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The journal of microbiology 17건

  1. [국내논문]   Strategies Against Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer   피인용횟수: 2

    Jung Woon-Won (MyGene Bioscience Institute, Sungok Bldg ) , Chun Taehoon (Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Hanyang University ) , Sul Donggeun (Environmental Toxico-Genomic and Proteomic Center, College of Medicine, Korea University ) , Hwang Kwang Woo (Department of Immunology, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University ) , Kang Hyung-Sik (School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Biotechnology Research Institute, Chonnam University ) , Lee Duck Joo (Department of Family Medicine, Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University ) , Han In-Kwon (MyGene Bioscience Institute, Sungok Bldg, Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University)
    The journal of microbiology v.42 no.4 ,pp. 255 - 266 , 2004 , 1225-8873 ,

    초록

    Papillomaviruses infect a wide variety of animals, including humans. The human papillomavirus (HPV), in particular, is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted disease. More than 200 types of HPV have been identified by DNA sequence data, and 85 HPV genotypes have been well char­acterized to date. HPV can infect the basal epithelial cells of the skin or inner tissue linings, and are, accordingly, categorized as either cutaneous or mucosal type. HPV is associated with a panoply of clin­ical conditions, ranging from innocuous lesions to cervical cancer. In the early 1980s, studies first reported a link between cervical cancer and genital HPV infection. Genital HPV infections are now rec­ognized to be a major risk factor in at least $95\%$ of cervical cancers. 30 different HPV genotypes have been identified as causative of sexually transmitted diseases, most of which induce lesions in the cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, and anus, as the result of sexual contact. There is also direct evidence demon­strating that at least four of these genotypes are prerequisite factors in cervical cancer. The main aim of this review was to evaluate the current literature regarding the pathovirology, diagnostics, vaccines, therapy, risk groups, and further therapeutic directions for HPV infections. In addition, we reviewed the current status of HPV infections in South Korean women, as evidenced by our data.

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  2. [국내논문]   Effects of Elevated Atmospheric $CO_2$ Concentrations on Soil Microorganisms  

    Freeman Chris (School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales ) , Kim Seon-Young (Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University ) , Lee Seung-Hoon (Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University ) , Kang Hojeong (Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University)
    The journal of microbiology v.42 no.4 ,pp. 267 - 277 , 2004 , 1225-8873 ,

    초록

    Effects of elevated $CO_2$ on soil microorganisms are known to be mediated by various interactions with plants, for which such effects are relatively poorly documented. In this review, we summarize and syn­thesize results from studies assessing impacts of elevated $CO_2$ on soil ecosystems, focusing primarily on plants and a variety the of microbial processes. The processes considered include changes in microbial biomass of C and N, microbial number, respiration rates, organic matter decomposition, soil enzyme activities, microbial community composition, and functional groups of bacteria mediating trace gas emission such as methane and nitrous oxide. Elevated $CO_2$ in atmosphere may enhance certain micro­bial processes such as $CH_4$ emission from wetlands due to enhanced carbon supply from plants. How­ever, responses of extracellular enzyme activities and microbial community structure are still controversy, because interferences with other factors such as the types of plants, nutrient availabilitial in soil, soil types, analysis methods, and types of $CO_2$ fumigation systems are not fully understood.

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  3. [국내논문]   Monitoring of Bacterial Community in a Coniferous Forest Soil After a Wildfire  

    Kim Ok-Sun (Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University ) , Yoo Jae-Jun (Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University ) , Lee Dong-Hun (Division of Life Sciences, Chungbuk National University ) , Ahn Tae-Seok (Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University ) , Song Hong-Gyu (Division of Biological Sciences, Kangwon National University)
    The journal of microbiology v.42 no.4 ,pp. 278 - 284 , 2004 , 1225-8873 ,

    초록

    Changes in the soil bacterial community of a coniferous forest were analyzed to assess microbial responses to wildfire. Soil samples were collected from three different depths in lightly and severely burned areas, as well as a nearby unburned control area. Direct bacterial counts ranged from $3.3­22.6\times10^8\;cells/(g{\cdot}soil).$ In surface soil, direct bacterial counts of unburned soil exhibited a great degree of fluctuation. Those in lightly burned soil changed less, but no significant variation was observed in the severely burned soil. The fluctuations of direct bacterial count were less in the middle and deep soil lay­ers. The structure of the bacterial community was analyzed via the fluorescent in situ hybridization method. The number of bacteria detected with the eubacteria-targeted probe out of the direct bacterial count varied from $30.3\;to\;84.7\%,$ and these ratios were generally higher in the burned soils than in the unburned control soils. In the surface unburned soil, the ratios of $\alpha,\;\beta\;and\;gamma-proteobacteria,$ Cytoph­aga-Flavobacterium group, and other eubacteria groups to total eubacteria were 9.9, 10.6, 15.5, 9.0, and $55.0\%,$ respectively, and these ratios were relatively stable. The ratios of $\alpha,\;\beta\;and\;gamma-proteobacteria,$ and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group to total eubacteria increased immediately after the wildfire, and the other eubacterial proportions decreased in the surface and middle layer soils. By way of contrast, the composition of the 5 groups of eubacteria in the subsurface soil exhibited no significant fluctuations dur­ing the entire period. The total bacterial population and bacterial community structure disturbed by wildfire soon began to recover, and original levels seemed to be restored 3 months after the wildfire.

