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Trends in cognitive sciences 9건

  1. [해외논문]   Editors, Contents, Cover details  


    Trends in cognitive sciences v.22 no.7 ,pp. i - i , 2018 , 1364-6613 ,

    초록

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Robust, Transient Neural Dynamics during Conscious Perception  

    He, Biyu J. (Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience and Physiology, and Radiology, Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, NY 10016, USA)
    Trends in cognitive sciences v.22 no.7 ,pp. 563 - 565 , 2018 , 1364-6613 ,

    초록

    While neuroscientific research on perceptual awareness has traditionally focused on the spatial and temporal localizations of neural activity underlying conscious processing, recent development suggests that the dynamic characteristics of spatiotemporally distributed neural activity contain important clues about the neural computational mechanisms underlying conscious processing. Here, we summarize recent progress.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Nothing Personal: What Psychologists Get Wrong about Identity  

    Starmans, Christina (Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada ) , Bloom, Paul (Department of Psychology,Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA)
    Trends in cognitive sciences v.22 no.7 ,pp. 566 - 568 , 2018 , 1364-6613 ,

    초록

    What makes someone the same person over time? There is a growing body of research exploring how people ordinarily think about personal identity. We argue here that many of the experiments in this domain fail to properly distinguish similarity from personal identity, and therefore certain conclusions regarding commonsense intuitions about identity are not supported.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Why Does the Cortex Reorganize after Sensory Loss?  

    Singh, Amy Kalia (Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA ) , Phillips, Flip (Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA ) , Merabet, Lotfi B. (Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA ) , Sinha, Pawan (Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA)
    Trends in cognitive sciences v.22 no.7 ,pp. 569 - 582 , 2018 , 1364-6613 ,

    초록

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that the brain can reorganize dramatically following sensory loss. Although the existence of such neuroplastic crossmodal changes is not in doubt, the functional significance of these changes remains unclear. The dominant belief is that reorganization is compensatory. However, results thus far do not unequivocally indicate that sensory deprivation results in markedly enhanced abilities in other senses. Here, we consider alternative reasons besides sensory compensation that might drive the brain to reorganize after sensory loss. One such possibility is that the cortex reorganizes not to confer functional benefits, but to avoid undesirable physiological consequences of sensory deafferentation. Empirical assessment of the validity of this and other possibilities defines a rich program for future research. Highlights Neuroimaging studies have revealed that after loss of their primary sensory inputs, cortical areas often come to exhibit responses to inputs from other sensory modalities. These cortical changes are sometimes, but not always, accompanied by enhancements in behavioral abilities in the encroaching modalities, seemingly to compensate for the missing modality. We lack a comprehensive account of why cortical reorganization happens after sensory loss. Possibilities besides compensation include unmasking of dormant inputs, and mitigation of potentially harmful physiological changes in deafferented cortical tissue.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   Individual Differences in Autobiographical Memory  

    Palombo, Daniela J. (Memory Disorders Research Center & Neuroimaging Research for Veterans Center (NeRVe), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA ) , Sheldon, Signy (Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montréal, Canada ) , Levine, Brian (Baycrest Health Sciences, Rotman Research Institute, Toronto, Canada)
    Trends in cognitive sciences v.22 no.7 ,pp. 583 - 597 , 2018 , 1364-6613 ,

    초록

    Although humans have a remarkable capacity to recall a wealth of detail from the past, there are marked interindividual differences in the quantity and quality of our mnemonic experiences. Such differences in autobiographical memory may appear self-evident, yet there has been little research on this topic. In this review, we synthesize an emerging body of research regarding individual differences in autobiographical memory. We focus on two syndromes that fall at the extremes of the ‘remembering’ dimension: highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) and severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM). We also discuss findings from research on less extreme individual differences in autobiographical memory. This avenue of research is pivotal for a full description of the behavioral and neural substrates of autobiographical memory. Highlights The syndromes of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) and severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM) have come under recent investigation. These syndromes pose challenges for theories of memory. Research on individual differences in autobiographical memory across the spectrum have also emerged, complementing prior work involving individual differences in laboratory-based episodic memory. Additional research that is focused on HSAM and SDAM, particularly those involving larger sample sizes, will provide a novel platform for understanding the cognitive and neural factors that are associated with the formation and retention of autobiographical memories.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  6. [해외논문]   Mind Reading and Writing: The Future of Neurotechnology  

    Roelfsema, Pieter R. (Department of Vision & Cognition, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 47, 1105 BA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ) , Denys, Damiaan (Psychiatry Department, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ) , Klink, P. Christiaan (Department of Vision & Cognition, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 47, 1105 BA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
    Trends in cognitive sciences v.22 no.7 ,pp. 598 - 610 , 2018 , 1364-6613 ,

    초록

    Recent advances in neuroscience and technology have made it possible to record from large assemblies of neurons and to decode their activity to extract information. At the same time, available methods to stimulate the brain and influence ongoing processing are also rapidly expanding. These developments pave the way for advanced neurotechnological applications that directly read from, and write to, the human brain. While such technologies are still primarily used in restricted therapeutic contexts, this may change in the future once their performance has improved and they become more widely applicable. Here, we provide an overview of methods to interface with the brain, speculate about potential applications, and discuss important issues associated with a neurotechnologically assisted future. Highlights Advanced methods to record brain activity make it increasingly possible to access an individual’s mental processes (i.e., to ‘read their mind’). The information that is directly extracted from the brain can be used to control devices, artificial limbs, or obtain knowledge of (hidden) intentions. Methods to stimulate the brain with electrical currents, optogenetics, and other methods are routinely used to probe causal relations in the brain and to restore dysfunctional neural circuits. These methods can also be used to ‘write to the mind’ (i.e., to feed information directly into the brain). Neurotechnologies to read from, and write to, the brain might be combined in a single individual to create ‘augmented cognition’ with increased processing capacity and an enhanced cognitive repertoire. This potential methodology also raises some important ethical questions.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   The Microbiome in Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience  

