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Beiträge zur tabakforschung international = C... 6건

  1. [해외논문]   Editors' Note   SCOPUS

    Heller, Wolf-Dieter , Scherer, Gerhard
    Beiträge zur tabakforschung international = Contributions to tobacco research v.27 no.6 ,pp. 77 - 77 , 2017 , 0173-783x ,

    초록

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Analysis of the Effect of Multiple Testing in Assessing Tobacco Product Differences   SCOPUS

    Verron, Thomas (SEITA, Imperial Tobacco Limited - 48, rue Danton, 45404 Fleury-les-Aubrais , France ) , Cahours, Xavier (SEITA, Imperial Tobacco Limited - 48, rue Danton, 45404 Fleury-les-Aubrais , France) , Colard, Sté , phane
    Beiträge zur tabakforschung international = Contributions to tobacco research v.27 no.6 ,pp. 78 - 85 , 2017 , 0173-783x ,

    초록

    Summary During the last two decades, an increase of tobacco product reporting requirements from regulators was observed, such as Europe, Canada or USA. However, the capacity to compare and discriminate accurately two products is impacted by the number of constituents used for the comparison. Indeed, performing a large number of simultaneous independent hypothesis tests increases the probability of rejection of the null hypothesis when it should not be rejected. This leads to virtually guarantee the presence of type I errors among the findings. Correction methods have been developed to overcome this issue like the Bonferroni or Benjamini & Hochberg ones. The performance of these methods was assessed by comparing identical tobacco products with different sizes of data sets. Results showed that multiple comparisons lead to erroneous conclusions if the risk of type I error is not corrected. Unfortunately, reducing the type I error impacts the statistical power of the tests. Consequently, strategies for dealing with multiplicity of data should provide a reasonable balance between testing requirement and statistical power of differentiation. Multiple testing for product comparison is less of a problem if studies restrict to the most relevant parameters for comparison.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Analysis of Traces of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines (TSNAs) in USP Grade Nicotine, E-Liquids, and Particulate Phase Generated by the Electronic Smoking Devices   SCOPUS

    Moldoveanu, Serban C. (Eurofins Lancaster Laboratories Inc. , Winston-Salem , NC, United States of America ) , Zhu, Jeff (Eurofins Lancaster Laboratories Inc. , Winston-Salem , NC, United States of America) , Qian, Nancy
    Beiträge zur tabakforschung international = Contributions to tobacco research v.27 no.6 ,pp. 86 - 96 , 2017 , 0173-783x ,

    초록

    Summary The present study describes the development of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique for the analysis of trace levels of four tobaccospecific nitrosamines (TSNAs): nitrosoanabasine (NAB), nitrosoanatabine (NAT), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and nitrosonornicotine (NNN). The technique can be applied for the analysis of TSNAs in USP grade nicotine. Nicotine used in e-liquids for the electronic smoking devices is typically obtained from tobacco plant materials ( Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana rustica ) and, although it is purified, it contains besides nicotine low levels of several contaminants such as minor alkaloids. It also contains traces of TSNAs. Analysis of TSNAs in USP grade nicotine is a challenging task since the analyzed samples contain about 10 +7 –10 +8 times more nicotine than individual TSNAs. Because the analyzed solutions cannot be diluted too much in order to keep the TSNAs level above the limit of quantitation (LOQ), even for apparently good chromatographic separations, the peak tailing of nicotine may generate interferences. The new method of analysis uses a Luna Omega 1.6 μm particles chromatographic column for separation and detection on a LC-MS/MS instrument with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (Scheduled MRM). The levels of TSNAs in nicotine of USP purity from four commercial sources varied between 3 to 8 ng/g NAB, 4 to 20 ng/g NAT, 30 to 50 ng/g NNK, and 0.5 to 2 ng/g for NNN. Besides the analysis of TSNAs in nicotine, the technique has been applied successfully in the analysis of TSNAs in e-liquids and in particulate phase generated by the electronic smoking devices.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Effect of Time and Concentration on Mortality of the Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), Fumigated With Phosphine   SCOPUS

    Fukazawa, Naoto (Leaf Tobacco Research Center , Japan Tobacco Inc. , Idei 1900, Oyama , Tochigi 323-0808 , Japan) , Takahashi, Ryota
    Beiträge zur tabakforschung international = Contributions to tobacco research v.27 no.6 ,pp. 97 - 101 , 2017 , 0173-783x ,

