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The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : ... 12건

  1. [국내논문]   [${^3H}MK-801$ Binding to the Synaptic Membranes of Rat Forebrains: Age-related Regulation by Glutamate, Glycine and Spermine  

    Cho, Jung-Sook (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Dongguk University ) , Kong, Jae-Yang (Pharmaceutical Screening Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology)
    The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology v.1 no.2 ,pp. 117 - 125 , 1997 , 1226-4512 ,

    초록

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in synaptic plasticity, developmental processes, learning and memory and many neuropathological disorders including age-related diseases. In the present study, regulation of the NMDA receptor properties by various ligands was investigated using $[^3H]MK-801$ binding studies in the synaptic membranes of young and aged rat forebrains. The binding in the presence of glutamate and glycine increased dramatically with growth between 1 and 6 weeks old, and thereafter declined gradually with aging. Glutamate, glycine or spermine respectively increased the binding with growth. Glutamate maintained the binding during aging, while glycine or spermine significantly decreased the binding in the aged brain. The maximum stimulation by glycine varied depending on the ages of brains. Greater sensitivity to glycine was observed at 1 week and 3 months and the sensitivity was significantly reduced in the aged brain. In contrast, spermine showed similar stimulation patterns in young and aged rats. These results indicated that the functional properties of the NMDA receptor-ion channel complex in young and aged rat forebrains are differentially regulated by agonists, and the reduction of the receptor function with normal aging may be, in some degree, due to the reduction of the receptor sensitivity to glycine.

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  2. [국내논문]   Lithium-induced Increase of Synaptosomal Uptake of Norepinephrine in Rat Brain  

    Cho, Young-Wuk (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyunghee University ) , Han, Seung-Ho (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyunghee University ) , Kim, Chang-Ju (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyunghee University ) , Min, Byung-Il (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyunghee University)
    The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology v.1 no.2 ,pp. 127 - 133 , 1997 , 1226-4512 ,

    초록

    Lithium remains the most widely used therapeutic agent for bipolar affective disorder, particularly mania. Although many investigators have studied the effects of lithium on abnormalities in monoamine neuro-transmitter as a pathophysiological basis of affective disorder, the action mechanism of lithium ion remains still unknown. To explore the action mechanism of lithium in the brain, we examined the effects of lithium on the extrasynaptosomal concentrations of catecholamines and their metabolites. Synaptosomes were prepared from the rat forebrains and assays of catecholamines and metabolites were made using HPLC with an electrochemical detector. Lithium of 1mM decreased the extrasynaptosomal concentrations of NE from the control group of $3.07{\pm}1.19$ to the treated group of $0.00{\pm}0.00$ (ng/ml of synaptosomal suspension) but not that of DHPG. It can be suggested that lithium increases synaptosomal uptake of NE. Increased intraneuronal uptake of NE would decrease neurotransmission and extraneuronal metabolism of NE. Because increased brain NE metabolism and neurotransmission have been suggested as important components in the pathophysiology of bipolar affective disorder, especially mania, lithium-induced increase of intraneuronal NE uptake can be suspected as an action mechanism of therapeutic effect of lithium in manic patient, possibly in bipolar affective disorder.

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  3. [국내논문]   The Influence of $N^6-cyclopentyladenosine$ and Magnesium on Norepinephrine Release in the Rat Hippocampus  

    Park, Yeung-Bong (Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Chosun University ) , Park, Sang-Duk (Department of Pharmacology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine and Medicinal Resources Research Center of Wonkwang University ) , Choi, Bong-Kyu (Department of Pharmacology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine and Medicinal Resources Research Center of Wonkwang University)
    The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology v.1 no.2 ,pp. 135 - 142 , 1997 , 1226-4512 ,

