocatalytic Cell Disruption of Giardia lamblia in a $UV/TiO_2$ Immobilized Optical-Fiber Reactor  

    유미진 (Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University ) , 김병우 (Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University)
    Journal of microbiology and biotechnology v.14 no.6 ,pp. 1105 - 1113 , 2004 , 1017-7825 ,

    초록

    Disinfection of a waterborne pathogenic protozoa, Giardia lamblia, by the conventional chlorine method has been known to be difficult. An alternative disinfection has been carried out by using a UV -light illuminating optical­fiber photoreactor. Light intensity diffused from one piece of a clad-removed optical-fiber was $1- 1.5{\mu}Em^{-2}s^{-1}$ . Disinfection capability in a UV -light irradiated optical-fiber reactor suspended with 0.01 g $TiO_{2}\;dm^{-3}$ was 1.4 times that in the same reactor without $TiO_{2}$ photocatalysts. To resolve the absorption and scattering of UV light by the particles themselves as well as the difficulty of recycling particles in the slurry­type reactor, $TiO_{2}$ which was obtained by a hydrothermal method, was immobilized on clad-removed optical fibers. Such pretreatment of fiber surface resulted in an excellent transparency, which enhanced the UV light to diffuse laterally from a fiber surface. Coating time of the prepared solution by the hydrothermal method was not effective after more than two times. Disinfection capability in the $TiO_{2}$ -immobilized optical-fiber reactor was $83\%$ in 1 h at $40^{\circ}C$ , which was slightly higher than $76\%$ at $22^{\circ}C$ and $68\%$ at $10^{\circ}C$ . Disinfection capability at $22^{\circ}C$ increased from $74\%$ at an initial pH of 3.4, through $76\%$ at pH 6.5, to $87\%$ at an initial pH of 10. Oxygen supply with air-flow rate of 5 $cm^3\;min^{-1}$ did not seem to increase the disinfection capability with UV /immobilized $TiO_2$ .

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  2. [국내논문]   Effect of Distribution System Materials and Water Quality on Heterotrophic Plate Counts and Biofilm Proliferation   피인용횟수: 2

    장영철 (Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., University of Central Florida ) , 정권 (Division of Waste, Seoul Metropolitan Government Institute of Health and Environment)
    Journal of microbiology and biotechnology v.14 no.6 ,pp. 1114 - 1119 , 2004 , 1017-7825 ,

    초록

    The biofilms on pipe walls in water distribution systems are of interest since they can lead to chlorine demand, coliform growth, pipe corrosion, and water taste and odor problems. As such, the study described in this paper is part of an AWWARF and Tampa Bay Water tailored collaboration project to determine the effect of blending different source waters on the water quality in various distribution systems. The project was based on 18 independent pilot distribution systems (PDS), each being fed by a different water blend (7 finished waters blended in different proportions). The source waters compared were groundwater, surface water, and brackish water, which were treated in a variety of pilot distribution systems, including reverse osmosis (RO) (desalination), both membrane and chemical softening, and ozonation-biological activated carbon (BAC), resulting in a total of 7 different finished waters. The observations from this study consistently demonstrated that unlined ductile iron was more heavily colonized by a biomass than galvanized steel, lined ductile iron, and PVC (in that order) and that the fixed biomass accumulation was more influenced by the nature of the supporting material than by the water quality (including the secondary residual levels). However, although the bulk liquid water cultivable bacterial counts (i.e. heterotrophic plate counts or HPCs) did not increase with a greater biofilm accumulation, the results also suggested that high HPCs corresponded to a low disinfectant residual more than a high biofilm inventory. Furthermore, temperature was found to affect the biofilms, plus the AOC was important when the residual was between 0.6 and 2.0 mg $Cl_2/l$ . An additional aspect of the current study was that the potential of the exoproteolytic activity (PEPA) technique was used along with a traditional so-called destructive technique in which the biofilm was scrapped off the coupon surface, resuspended, and cultivated on an R2A agar. Both techniques indicated similar trends and relative comparisons among the PDSs, yet the culturable biofilm values for the traditional method were several orders of magnitude lower than the PEPA values.