    초록

    Summary The efficacy of a fumigant is determined by the gas concentration and exposure time. Typically, the gas concentration and exposure time are equally important in fumigation efficacy and their relationship is expressed as Ct =< k , where C is the concentration, t is the time and k is a constant (Haber's rule). However, deviation from Haber's rule, i.e., the relative importance of time over concentration, has been reported for several stored-product pests, and a modified form ( C n t = k ) is used to express the relationship between C and t . This study aimed to determine if this modified form could be applied to phosphine fumigation of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.). Adult beetles from six cultures with different phosphine-resistance levels were exposed to phosphine (1–2000 ppm) at 25 °C for either 24, 72, 120, or 168 h, and the phosphine concentration necessary to achieve 50% lethality (LC 50 ) was calculated. The phosphine concentration ( C ) and the exposure time ( t ) relationship at the LC 50 for all six cultures were determined by regression analyses. The equation C n t = k was a good fit for all the cultures tested, irrespective of phosphine resistance. The results showed the exponent n was less than 1 (0.51 ≤ n ≤ 0.71, coefficient of determination 0.90–0.99), suggesting that time is more important than concentration in toxicity expression of phosphine against L. serricorne . Therefore, extending the exposure time rather than increasing the concentration should be emphasized to manage the future threat of resistance problems with phosphine.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  5. [해외논문]   Conversion of Tobacco Biomass to Flavor Components by Means of Microwave and Parr Reactors   SCOPUS

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi (Department of Chemistry , Virginia Tech , Blacksburg , VA 24061-0212 , United States of America ) , Taylor, Larry T. (iii Consulting , LLC , 210 Jessamine Street, Conway , SC 29626 , United States of America) , Coleman, William. M.
    Beiträge zur tabakforschung international = Contributions to tobacco research v.27 no.6 ,pp. 102 - 112 , 2017 , 0173-783x ,

    초록

    Summary In the present work, microwave and Parr reactors were utilized for synthesis of pyrazines from plant-based biomass in the presence of ammonia and different amino acids. Using these techniques led to synthesis of a relatively wide range of pyrazines with sweet odor and chocolate-like smell. The optimum synthetic conditions to have maximum pyrazine yield for both the microwave and Parr reactions were 41 g of fructose/glucose syrup derived from cellulosic biomass, 28 mL NH 4 OH (30%), and 0.96 g L-threonine, 0.56 g L-valine, 0.5 g L-leucine, and 0.5 g L-isoleucine at 120 °C for 30 min. Quantitative results obtained via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using the traditional open-heated oil bath method have been compared with data obtained via microwave and Parr reactors. In these two latter methods, sealed vessels under high pressure and higher temperature were used. The yield of synthesized pyrazines increased dramatically with both microwave and Parr reactors. Surprisingly, the yield of synthesized pyrazines was both reproducible and nearly two times higher via the Parr reactor than that observed with the microwave reactor under comparable conditions.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  6. [해외논문]   Pressure and Gas Flow Distribution Inside the Filter of a Non-Filter Ventilated Lit Cigarette During Puffing   SCOPUS

    Li, Bin (Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute of CNTC , Zhengzhou 450001 , China ) , Cui, Xiaomeng (Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute of CNTC , Zhengzhou 450001 , China ) , Zhao, Lucan (Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute of CNTC , Zhengzhou 450001 , China ) , Wang, Le (Tobacco Hunan Industrial Co., Ltd. Changsha , s410007 , China ) , Xie, Guoyong (Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute of CNTC , Zhengzhou 450001 , China) , Deng, Nan
    Beiträge zur tabakforschung international = Contributions to tobacco research v.27 no.6 ,pp. 113 - 124 , 2017 , 0173-783x ,

    초록

    Summary Establishing a realistic gas flow velocity distribution inside a cigarette filter during smoking is important to understand filtration mechanisms of different mainstream smoke species and the overall effect of filter designs on mainstream smoke composition. In this paper, an experimental method is described which directly measures the gas pressure field inside a cellulose acetate filter during cigarette smoking. This was demonstrated by using 3R4F research reference cigarettes smoked under a 35 mL puff of 6 s duration. In addition, filter temperature measurements were also carried out at multiple locations within the filter. Both the temperature and pressure sensing locations were selected to match the radial and longitudinal directions of the cigarette filter. The temperature and pressure measurements were then used to calculate the velocity according to Darcy's Law along the mainstream flow direction in the cigarette filter at each puff. The spatially resolved maps of temperature, pressure and flow velocity on a puff-by-puff basis provide useful insights into the dynamic filtration of smoke aerosol under the influence of the approaching burning coal and progressive accumulation of smoke particulate matter.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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