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Studies in history and philosophy of biological an... 12건

  1. [해외논문]   Editorial Board   SCOPUS


    Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences v.68/69 ,pp. ii - ii , 2018 , 1369-8486 ,

    초록

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Ancient DNA: a history of the science before Jurassic Park   SCOPUS

    Jones, Elizabeth D. (University College London, Department of Science and Technology Studies, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom)
    Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences v.68/69 ,pp. 1 - 14 , 2018 , 1369-8486 ,

    초록

    Highlights First history of ancient DNA's disciplinary development from 1970s to 1980s. Recovers early ideas and individuals contributing to the search for DNA from fossils. Reveals connection between recovering DNA from fossils and resurrecting extinct species. Highlights interplay between science, speculation, and spectacle. Sets the stage for ancient DNA's disciplinary development within evolutionary biology.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  3. [해외논문]   Much ado about mice: Standard-setting in model organism research   SCOPUS

    Hardesty, Rebecca A.
    Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences v.68/69 ,pp. 15 - 24 , 2018 , 1369-8486 ,

    초록

    Abstract Recently there has been a practice turn in the philosophy of science that has called for analyses to be grounded in the actual doings of everyday science. This paper is in furtherance of this call and it does so by employing participant-observation ethnographic methods as a tool for discovering epistemological features of scientific practice in a neuroscience lab. The case I present focuses on a group of neurobiologists researching the genetic underpinnings of cognition in Down syndrome (DS) and how they have developed a new mouse model which they argue should be regarded as the “gold standard” for all DS mouse research. Through use of ethnographic methods, interviews, and analyses of publications, I uncover how the lab constructed their new mouse model. Additionally, I describe how model organisms can serve as abstract standards for scientific work that impact the epistemic value of scientific claims, regulate practice, and constrain future work. Highlights Using ethnographic methods can be a tool for discovering philosophically relevant aspects of scientific practice. Focusing on practice reveals the nuanced epistemic work practitioners are engaged in when constructing models. Model organisms can serve as abstract standards that regulate practice and impact the epistemic value of explanations. Studying how biologists work with model organisms reveals the endogenous non-ideal normativity at play in their practices.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  4. [해외논문]   Natural selection, plasticity, and the rationale for largest-scale trends   SCOPUS

    Desmond, Hugh
    Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences v.68/69 ,pp. 25 - 33 , 2018 , 1369-8486 ,

    초록

    Abstract Many have argued that there is no reason why natural selection should cause directional increases in measures such as body size or complexity across evolutionary history as a whole. In this paper I argue that this conclusion does not hold for selection for adaptations to environmental variability, and that, given the inevitability of environmental variability, trends in adaptations to variability are an expected feature of evolution by natural selection. As a concrete instance of this causal structure, I outline how this may be applied to a trend in phenotypic plasticity. Highlights The theory of natural selection seems to give no rationale for expecting any largest-scale trends. It is argued that trends in variability adaptations are an exception. This is illustrated by means of selection for phenotypic plasticity.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  5. [해외논문]   The significance of levels of organization for scientific research: A heuristic approach   SCOPUS

    Brooks, Daniel S. (Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research, Martinstraße 12, A-3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria ) , Eronen, Markus I. (Centre for Logic and Analytic Philosophy, KU Leuven, Andreas Vesaliusstraat 2-Box 3220, 3000 Leuven, Belgium)
    Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences v.68/69 ,pp. 34 - 41 , 2018 , 1369-8486 ,

    초록

    Abstract The concept of 'levels of organization' has come under fire recently as being useless for scientific and philosophical purposes. In this paper, we show that 'levels' is actually a remarkably resilient and constructive conceptual tool that can be, and in fact is, used for a variety of purposes. To this effect, we articulate an account of the importance of the levels concept seen in light of its status as a major organizing concept of biology. We argue that the usefulness of ‘levels’ is best seen in the heuristic contributions the concept makes to treating and structuring scientific problems. We illustrate this with two examples from biological research. Highlights A usage-based account of the significance of the levels concept is defended. Locus of levels usage contextualized to problem-solving reasoning. Several heuristic uses of the levels concept are identified. Evaluation of levels concept is compartmentalized with local and general criteria.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [해외논문]   The function of the heart is historically contingent   SCOPUS

    Binney, Nicholas
    Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences v.68/69 ,pp. 42 - 55 , 2018 , 1369-8486 ,

    초록

    Abstract Some philosophers of medicine argue that there are objective facts about the biological function of organs, and that these facts are used to objectively define diseases. The function of the heart is taken to be particularly obvious and well established. Contrary to this, I argue that the function of the heart is not fixed by nature, but rather that it is historically contingent. The disease heart failure results from the dysfunction of the heart. In opposition to the common-sense intuitions of philosophers, medics do not define heart failure simply as a reduced cardiac output, and up to half of patients with heart failure have a normal cardiac output. The present day medical definition of heart failure is thus counter-intuitive. In the early twentieth century, however, medics did define heart failure as a reduced cardiac output. This view was opposed in the 1930s, when a similar definition of heart failure to the one used today was put forward. I look closely at this historical episode, in order to explore the reasons for this development. I use this history to argue that present day knowledge of heart failure is not the inevitable result of careful observation of patients, but rather is historically contingent. Highlights Present day definition of heart failure is counterintuitive. The historical development of knowledge of heart failure is explored to explain this. I focus on the work of James Mackenzie (1853–1925) and Tinsley Harrison (1900–1978). Harrison rejected Mackenzie's intuitive definition of heart failure. Harrison's conclusions were underdetermined by his observations.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  7. [해외논문]   The function of the heart is not obvious   SCOPUS

    Binney, Nicholas
    Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences v.68/69 ,pp. 56 - 69 , 2018 , 1369-8486 ,

