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Journal of food science and nutrition 15건

  1. [국내논문]   Effects of Protein Unfolding and Soluble Aggregates Formation on the Gel Strength of Whey Proteins  

    MoonJung Choi , Michael E. Mangino
    Journal of food science and nutrition v.2 no.4 ,pp. 281 - 284 , 1997 , 1226-332x ,

    초록

    Heat-induced gelation is an important functional property of whey proteins. Preheating of calcium reduced whey was reported to increase gel strength. 5% whey-protein solutions were preheated at pH 7 and at various temperatures(60-80℃) for 15 minutes. The amount of soluble aggregates and denaturation enthalpy of preheated whey proteins were measured. Preheating temperature was negatively correlated with denaturation enthalpy (R²=0.857, P=0.008) and positively with the amount of soluble aggregates(R²=0.921, P=0.002). Denaturation enthalpy was negatively correlated with gel strength(R²=0.93, P=0.002). Soluble aggregates and gel strength were positively correlated(R²=0.972, P=0.0003). The formation of three dimensional gel network requires controlled protein denaturation and aggregation. Since preheating leads to the partial denaturation of proteins and the formation of soluble aggregates, preheated whey proteins have a higher gel strength than non-preheated one.

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  2. [국내논문]   Inhibitors of Tyrosinase and Melanogenesis from Galla rhois  

    Kim, Hyo-Jin (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung ) , Jang, Dong-Il (Pacific R&D Center ) , Park, Sang-Won (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung)
    Journal of food science and nutrition v.2 no.4 ,pp. 285 - 290 , 1997 , 1226-332x ,

    초록

    Previously, a 50% aqueous methanol extract of Galla rhois was shown to be the most potent tyrosinase inhibition activity with an {TEX}$IC_{50}${/TEX}(the concentration causing 50% inhibition of tyrosinase activity) of 0.2mg/ml of 205 crude drug extracts. To isolate tyrosinase inhibitors, the methanol extract was evaporated to a small volume in vacuo, and then partitioned stepwise with benzene and ethyl acetate(EtOAc). the EtOAc fraction was solubilized in 10% MeOH solution, and then fractionated successively by Diaion HP-20 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and preparative HPLC. Three phenolic compounds were isolated, and characterized as gallic acid(GA), methyl gallate(MG) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl- $\beta$ -D-glucose(PGG) by UV, IR, {TEX}${1}^H${/TEX}-&{TEX}${13}^C${/TEX}-NMR, and FAB-MS spectroscopy, PGG({TEX}$IC_{50}${/TEX}=50 $\mu\textrm{g}$ /ml) showed a considerable inhibitory effect against mushroom tyrosinase, while GA({TEX}$IC_{50}${/TEX}=1.6mg/ml) and MG({TEX}$IC_{50}${/TEX}=234 $\mu\textrm{g}$ /ml) did not show an appreciable effect. Meanwhile, MG inhibited greatly melanogenesis in a murine melanocyte cell line, Mel-Ab. MG and PGG showed typical noncompetitive inhibition patterns against mushroom tyrosinase. These results suggest that PGG and MG may be potentially useful as either anti-browning or anti-melanogenic agents in foods and cosmetics.

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  3. [국내논문]   Measurement of Synergistic Effects of Binary Sweetener Mixtures  

    Chung, Hai-Jung (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Dae-Jin Univ.)
    Journal of food science and nutrition v.2 no.4 ,pp. 291 - 295 , 1997 , 1226-332x ,

    초록

    Some sensory properties of synthetic sweeteners are limiting factors for use in low calorie foods of soft drinks. By combining synthetic sweeteners(Neohesperidin dihydrochacone(NHDC), stevioside) with sucrose, sorbitol or xylitol, these limitations can be overcome. Using trained taste panelists and magnitude estimation methods, synergistic effects were investigated in binary sweetener mixtures, The results showed that synergism, as much as 28% to 69%,was noted at all concentration in xylitol-stevioside, NHDC-stevioside mixtures. Synergistic effects were found only at high concentration levels in mixtures of sucrose-NHDC, sucrose-stevioside, and sorbitol-stevioside, ranging from 11% to 22%.By taking advantage of synergistic effects, ginseng tea and orange flavored beverages, sweetened with either xylitol-stevioside of NHDC-stevioside, were prepared and the sensory quality was compared with that of sucrose containing beverages. It was found that sensory characteristics were judged to be very similar for all formulations. The result suggests the possibility of using of using these sweetener mixtures as sugar substitutes in ginseng tea and orange drink.