    초록

    As it has been reported that the depolarization-induced norepinephrine (NE) release is modulated by activation of presynaptic $A_1$ -adenosine heteroreceptor and various lines of evidence indicate that $A_2$ -adenosine receptor also presents in hippocampus, and that the adenosine effect is magnesium dependent, the present study was undertaken to delineate the role of adenosine receptors in the modulation of hippocampal NE release. Slices from the rat hippocampus were equilibrated with $[^3H]-NE$ and the release of the labelled product, $[^3H]-NE$ , was evoked by electrical stimulation (3 Hz, 5 V $cm^{-1}$ , 2 ms, rectangular pulses), and the influence of various agents on the evoked tritium outflow was investigated. $N^6-cyclo-pentyladenosine$ (CPA), in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 ${\mu}M$ , decreased the $[^3H]-NE$ release in a dose-dependent manner without changing the basal rate of release, and these effects were significantly inhibited by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 2 ${\mu}M$ ) treatment. When the magnesium concentration was reduced to 0.4 mM or completely removed, the evoked NE release increased along with decreased basal rate of release. In contrast, increasing the magnesium concentrations to 2.4 and 4 mM, decreased the evoked NE release. The CPA effects on evoked NE release were reducedby magnesium removal, but potentiated by 2.4 mM magnesium in the medium. 5-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamodiadenosine (CPCA, 1 & 10 ${\mu}M$ ), an $A_2$ -agonist, decreased the evoked tritium outflow, and this effect was also abolished by DPCPX pretreatment. CGS, a powerful $A_2$ -agonist, did not affect the evoked NE release. However, the effects of CPCA and CGS on evoked NE release were significantly increased by pretreatment of DPCPX in the magnesium-free medium. These results indicate that inhibitory effect of $A_1$ -adenosine receptor on NE release is magnesium-dependent, and $A_2$ -receptor may be present in the rat hippocampus.

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  4. [국내논문]   Study on Ginseng Protopanaxadiol and Protopanaxatriol Saponins-Induced Antinociception  

    Shin, Young-Hee (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University ) , Kim, Seok-Chang (Korea, Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute ) , Han, Ji-Won (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University ) , Kim, Dae-Hoon (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University ) , Han, Sang-Sub (Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology ) , Shin, Dong-Ho (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University ) , Nah, Seung-Yeol (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University)
    The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology v.1 no.2 ,pp. 143 - 149 , 1997 , 1226-4512 ,

    초록

    We studied the effects of ginseng protopanaxadiol (PD) and protopanaxatriol (PT) saponins on the analgesia using several pain tests such as writhing, formalin, and tail-flick test. Using mouse, pretreatment of PD or PT saponins (i.p.) induced inhibition of abdominal constrictions caused by 0.9% acetic acid administration(i.p.). The $AD_{50}$ was around 27 (17-43) mg/kg for PD and 13.5 (3-61) mg/kg for PT saponins in writhing test. Both PD and PT saponins also showed the inhibition of bitings and lickings of hindpaw after administration of 1% formalin. In particular, both PD and PT saponins showed analgesic effects on second phase of pain. The $AD_{50}$ was 44.5 (26-76) mg/kg for PD and 105 (55-200) mg/kg for PT saponins in second phase of formalin test. For first phase pain inhibition by PD or PT saponins, they were required higher concentrations. However, PD saponins showed weak analgesic effects in tail-flick test with high concentration. In conclusion, we found that both PD and PT saponins have the analgesic effects in writhing test and second phase of pain in formalin test. These results suggest that both PD and PT saponins inhibit neurogenic or tonic pain rather than acute pain.

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  5. [국내논문]   Effect of Hemorrhage on mRNA Expressions of Renin, Angiotensinogen and $AT_1$ Receptors in Rat Central and Peripheral Tissues  

    Lee, Mi-Kyung (Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University ) , Jo, Hak-Ryul (Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University ) , Kim, Kyung-Soon (Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University ) , Yang, Eun-Kyoung (Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University ) , Lee, Won-Jung (Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University)
    The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology v.1 no.2 ,pp. 151 - 159 , 1997 , 1226-4512 ,

    초록

    In an attempt to investigate whether hemorrhage affects the gene expression of the renin-angioteusin system (RAS) components in the brain and peripheral angiotensin-generating tissues, changes in mRNA levels of the RAS components in response to hemorrhage were measured in conscious unrestrained rats. Wistar rats were bled at a rate of 3 ml/kg/min for 5 min, and then decapitated 7 h after hemorrhage. Levels of mRNA for renin, angiotensinogen and angiotensin $II-AT_1$ receptor subtypes ( $AT_{1A}$ and $AT_{1B}$ ) were determined with the methods of northern blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hemorrhage produced a profound hypotension with tachycardia, but blood pressure and heart rate recovered close to the basal level at 7 h. Plasma and renal renin levels were significantly increased at 7 h. Hemorrhage induced rapid upregulation of gene expression of both $AT_{1A}$ and $AT_{1B}$ receptor subtypes in the brainstem and hypothalamus, downregulation of them in the adrenal gland and liver. However, renin mRNA level increased in the brainstem, decreased in the liver, but was not changed in the hypothalamus, kidney and adrenals after hemorrhage. Angiotensinogen mRNA level was not significantly changed in any of the tissue except a slight increase in the liver. The kidney and liver did not show any significant change in gene expression of the RAS components. These results suggest that gene expression of the RAS in central and peripheral tissues are, at least in part, under independent control and the local RAS in each organ plays specific physiologic role.