    초록

    Abstract It is widely believed that the function of the heart is obviously to pump blood. I argue here that it is not. The definition, presentation, and pathophysiological explanation of heart failure, as well as the measurement of cardiac dysfunction, are not as might be expected if the function of the heart was simply to pump blood. Far from being obvious, many central features of heart failure are still being investigated. This has important implications for philosophical debates about health and disease. According to naturalists like Christopher Boorse, medical practice is founded on a well-established body of physiological knowledge, which provides the one true account of the biological function of organs. On this naturalistic view, there should only be one account of the pathophysiology of heart failure in use in medical practice. This account of the pathophysiology of heart failure should be well-established, as opposed to uncertain. Medics should use this physiological knowledge to inform their clinical practice, and not vice versa. Clinical considerations, such as whether patients respond to therapy, should not inform debates about what the pathophysiology of heart failure is. I will show this is not the case. The handling of knowledge of the biological function of the heart in medical practice differs substantially from Boorse’s account. Highlights Studying the disease ‘heart failure’ shows that the heart's function is not obvious. Patients with heart failure may have normal, or even high, cardiac outputs. The definition, presentation and explanation of heart failure are surprising. How to measure cardiac dysfunction is still unsettled today. This is incompatible with Christopher Boorse's bio-statistical theory.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  8. [해외논문]   The unstable collection   SCOPUS

    Bud, Robert
    Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences v.68/69 ,pp. 70 - 72 , 2018 , 1369-8486 ,

    초록

    Abstract It is widely believed that the function of the heart is obviously to pump blood. I argue here that it is not. The definition, presentation, and pathophysiological explanation of heart failure, as well as the measurement of cardiac dysfunction, are not as might be expected if the function of the heart was simply to pump blood. Far from being obvious, many central features of heart failure are still being investigated. This has important implications for philosophical debates about health and disease. According to naturalists like Christopher Boorse, medical practice is founded on a well-established body of physiological knowledge, which provides the one true account of the biological function of organs. On this naturalistic view, there should only be one account of the pathophysiology of heart failure in use in medical practice. This account of the pathophysiology of heart failure should be well-established, as opposed to uncertain. Medics should use this physiological knowledge to inform their clinical practice, and not vice versa. Clinical considerations, such as whether patients respond to therapy, should not inform debates about what the pathophysiology of heart failure is. I will show this is not the case. The handling of knowledge of the biological function of the heart in medical practice differs substantially from Boorse’s account. Highlights Studying the disease ‘heart failure’ shows that the heart's function is not obvious. Patients with heart failure may have normal, or even high, cardiac outputs. The definition, presentation and explanation of heart failure are surprising. How to measure cardiac dysfunction is still unsettled today. This is incompatible with Christopher Boorse's bio-statistical theory.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  9. [해외논문]   Cold case reopened   SCOPUS

    Gliboff, Sander
    Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences v.68/69 ,pp. 73 - 77 , 2018 , 1369-8486 ,

    초록

    Abstract It is widely believed that the function of the heart is obviously to pump blood. I argue here that it is not. The definition, presentation, and pathophysiological explanation of heart failure, as well as the measurement of cardiac dysfunction, are not as might be expected if the function of the heart was simply to pump blood. Far from being obvious, many central features of heart failure are still being investigated. This has important implications for philosophical debates about health and disease. According to naturalists like Christopher Boorse, medical practice is founded on a well-established body of physiological knowledge, which provides the one true account of the biological function of organs. On this naturalistic view, there should only be one account of the pathophysiology of heart failure in use in medical practice. This account of the pathophysiology of heart failure should be well-established, as opposed to uncertain. Medics should use this physiological knowledge to inform their clinical practice, and not vice versa. Clinical considerations, such as whether patients respond to therapy, should not inform debates about what the pathophysiology of heart failure is. I will show this is not the case. The handling of knowledge of the biological function of the heart in medical practice differs substantially from Boorse’s account. Highlights Studying the disease ‘heart failure’ shows that the heart's function is not obvious. Patients with heart failure may have normal, or even high, cardiac outputs. The definition, presentation and explanation of heart failure are surprising. How to measure cardiac dysfunction is still unsettled today. This is incompatible with Christopher Boorse's bio-statistical theory.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  10. [해외논문]   Taming intellectual property in biotechnology   SCOPUS

    Yi, Doogab
    Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences v.68/69 ,pp. 78 - 82 , 2018 , 1369-8486 ,

    초록

    Abstract It is widely believed that the function of the heart is obviously to pump blood. I argue here that it is not. The definition, presentation, and pathophysiological explanation of heart failure, as well as the measurement of cardiac dysfunction, are not as might be expected if the function of the heart was simply to pump blood. Far from being obvious, many central features of heart failure are still being investigated. This has important implications for philosophical debates about health and disease. According to naturalists like Christopher Boorse, medical practice is founded on a well-established body of physiological knowledge, which provides the one true account of the biological function of organs. On this naturalistic view, there should only be one account of the pathophysiology of heart failure in use in medical practice. This account of the pathophysiology of heart failure should be well-established, as opposed to uncertain. Medics should use this physiological knowledge to inform their clinical practice, and not vice versa. Clinical considerations, such as whether patients respond to therapy, should not inform debates about what the pathophysiology of heart failure is. I will show this is not the case. The handling of knowledge of the biological function of the heart in medical practice differs substantially from Boorse’s account. Highlights Studying the disease ‘heart failure’ shows that the heart's function is not obvious. Patients with heart failure may have normal, or even high, cardiac outputs. The definition, presentation and explanation of heart failure are surprising. How to measure cardiac dysfunction is still unsettled today. This is incompatible with Christopher Boorse's bio-statistical theory.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지

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