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  4. [국내논문]   Monitoring of Soil Bacterial Community and Some Inoculated Bacteria After Prescribed Fire in Microcosm  

    Song Hong-Gyu (Division of Biological Sciences, Kangwon National University ) , Kim Ok-Sun (Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University ) , Yoo Jae-Jun (Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University ) , Jeon Sun-Ok (Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University ) , Hong Sun-Hee (Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University ) , Lee Dong-Hun (Division of Life Sciences, Chungbuk National University ) , Ahn Tae-Seok (Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University)
    The journal of microbiology v.42 no.4 ,pp. 285 - 291 , 2004 , 1225-8873 ,

    초록

    The soil bacterial community and some inoculated bacteria were monitored to assess the microbial responses to prescribed fire in their microcosm. An acridine orange direct count of the bacteria in the unburned control soil were maintained at a relatively stable level $(2.0\~2.7\times10^9\;cells/g^{-1}{\cdot}soil)$ during the 180 day study period. The number of bacteria in the surface soil was decreased by fire, but was restored after 3 months. Inoculation of some bacteria increased the number of inoculated bacteria sev­eral times and these elevated levels lasted several months. The ratios of eubacteria detected by a flu­orescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method to direct bacterial count were in the range of $60\~80\%$ during the study period, with the exception of some lower values at the beginning, but there were no definite differences between the burned and unburned soils or the inoculated and uninoculated soils. In the unburned control soil, the ratios of $\alpha-,\beta-\;and\;\gamma-subgroups$ of the proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Fla­vobacterium and other eubacteria groups to that of the entire eubacteria were 13.7, 31.7, 17.1, 16.8 and $20.8\%,$ respectively, at time 0. The overall change on the patterns of the ratios of the 5 subgroups of eubacteria in the uninoculated burned and inoculated soils were similar to those of the unburned con­trol soil, with the exception of some minor variations during the initial period. The proportions of each group of eubacteria became similar in the different microcosms after 6 months, which may indicate the recovery of the original soil microbial community structure after fire or the inoculation of some bac­teria. The populations of Azotobacter vinelandii, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens, which had been inoculated to enhance the microbial activities, and monitored by FISH method, showed similar changes in the microcosms, and maintained high levels for several months.

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  5. [국내논문]   Introduction of Saxicolous Lichens Distributed in Coastal Rocks of U-do Islet in Jeju, Korea   피인용횟수: 1

    Kahng Hyung-Yeel (Department of Environmental Education, Sunchon National University, Korean Lichen Research Institute ) , Yoon Byoung-Jun (Korean Lichen Research Institute ) , Kim Sung-Hyun (Department of Environmental Education, Sunchon National University ) , Shin Duck-Ja (Department of Environmental Education, Sunchon National University ) , Hur Jae-Seoun (Department of Environmental Education, Sunchon National University, Korean Lichen Research Institute ) , Kim Hyun-Woo (Department of Environmental Education, Sunchon National University, Korean Lichen Research Institute ) , Kang Eui-Sung (Korean Lichen Research Institute, Department of Computer Education, Sunchon National University ) , Oh Kye-Heon (Department of Applied Biology, Sunchon National University ) , Koh Young Jin (Korean Lichen Research Institute, Department of Life Science, Soonchunhyang University)
    The journal of microbiology v.42 no.4 ,pp. 292 - 298 , 2004 , 1225-8873 ,

    초록

    This study reports, for the first time, the ivestigation of the distribution of Korean saxicolous lichens in the coastal rocks of U-do islet, which is known as an unpolluted zone in Jeju. More than thirty lichens were obtained and investigated from the coastal rocks frequently contacted by seawater. A molecular analysis using PCR amplification of the rRNA ITS regions revealed the coastal rock lichens could be placed into 8 families and 14 genera, Ramalinaceae (Bacidia, Ramalina), Physciaceae (Buellia, Dirinaria, Phaeophyscia, Physcia, Pyxine), Lecanoraceae (Candelaria, Lecanora), Parmeliaceae (Xan­thopannelia), Graphidaceae (Graphis), Pertusariaceae (Pertusaria), Rhizocarpaceae (Rhizocarpon), and Teloschistaceae (Caloplaca), showing a diversity of lichens, with foliose (flat leaf-like), crustose (crust­like), and fruticose (miniature shrub-like) life forms might be distributed in the coastal rocks. These findings suggested the possibility that the lichens identified in the present work might be resistant to a salty environment.