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  6. [국내논문]   Neural Adaptation of Beta Adrenergic Receptor Subtypes after Chronic Imipramine Treatment: A Quantitative Autoradiographic Study  

    Park, Hae-Young (Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University ) , Hong, Young-Sook (Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University ) , Park, Chan-Woong (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University)
    The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology v.1 no.2 ,pp. 161 - 167 , 1997 , 1226-4512 ,

    초록

    This study compares the subtypes of central beta adrenergic receptors (ARs) of brains of untreated rats with those of imipramine-treated rats. Beta adrenergic receptors were measured by quantitative autoradiography of the binding of $^3H$ -dihydroalprenolol ( $^3H$ -DHA) in coronal sections of rat brain. Repeated treatment of rats with imipramine significantly reduced the binding of $^3H$ -DHA to beta-1 AR in many brain areas, especially throughout the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and amygdala. Significant reductions of the binding of $^3H$ -DHA to beta-2 AR were not found in any area of the brain. These data suggests that a selective down-regulation of beta-1 AR may be involved in the adaptive changes occurring after prolonged imipramine treatment.

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  7. [국내논문]   Two Types of Voltage-dependent Outward Potassium Currents in Smooth Muscle Cells of Rabbit Basilar Atery  

    Kang, Tong-Mook (Samsung Biomedical Research Institute ) , So, In-Suk (Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Seoul National University College of Medicine ) , Uhm, Dae-Yong (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Sung Kyun Kwan University ) , Kim, Ki-Whan (Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Seoul National University College of Medicine)
    The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology v.1 no.2 ,pp. 169 - 183 , 1997 , 1226-4512 ,

    초록

    We have investigated the two types of voltage-dependent outward potassium (K) currents, i.e. delayed rectifier K current ( $I_{K(V)}$ ) and 'A-like' transient outward K current ( $I_{to}$ ) with patch-clamp technique in single smooth muscle cells (SMCs) isolated from rabbit basilar artery, and investigated the characteristics of them. The time-courses of activation were well fitted by exponential function raised to second power ( $n^2$ ) in $I_{K(V)}$ and fourth power ( $n^4$ ) in $I_{to}$ . The activation, inactivation and recovery time courses of $I_{to}$ were much faster than that of $I_{K(V)}$ . The steady-state activation and inactivation of $I_{K(V)}$ was at the more hyperpolarized range than that of $I_{to}$ contrary to the reports in other vascular SMCs. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 10 mM) markedly inhibited $I_{K(V)}$ but little affected $I_{to}$ . 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) had similar inhibitory potency on both currents. While a low concentration of $Cd^{2+}$ (0.5 mM) shifted the current- voltage relationship of $I_{to}$ to the positive direction without change of maximum conductance, $Cd^{2+}$ did not cause any appreciable change for $I_{K(V)}$ .

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  8. [국내논문]   Functional Characteristics of Neutral Amino Acid Transporter in Opossum Kidney (OK) Cells  

    Woo, Jae-Suk (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University ) , Park, Moon-Hwan (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University ) , Oh, Sae-Ok (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University ) , Jung, Jin-Sup (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University ) , Kim, Yong-Keun (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University ) , Lee, Sang-Ho (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University)
    The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology v.1 no.2 ,pp. 185 - 193 , 1997 , 1226-4512 ,

    초록

    The characteristics of $Na^+$ -dependent cycloleucine uptake was investigated in OK cells with regard to substrate specificity and regulation by protein kinase C (PKC). Inhibition studies with different synthetic and natural amino acids showed a broad spectrum affinity to neutral amino acids regardless of their different side chains including branched or aromatic, indicating that the $Na^+$ -dependent cycloleucine uptake in OK cells is mediated by System $B^o$ or System $B^o$ -like transporter rather than the classical System A or ASC. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, but not $4{\alpha}-PMA$ elicited a time-dependent biphasic stimulation of $Na^+$ -dependent cycloleucine uptake, which produced early transient peak at 30 min and late sustained peak at 180min. Both the early and late stimulations by PMA were due to an increase in Vmax and not due to a change in Km. PKC inhibitors blocked both the early and late stimulation by PMA, while protein synthesis inhibitors blocked the late stimulation only. These results suggest the existence and regulation by PKC of System $B^o$ or System $B^o$ -like broad spectrum transport system for neutral amino acids in OK cells.