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  4. [국내논문]   Polymerization of Sugar by Extrusion  

    Hwang, Jae-Kwan (Bioproducts Research Center, Yonsei University ) , Kim, Chul-Jin (Korea Food Research Institute ) , Chong-Tai, Kim (Korea Food Research Institute)
    Journal of food science and nutrition v.2 no.4 ,pp. 296 - 300 , 1997 , 1226-332x ,

    초록

    Glucose syrup and lactose, mixed with citric acid as a polymerizing catalyst, was processed using twin screw extruder, in which 40 of L/D(length/diameter) ratio was designed to provide sufficient retention in extruder for polymerization of sugars. The polymerization yields of glucose syrup were 36.90%, 55.44% and 77.10% at 160, 180 and 20 $0^{\circ}C$ , respectively, while those of lactose were 26.45%, 38.16% and 45.86% at the same temperatures. Gel permeation chromatography exhibited that the higher molecular weight fractions were increased with extrusion temperature, which also led to increasing hydrodynamic intrinsic viscosity. Both uco-oligosaccharides and lacto-oligosaccharides produced by extrusion of glucose syrup and lactose were stable for thermal treatments over a wide range of pH3.0~11.0. In addition, $\alpha$ -amylase and amyloglucosidase treatment of gluco-oligosaccharides did not affect the solution viscosity, indicating the random linkage rather than $\alpha$ -1, 4 linkages of glucose and thus the potential applications as a dietary fiber. In this research it was clearly observed that twin screw extrusion can be successfully utilized to produce gluco-oligosaccharides and lacto-oligosaccharides rapidly and continuously in conjunction with selective control of polymerized composition.

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  5. [국내논문]   Contents of Phytic Acid and Minerals of Rice Cultivars from Korea  

    Lee, Heok-Hwa (Division of Food and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University ) , Rhee, Hae-ik (Division of Food and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University ) , Lee, Sang-Young (Division of Food and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University ) , Kim, Chon-Ho (Department of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University ) , Park, Yong-Soon (Department of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University)
    Journal of food science and nutrition v.2 no.4 ,pp. 301 - 303 , 1997 , 1226-332x ,

    초록

    To elucidate the contents of phytic acid and minerals in rice produced in Korea, samples of 68 verieties of brown rice and 9 varieties of polished rice were analyzed for phytic acid by colorimetric method, and Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn contents by the atomic absorption spectrophytometer. Selenium was measured by fluorometry. Averages of phytic acid content of the 68 brown rice were 12.6 g/kg, whereas that of the 8 polished rice were 1.83 g/kg on dry matter. Averages of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn contents on the 68 brown rice were 111, 7.4, 1,068 and 19.1 mg/kg, and those of the polished rice were 45.6, 2.1, 250 and 14 mg/kg, respectively. A averge of selenium content of the brown rice was 38.3 $\mu\textrm{g}$ /kg.

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  6. [국내논문]   Chemical Composition of Petals of Chrysanthemum spp.  

    Park, Nan-Yong (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University ) , Kwon, Jong-Ho (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University)
    Journal of food science and nutrition v.2 no.4 ,pp. 304 - 309 , 1997 , 1226-332x ,

    초록

    Chemical compositions of petals of Chrysanthemum spp. were determined to renew its interest as a food material. The moisture contents of wild Chrysanthemum boreale and holticulturized Chrysanthemum morifolium were 11.7% and 11.0%. The proximate chemical ompositions were 6.1% and 11.7% in protein, 3.7% and 5.2% in ash, 11.1% and 12.8% in reducing sugar, of C. boreale and C. morifolium, respectively. Free sugars were mainly composed of fructose, glucose and sucrose. In fatty acid composition, the ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids were 1.2:1 and 3.0:1, respectively. The amino acids determined were found 0.18 and 0.26 in the ratio of essential to total amino acids in each sample. Major elements of Chrysanthemum petals were Ca, K, Fe, Mg and Na, but the contents of Ca and Fe were more than twice higher in C. boreale than c. morifolium, Major volatile flavor components were 28.22% of epi-bicyclophellandrene and 24.55% of camphor in C. boreale, and 14.24% of 4-methyl-1-(10methylethyl)-3-cyclhexen-1-ol, 10.74% of camphor and 7.64% of 1,8-cineol in C. morifolium.

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  7. [국내논문]   Detection and Identification of Bacteriocins Produced by Propionibacteria Isolated from Commercial Swiss Cheese Products  

    Hur, Ji-Woon (Department of Food Engineering, Kyungnam University ) , Lee, Na-Kyoung (Department of Food Engineering, Kyungnam University ) , Lee, Haa-Yung (Microbiology, Immunology and Preventive Medicine(MIPM) Program, Iowa State University ) , Paik, Hyun-Dong (Department of Food Engineering, Kyungnam University)
    Journal of food science and nutrition v.2 no.4 ,pp. 310 - 315 , 1997 , 1226-332x ,

    초록

    Wild propionibacteria isolated from different commercial swiss cheese samples were tested for antimicrobial activities. In initial screening, six of these Propionibacterium isolates showed antagonistic activity against 10 selected indicator organisms by the deferred method. In next, only two Propionibacterium strains JW6 and JW14 showed antibacterial activity in the cell-free supernatants by the modified well diffusion method. Propionibacterium strains JW6 and JW14 were finally identified as bacteriocin producers which exhibited a bactericidal effect against closely related species. The antimicrobial substances were proteins, since their activities were completely destroyed following several degradative enzyme treatments. The bacteriocins showed a narrow inhibitory spectrum of activity against two propionibacteria and two bacilli of strains tested in this study.