    Sarkar, Amar (Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK ) , Harty, Siobhá (Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK ) , n (Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland ) , Lehto, Soili M. (Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA ) , Moeller, Andrew H. (APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland ) , Dinan, Timothy G. (Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK ) , Dunbar, Robin I.M. (Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland ) , Cryan, John F. (Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK) , Burnet, Philip W.J.
    Trends in cognitive sciences v.22 no.7 ,pp. 611 - 636 , 2018 , 1364-6613 ,

    초록

    Psychology and microbiology make unlikely friends, but the past decade has witnessed striking bidirectional associations between intrinsic gut microbes and the brain, relationships with largely untested psychological implications. Although microbe–brain relationships are receiving a great deal of attention in biomedicine and neuroscience, psychologists have yet to join this journey. Here, we illustrate microbial associations with emotion, cognition, and social behavior. However, despite considerable enthusiasm and potential, technical and conceptual limitations including low statistical power and lack of mechanistic descriptions prevent a nuanced understanding of microbiome–brain–behavior relationships. Our goal is to describe microbial effects in domains of cognitive significance and the associated challenges to stimulate interdisciplinary research on the contribution of this hidden kingdom to psychological processes. Highlights All known multicellular life is colonized by microbes. The gut microbiome is a highly complex and diverse hidden kingdom that inhabits the intestinal tracts. Gut microbes are associated with important psychophysiological functions, including neurodevelopment and neurotransmission, emotion and stress, learning and memory, social behavior, autism, and aging. We call for the greater involvement of psychologists and cognitive scientists in understanding bacterial contributions to psychological processes.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   Boundaries Shape Cognitive Representations of Spaces and Events  

    Brunec, Iva K. (Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada ) , Moscovitch, Morris (Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada ) , Barense, Morgan D. (Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada)
    Trends in cognitive sciences v.22 no.7 ,pp. 637 - 650 , 2018 , 1364-6613 ,

    초록

    Efficient navigation from one place to another is facilitated by the ability to use spatial boundaries to segment routes into their component parts. Similarly, memory for individual episodes relies on the ability to use shifts in spatiotemporal contexts to segment the ongoing stream of experience. The segmentation of experiences in spatial and episodic domains may therefore share neural underpinnings, manifesting in similar behavioral phenomena and cognitive biases. Here, we review evidence for such shared mechanisms, focusing on the key role of boundaries in spatial and episodic memory. We propose that a fundamental event boundary detection mechanism enables navigation in both the spatial and episodic domains, and serves to form cohesive representations that can be used to predict and guide future behavior. Highlights Both efficient navigation and episodic memory require the detection of crucial junctions separating individual segments of space or experience. In both the spatial and episodic domains, boundaries segregate elements of experience and serve as cues to bind information into cohesive units. The segmentation of experiences in spatial and nonspatial domains may share neural underpinnings, manifesting in similar behavioral phenomena and cognitive biases. The interplay between hippocampal and cortical dynamics offers insight into the mechanism by which space and events are segmented. A crucial question is how different brain regions support coarse versus fine-grained boundary detection. Evidence from patients with localized brain damage or disorders such as dementia provides some insight into this question, but future neuroimaging studies will enable the development of precise mechanistic models.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   Social Learning Strategies: Bridge-Building between Fields  

    Kendal, Rachel L. (Centre for Coevolution of Biology & Culture, Durham University, Anthropology Department, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK ) , Boogert, Neeltje J. (Centre for Ecology and Conservation, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, UK ) , Rendell, Luke (Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9TS, UK ) , Laland, Kevin N. (Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9TS, UK ) , Webster, Mike (Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9TS, UK ) , Jones, Patricia L. (Department of Biology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011, USA)
    Trends in cognitive sciences v.22 no.7 ,pp. 651 - 665 , 2018 , 1364-6613 ,

    초록

    While social learning is widespread, indiscriminate copying of others is rarely beneficial. Theory suggests that individuals should be selective in what, when, and whom they copy, by following ‘social learning strategies’ (SLSs). The SLS concept has stimulated extensive experimental work, integrated theory, and empirical findings, and created impetus to the social learning and cultural evolution fields. However, the SLS concept needs updating to accommodate recent findings that individuals switch between strategies flexibly, that multiple strategies are deployed simultaneously, and that there is no one-to-one correspondence between psychological heuristics deployed and resulting population-level patterns. The field would also benefit from the simultaneous study of mechanism and function. SLSs provide a useful vehicle for bridge-building between cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary biology. Highlights Accumulating evidence supports theoretical predictions that humans and nonhumans are selective in what, when, and whom they copy, suggesting the use of SLSs. Recent studies indicate that SLS use is flexible and changes with ontogeny, experience, state, and context. Multiple SLSs may be adopted simultaneously in the same population, and even by the same individual. The SLSs of individuals do not necessarily correspond to apparent population-level patterns. SLSs likely involve associative learning processes and social learning mechanisms; experimental controls indicate that associative learning alone cannot explain all SLS findings. Recent neuroscientific data suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex in the gyrus (ACCg) is specialised for processing the social information of relevance to SLSs. The role of metacognition in SLSs requires investigation.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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