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  6. [국내논문]   Detection of Enterovirus, Cytomegalovirus, and Chlamydia pneumoniae in Atheromas  

    Kwon Tae Won (Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine ) , Kim Do Kyun (Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine ) , Ye Jeong Sook (Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine ) , Lee Won Joo (Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine ) , Moon Mi Sun (Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine ) , Joo Chul Hyun (Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine ) , Lee Heuiran (Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine ) , Kim Yoo Kyum (Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine)
    The journal of microbiology v.42 no.4 ,pp. 299 - 304 , 2004 , 1225-8873 ,

    초록

    To investigate the presence of infectious agents in human atherosclerotic arterial tissues. Atherosclerotic plaques were removed from 128 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy or other bypass proce­dures for occlusive disease, and from twenty normal arterial wall samples, obtained from transplant donors with no history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, or hyperlipidemia. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or reverse transcription-PCR, these samples were analyzed for the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2, and Epstein-Barr virus. The amplicons were then sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses were per­formed. Enteroviral RNA was found in 22 of 128 atherosclerotic vascular lesions $(17.2\%),$ and C. pneu­moniae and cytomegalovirus were each found in 2 samples $(1.6\%).$ In contrast, adenovirus, herpes simplex viruses, and Epstein-Barr virus were not identified in any of the atherosclerotic samples. Enterovirus was detected in 6/24 $(25.0\%)$ aortas, 7/33 $(21.2\%)$ carotid arteries, 6/40 $(15.0\%)$ femoral arteries, and 3/31 $(9.7\%)$ radial arteries of patients with chronic renal failure. There were no infectious agents detected in any of the control specimens. Using phylogenetic analysis, the enterovirus isolates were clustered into 3 groups, arranged as echovirus 9 and coxsackieviruses Bl and B3. Enteroviral RNA was detected in $17.2\%$ of atherosclerotic plaques, but was not observed in any of the control spec­imens. This suggests a connection between enteroviral infection and atherosclerosis. These findings dif­fer from those of other studies, which found more frequent incidence of C. pneumoniae and cytomegalovirus infection in atherosclerotic plaques.

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  7. [국내논문]   Axenic Culture of Gyrodinium impudicum Strain KG03, a Marine Red-tide Microalga that Produces Exopolysaccharide   피인용횟수: 1

    Yim Joung Han (Korea Polar Research Institute, KORDI ) , Lee Hong Kum (Korea Polar Research Institute, KORDI)
    The journal of microbiology v.42 no.4 ,pp. 305 - 314 , 2004 , 1225-8873 ,

    초록

    An exopolysaccharide-producing microalgal dinoflagellate was isolated from a red-tide bloom and des­ignated strain KG03. A bacteria-free culture of strain KG03 was achieved using a modified wash with phototaxis and antibiotic treatment. Combined treatment with neomycin and cephalosporin was the most effective for eliminating the bacteria associated with the microalgae. Strain KG03 was identified as Gyrodinium impudicum by analyzing the ITS regions of the 5.8S rDNA, 18S rDNA, morphological phenotype and fatty acid composition. The exopolysaccharide production and cell growth in a 300-ml photobioreactor were increased 2.7- and 2.4-fold, respectively, compared with that in a flask culture at the first isolation step.

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  8. [국내논문]   Probiotication of Tomato Juice by Lactic Acid Bacteria   피인용횟수: 8

    Yoon Kyung Young (Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University ) , Woodams Edward E. (Department of Food Science and Technology, Cornell University ) , Hang Yong D (Department of Food Science and Technology, Cornell University)
    The journal of microbiology v.42 no.4 ,pp. 315 - 318 , 2004 , 1225-8873 ,

    초록

    This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of tomato juice as a raw material for production of probiotic juice by four lactic acid bacteria (Latobacillus acidophilus LA39, Lactobacillus plantarum C3, Lactobacillus casei A4, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii D7). Tomato juice was inoculated with a 24­h-old culture and incubated at $30^{\circ}C$ . Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, and viable cell counts dur­ing fermentation under controlled conditions were measured. The lactic acid cultures reduced the pH to 4.1 or below and increased the acidity to $0.65\%$ or higher, and the viable cell counts (CFU) reached nearly 1.0 to $9.0\times10^9/ml$ after 72 h fermentation. The viable cell counts of the four lactic acid bacteria in the fermented tomato juice ranged from $10^6\;to\;10^8\;CFU/ml$ after 4 weeks of cold storage at $4^{\circ}C$ . Pro­biotic tomato juice could serve as a health beverage for vegetarians or consumers who are allergic to dairy products.