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  3. [국내논문]   Application of Single-Compartment Bacterial Fuel Cell (SCBFC) Using Modified Electrodes with Metal Ions to Wastewater Treatment Reactor   피인용횟수: 3

    박두현 (Department of Biological Engineering, Seokyeong University ) , 박영근 (Graduate School of Korea University ) , 유철 (Department of Civil Engineering, Korea University)
    Journal of microbiology and biotechnology v.14 no.6 ,pp. 1120 - 1128 , 2004 , 1017-7825 ,

    초록

    The SCBFC was composed of bilayered cathode, the outside of which was modified with $Fe^{3+}$ (graphite-Fe(III) cathode) and the inside of which was porcelain membrane, and of an anode which was modified with $Mn^{4+}$ (graphite­Mn(lV) anode). The graphite-Fe(III), graphite-Mn(IV), and porcelain membrane were designed to have micropores. The outside of the cathode was exposed to the atmosphere and the inside was contacted with porcelain membrane. In all SCBFCS the graphite-Fe(III) was used as a cathode, and graphite-Mn(IV) and normal graphite were used as anodes, for comparison of the function between normal graphite and graphite-Mn(IV) anode. The potential difference between graphite-Mn(IV) anode and graphite-Fe(III) cathode was about 0.3 volt, which is the source for the electron driving force from anode to cathode. In chemical fuel cells composed of the graphite-Mn(IV) anode and graphite-Fe(III) cathode, a current of maximal 13 mA was produced coupled to oxidation of NADH to $NAD^{+}$ the current was not produced in SCBFC with normal graphite anode. When growing and resting cells of E. coli were applied to the SCBFC with graphite-Mn(IV) anode, the electricity production and substrate consumption were 6 to 7 times higher than in the SCBFC with normal graphite anode, and when we applied anaerobic sewage sludge to SCBFC with graphite-Mn(IV) anode, the electricity production and substrate consumption were 3 to 5 times higher than in the SCBFC with normal graphite anode. These results suggest that useful electric energy might possibly be produced from SCBFC without electron mediators, electrode-active bacteria, and extra energy consumption for the aeration of catholyte, but with wastewater as a fuel.

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  4. [국내논문]   Effects of Pluronic F-68 on Cell Growth of Digitalis lanata in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems   피인용횟수: 1

    이상윤 (Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University ) , 김동일 (Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University)
    Journal of microbiology and biotechnology v.14 no.6 ,pp. 1129 - 1133 , 2004 , 1017-7825 ,

    초록

    The effects of Pluronic F-68, a non-ionic surfactant, on the growth and physical characteristics of Digitalis lanata suspension cultures were investigated in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) composed of $4.5\%$ polyethylene glycol (PEG) 20,000 and $2.8\%$ crude dextran. In the range of 0.1-10.0 g $1^{-1}$ , Pluronic F-68 enhanced the maximum cell density in a medium with ATPSs, even though Pluronic F-68 did not affect cell growth in a normal growth medium. In terms of physical properties of ATPSs with cell suspension cultures, 0.2 g $1^{-1}$ of Pluronic F-68 reduced viscosity by up to $40\%$ , while 0.1 g $1^{-1}$ of Pluronic F-68 significantly enhanced the oxygen transfer rate. In addition, we successfully performed aqueous two-phase cultivation in a 5-1 stirred tank bioreactor with 0.5 g $1^{-1}$ of Pluronic F-68, and discovered that cell growth in ATPSs was similar to that in normal growth medium.

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  5. [국내논문]   Isolation and Characterization of Marine Bacterium Producing Arylsulfatase   피인용횟수: 2

    변대석 (Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University ) , 김두상 (Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University ) , (Department of Food Science, Louisiana State University and Agricultural Station ) , 남수완 (Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Dong-Eui University ) , 오명주 (Department of Fish Pathology, Yosu National University ) , 심행선 (Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University ) , 김형락 (Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University)
    Journal of microbiology and biotechnology v.14 no.6 ,pp. 1134 - 1141 , 2004 , 1017-7825 ,