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  9. [국내논문]   Cloning of Mouse AQP-CD Gene  

    Jung, Jin-Sup (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University ) , Kim, Joo-In (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University ) , Oh, Sae-Ok (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University ) , Park, Mi-Young (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University ) , Bae, Hae-Rhan (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University ) , Lee, Sang-Ho (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University)
    The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology v.1 no.2 ,pp. 195 - 200 , 1997 , 1226-4512 ,

    초록

    Water transport in highly-permeable membranes is facilitated by some specialized pathways, which are called aquaporins (AQP). AQP1 (AQP-CHIP) is the first recognized aquaporin identified from red cells and renal proximal tubules. Up until now 4 other aquaporin homologs have been reported. Each aquaporin has its unique tissue distribution and regulatory mechanims. To elucidate molecular mechanisms for their transcription regulation and tissue-specific expression isolation of aquaporin genes is required. To clone promoters of the AQP family mouse genomic library was screened by the 1st exon-specific probe of AQP4, and 5 different plaques were positively hybridized. Phage DNAs were purified and characterized by restriction mapping and sequencing. One of them is the mouse AQP-CD gene. The gene was consisted of 4 exons and the exon-intron boundaries of mouse AQP-CD gene were identified at identical positions in other related genes. The 5'-flanking region of AQP-CD gene contains one classic TATA box, a GATA consensus sequence, an E-box and a cyclic AMP-responsive element. The cloning of the mouse AQP-CD gene, of which product is expressed in the collecting duct and is responsible for antidiuresis by vasopressin, will contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms of tissue-specific expression and regulation of AQP-CD gene under various conditions.

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  10. [국내논문]   Platelet-Activating Factor Enhances Interleukin-1 Activity by Alveolar Macrophages : Inhibition by PAF Specific Receptor Antagonists  

    Lee, Ji-Hee (Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University and Division of Cell Biology, Ewha Medical Research Center)
    The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology v.1 no.2 ,pp. 201 - 208 , 1997 , 1226-4512 ,

    초록

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the inflammatory reaction can be ascribed to a complex array of mediators generated and released from activated phagocytes. In this study, the effect of PAF on interleukin-1(IL-1) activity by rat alveolar macrophages(AM) was examined using thymocyte proliferation assay in the supernate of sample obtained after 24 hr culture. When AM were cultured with PAF alone, no change in IL-1 activity was observed. However, the combined addition of PAF and muramyl dipeptide(MDP) or lipopolysaccharide(LPS) to AM cultures markedly enhanced IL-1 activity by 2-3 fold compared with AM cultures with the stimulant alone in a concentration dependent fashion. The peack effect was found at $10^{-8}$ M PAF with MDP and $10^{-14}$ M PAF with LPS. the effect of PAF was also tested in silica, toxic respirable dust, -added AM cultures as well as in the cultures containing bacterial compounds. Although silica did not stimulate the IL-1 activity, PAF could enhance IL-1 activity by 2 fold above the value of the silica-treated AM cultures with the peak response at $10^{-12}$ M PAF. Optimal enhancement of IL-1 activity occured when MDP and PAF were present together at the initiation of the 24 hr AM cultures. Additionaly, the biologically inactive precursor/metabolite of PAF, lyso-PAF failed to induce enhancement of IL-1 activity. When the specific, but structurally different PAF receptor antagonists, BN 52021( $10^{-5}$ M) and CV 3988( $10^{-5}$ M) was treated 15 min before addition of PAF( $10^{-8}$ M) and MDP $(10\;{\mu}g/ml)$ to the AM cultures, it markedly inhibited the enhancement of IL-1 activity induced by PAF. The effects of these PAF antagonists were also observed in LPS $(10\;{\mu}g/ml)$ -stimulated cells. Collectively, these data suggest that PAF enhances IL-1 activity by interaction with a specific receptor.

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