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  9. [국내논문]   Expression of the Promoter for the Maltogenic Amylase Gene in Bacillus subtilis 168  

    Kim Do-Yeon (Department of Biology, University of lncheon ) , Cha Choon-Hwan (Department of Biology, University of lncheon ) , Oh Wan-Seok (Department of Biology, University of lncheon ) , Yoon Young-Jun (Department of Biology, University of lncheon ) , Kim Jung-Wan (Department of Biology, University of lncheon)
    The journal of microbiology v.42 no.4 ,pp. 319 - 327 , 2004 , 1225-8873 ,

    초록

    An additional amylase, besides the typical $\alpha-amylase,$ was detected for the first time in the cytoplasm of B. subtilis SUH4-2, an isolate from Korean soil. The corresponding gene (bbmA) encoded a malto­genic amylase (MAase) and its sequence was almost identical to the yvdF gene of B. subtilis 168, whose function was unknown. Southern blot analysis using bbmA as the probe indicated that this gene was ubiquitous among various B. subtilis strains. In an effort to understand the physiological function of the bbmA gene in B. subtilis, the expression pattern of the gene was monitored by measuring the $\beta-galactosidase$ activity produced from the bbmA promoter fused to the amino terminus of the lacZ struc­tural gene, which was then integrated into the amyE locus on the B. subtilis 168 chromosome. The pro­moter was induced during the mid-log phase and fully expressed at the early stationary phase in defined media containing $\beta--cyclodextrin\;(\beta-CD),$ maltose, or starch. On the other hand, it was kept repressed in the presence of glucose, fructose, sucrose, or glycerol, suggesting that catabolite repression might be involved in the expression of the gene. Production of the $\beta-CD$ hydrolyzing activity was impaired by the spo0A mutation in B. subtilis 168, indicating the involvement of an additional regu­latory system exerting control on the promoter. Inactivation of yvdF resulted in a significant decrease of the $\beta-CD$ hydrolyzing activity, if not all. This result implied the presence of an additional enzyme(s) that is capable of hydrolyzing $\beta-CD$ in B. subtilis 168. Based on the results, MAase encoded by bbmA is likely to be involved in maltose and $\beta-CD$ utilization when other sugars, which are readily usable as an energy source, are not available during the stationary phase.

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  10. [국내논문]   Characteristics of HIV-Tat Protein Transduction Domain   피인용횟수: 1

    Yoon Jong-Sub (Department of Microbiology, The Catholic University of Korea ) , Jung Yong-Tae (Department of Microbiology, College of Advanced Science, Dankook University ) , Hong Seong-Karp (Catholic Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Center, The Catholic University of Korea ) , Kim Sun-Hwa (Department of Microbiology, The Catholic University of Korean ) , Shin Min-Chul (Department of Microbiology, The Catholic University of Korean ) , Lee Dong-Gun (Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea ) , Shin Wan-Shik (Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea ) , Min Woo-Sung (Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea ) , Paik Soon-Young (Department of Microbiology, The Catholic University of Korea)
    The journal of microbiology v.42 no.4 ,pp. 328 - 335 , 2004 , 1225-8873 ,

    초록

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-I) Tat protein transduction domain (PTD), which con­tains rich arginine and lysine residues, is responsible for the highly efficient transduction of protein through the plasma membrane. In addition, it can be secreted from infected cells and has the ability to enter neighboring cells. When the PTD of Tat is fused to proteins and exogenously added to cells, the fusion protein can cross plasma membranes. Recent reports indicate that the endogenously expressed Tat fusion protein can demonstrate biodistribution of several proteins. However, intercellular transport and protein transduction have not been observed in some studies. Therefore, this study exam­ined the intercellular transport and protein transduction of the Tat protein. The results showed no evi­dence of intercellular transport (biodistribution) in a cell culture. Instead, the Tat fusion peptides were found to have a significant effect on the transduction and intercellular localization properties. This sug­gests that the HIV-1 PTD passes through the plasma membrane in one direction.

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