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  8. [국내논문]   Desorption of Food Related Phenolic Acids from Charcoal in Single Solute Model System  

    Lee, Won-Young (Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University ) , Park, Yong-Hee (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University)
    Journal of food science and nutrition v.2 no.4 ,pp. 316 - 320 , 1997 , 1226-332x ,

    초록

    Phenolic acids are regarded as harmful materials in food and environment science but recently, as useful materials, and thus adsorption is recommended as an effective separation technique to recover or remove phenolic acids from diluted solution. If the adsorbed phenolic compounds were useful materials, the materials should be recovered through desorption. Desorption using supercritical carbon dioxide(SC- $CO_2$ ) was tried to separate food-borne phenolic acids from charcoal in single solute system. In the comparisons of desorption amounts, gallic acid had the lowest lolubiligy to SC- $CO_2$ . Gallic acid has more hydroxy functional groups than the other phenolic acids, which was immiscible with nonpolar SC- $CO_2$ . Ferulic acid was yielded more than p-coumaric acid, because ferulic acid had much bigger molecular weight, which was affected more by van der Waas force. It was found that the most affecting factor on desorption amounts was the solubility of phenolic acids to SC- $CO_2$ . The second affecting factor was van der Waals force. Response surface methodology(RSM) was conducted to read the trend of desorption. Increasing density of SC- $CO_2$ raised solubility of phenolic acids.

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  9. [국내논문]   High Temperature Cooking of Fish Protein Extracts for Plastein Reaction  

    Lee, Keun-Tai (Department of Food Science and Technology, Pukyong National University ) , Park, Seong-Min (Department of Food Science and Technology, Pukyong National University ) , Lee, Sang-Ho (Department of Food Science and Technology, Pukyong National University ) , Ryu, Hong-Soo (Department of Food and Life Science, Pukyong National Universit ) , Yoon, Ho-Dong (National Fisheries Research and Development)
    Journal of food science and nutrition v.2 no.4 ,pp. 321 - 327 , 1997 , 1226-332x ,

    초록

    High Temperature-cooking conditions of cultured fishes(loach, crucian carp, bastard halibut, and jacopever) were optimized by response surface methodology(RSM), and plastein products were prepared using enzymatic hydrolysis. Four models were proposed with regard to effects of time(t), temperature(T), and water/fish meat (w/f) ratio on the amount of 0.3M TCA soluble fractions. The model coefficients were ranged from p $0^{\circ}C$ except for crucian carp(136 $^{\circ}C$ ); 2) 10.08 hours(loach), 7.25 hours(crucian carp), 9.85 hours(ba-stard harlibut), and 9.37 hours(iacopever); 3) 1:1(w/f) ratio except for the crucian carp(1.1:1). When protein hydrolyzates were employed for the plastein synthesis, optimum plastein-reaction conditions were determined to be pH 9.0 with chymotrypsin for the loach and crucian carp hydrolyzates, pH 9.0 with papain for the bastard halibut hydrolyzate, and pH 11.0 with trypsin for the jacopever hydrolyzate. Plastein reaction could be performed in water at concentration up to 20%(w/f).

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  10. [국내논문]   Induction of Cytochrome P-450 Protein in Wounded Avocado Roots(Persea americana, Mill)  

    Joo, Eun-Young (Department Biology, Kyungsan University)
    Journal of food science and nutrition v.2 no.4 ,pp. 328 - 332 , 1997 , 1226-332x ,

    초록

    The ripe fruit of Hass avocado contains one of the highest elvels of cytochrome P-450 protein found in the plant kingdom. To determine whether wounded roots of avocado contain P-450 protein, the roots of avocado were wounded by slicing, and then allowed to incubate in sealed plastic bags, in 0.4M mannitol, and in the solution to make protoplast preparation containing cellulysin and macerase during the specified times. The microsomal proteins were extracted from the samples, separated by SDS-PAGE, and then subjected to Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies which are generated against the CYP71A1 protein. wounded roots in sealed bags produced CYP71A1 within 6 hours after cutting, and those in 0.4M mannitol did not produce CYP71A1 even after 72 hours, but those in the protoplast preparation by cellulysin and macerase induced and produced CYP71A was induced in only 24 hours. These results indicate that CYP 71A1 plays a role for wound healing for root tissue o avocado, and would-inducible P-450 protein was not detected in the mannitol solution by preventing a synthesis of ethylene in a liquid state, but the softening of tissues by cellulysin and macerase to make protoplast preparation was involved in an activation of CYP 71A1 even in the liquid state.

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