    초록

    A bacterial strain capable of hydrolyzing sulfate ester bonds in p-nitrophenyl sulfate and agar was isolated from the Southeast coast of Korea. The isolated strain (AS6330) is aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, and motile. Octadecanoic acid was the major cellular fatty acid in the isolate. An almost complete 16S rDNA sequence of the isolate was determined and the sequence similarity of the 16S rDNA with those of known Sphingomonas spp. was found to be at most $96.4\%$ , implying that the isolate was a new Sphingomonas species. The organism was grown optimally at NaCl concentration of $1.5-3.5\%$ . Optimum culture conditions were determined to be $30^{\circ}C$ and pH 7.0 for 48 h fermentation using a laboratory fermentor under constant culture conditions. Partially purified arylsulfatase through Q-Sepharose and phenyl­Sepharose chromatographies catalyzed hydrolysis of sulfate ester bonds in agar, and $97\%$ of sulfates in agar were removed after 4 h reaction at $45^{\circ}C$ and pH 7.0. The arylsulfatase from the isolated bacterium might be useful for the removal of sulfate groups in agar.

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  6. [국내논문]   Purification and Characterization of Cell Wall Hydrolase from Alkalophilic Bacillus mutanolyticus YU5215   피인용횟수: 3

    옥승호 (Department of Oral Microbiology, and Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University ) , 남승우 (R&D Center, Pulmuone Co., Ltd ) , 김진만 (Department of Biotechnology, Yosu National University ) , 유윤정 (Department of Oral Biology, Yonsei University ) , 배동훈 (Department of Food Engineering, Dankook University)
    Journal of microbiology and biotechnology v.14 no.6 ,pp. 1142 - 1149 , 2004 , 1017-7825 ,

    초록

    Streptococcus mutans has the capacity of inducing dental caries. Thus, to develop a novel way of preventing dental caries, a cell wall hydrolase-producing strain was isolated and its characteristics were investigated. Among 200 alkalophilic strains isolated from soil, 8 strains exhibited lytic activities against Streptococcus mutans. However, strain YU5215 with the highest cell wall hydrolase activity was selected for further study. Strain YU5215 was identified as a novel strain of Bacillus based on analyzing its 16S rDNA sequence and Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, and thus designated as Bacillus mutanolyticus YU5215. The optimal conditions for the production of the cell wall hydrolase from Bacillus mutanolyticus YU5215 consisted of glucose ( $0.8\%$ ), yeast extract ( $1.2\%$ ), polypeptone ( $0.5\%$ ), $K_{2}HPO_{4}\;(0.1\%$ ), $MgSO_{4}{\cdot}7H_{2}O$ ( $0.02\%$ ), and $Na_{2}CO_{3}\;(1.0\%$ ) at pH 10.0. Bacillus mutanolyticus YU5215 was cultured at 30^{circ}C for 72 h to produce the cell wall hydrolase, which was then purified by acetone precipitation and CM-agarose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the lytic enzyme was determined as 22,700 Da by SDS-PAGE. When the cell wall peptidoglycan of Streptococcus mutans was digested with the lytic enzyme, no increase in the reducing sugars was observed, while the free amino acids increased, indicating that the lytic enzyme had an endopeptidase-like property. The amino terminus of the cell wall peptidoglycan digested by the lytic enzyme was determined as a glutamic acid, while the lytic site of the lytic enzyme in the Streptococcus mutans peptidoglycan was identified as the peptide linkage of L-Ala and D-Glu.

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  7. [국내논문]   Detection of Genetically Modified Maize by Multiplex PCR Method   피인용횟수: 10

    허문석 (Institute of Life Sciences and Resources and Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University ) , 김재환 (Institute of Life Sciences and Resources and Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University ) , 박선희 (Division of Food Microbiology, Korea Food and Drug Administration ) , 우근조 (Division of Food Microbiology, Korea Food and Drug Administration ) , 김혜용 (Division of Food Microbiology, Korea Food and Drug Administration)
    Journal of microbiology and biotechnology v.14 no.6 ,pp. 1150 - 1156 , 2004 , 1017-7825 ,

    초록

    The GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) labeling system on raw materials has been in Korea since March 2001, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs)-derived foods since July 2001. Therefore, we designed a multiplex PCR method to ascertain the validity of the labeling system and to monitor the status of circulation for genetically modified maize (GM Maize). Five lines of GM Maize (GA21, TC1507, Mon810, NK603, and Bt176) were used, and specific primer pairs were designed to detect each line. Using this method, the different lines of GM Maize were monitored from raw products and processed foods in Korean market. Some of the maize processed foods and raw materials were shown to contain more than one foreign gene. This method was found to be effective for-detecting five different GM Maize in a single reaction.

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  8. [국내논문]   Responses of Chloramphenicol Immunosensor to Analyte Types   피인용횟수: 2

    PARK , IN-SEON (Food Function Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute ) , KIM, DONG-KYUNG (Food Function Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute ) , KIM, NAM-SOO (Food Function Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute)
    Journal of microbiology and biotechnology v.14 no.6 ,pp. 1157 - 1162 , 2004 , 1017-7825 ,

    초록

    A well-holder type piezoelectric chloramphenicol (CAP) immunosensor which was prepared by binding an anti­CAP antibody to the chemisorbed monolayers of various thiol or sulfide compounds over the gold electrode surface of quartz crystals through a carboxyl-amine coupling procedure, using the activation with l-ethyl- 3-(3-dimethylarninopropyl)carbodiimide­HCl and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide, was determined for its responses to CAP, CAP succinate, and water-soluble CAP. The reaction phase used in the well holder was 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and the solvent for analyte dissolution varied according to the solubility of the individual analyte. The analyte detection which was indicated by a steady-state frequency shift was finished within 10 min, except for CAP dissolved in methanol. The responses of CAP succinate and water-soluble CAP in the reaction phase were very stable, while a minute fluctuation was found with CAP.

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  9. [국내논문]   Model Development for Lactic Acid Fermentation and Parameter Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm   피인용횟수: 2

    LIN , JIAN-QIANG (State Key Lab of Microbial Technology, School of Life Science, Shandong University ) , LEE, SANG-MOK (Department of Biological Engineering, ERC for Advanced Bioseparation Technology, Inha University ) , KOO, YOON-MO (Department of Biological Engineering, ERC for Advanced Bioseparation Technology, Inha University)
    Journal of microbiology and biotechnology v.14 no.6 ,pp. 1163 - 1169 , 2004 , 1017-7825 ,

    초록

    An unstructured mathematical model is presented for lactic acid fermentation based on the energy balance. The proposed model reflects the energy metabolic state and then predicts the cell growth, lactic acid production, and glucose consumption rates by relating the above rates with the energy metabolic rate. Fermentation experiments were conducted under various initial lactic acid concentrations of 0, 30, 50, 70, and 90 g/l. Also, a genetic algorithm was used for further optimization of the model parameters and included the operations of coding, initialization, hybridization, mutation, decoding, fitness calculation, selection, and reproduction exerted on individuals (or chromosomes) in a population. The simulation results showed a good fit between the model prediction and the experimental data. The genetic algorithm proved to be useful for model parameter optimization, suggesting wider applications in the field of biological engineering.

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  10. [국내논문]   Stringent Factor Regulates Antibiotics Production and Morphological Differentiation of Streptomyces clavuligerus   피인용횟수: 8

    RYU , YONG-GU (School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University ) , JIN, WOOK (School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University ) , KIM, JIN-YOUNG (School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University ) , KIM, JAE-YOUNG (School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University ) , LEE, SANG-HEE (Department of Biological Science, Myongji University ) , LEE, KYE-JOON (School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University)
    Journal of microbiology and biotechnology v.14 no.6 ,pp. 1170 - 1175 , 2004 , 1017-7825 ,

    초록

    The involvement of the relA and rsh genes in the morphological and physiological differentiation of Streptomyces clavuligerus was evaluated with the relA and rsh genes mutants. The morphological differentiation of S. clavuligerus was greatly affected by the disruption of the relA gene, but not very much by the disruption of the rsh gene. The altered morphological characteristics were completely restored by the complementation of the corresponding disrupted genes. Thus, it was apparent that the mycelial morphology and clavulanic acid production were severely affected by the disruption of the relA gene. Production of clavulanic acid in the submerged batch culture and glycerol-limited chemostat showed that production was inversely related to the specific growth rate in the wild-type strain. However, the production of clavulanic acid in the ${\Delta}relA$ and ${\Delta}rsh$ null mutants was completely abolished. Therefore, it seems plausible that the stringent response of S. clavuligerus to starvation for amino acids is governed mainly by ReIA, rather than Rsh, and that the (p)ppGpp synthesized immediately after the depletion of amino acids triggers the initiation of pathways for both morphological and physiological differentiation in this species.

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