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Astroparticle physics 13건

  1. [해외논문]   Editorial Board   SCI SCIE


    Astroparticle physics v.102 ,pp. ii - ii , 2018 , 0927-6505 ,

    초록

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  2. [해외논문]   Effect of the diffusion parameters on the observed γ-ray spectrum of sources and their contribution to the local all-electron spectrum: The EDGE code   SCI SCIE

    Ló (Corresponding author. ) , pez-Coto, R. (Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, Heidelberg, D 69029 Germany ) , Hahn, J. (Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA ) , BenZvi, S. (Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA ) , Dingus, B. (Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, Heidelberg, D 69029 Germany ) , Hinton, J. (Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA ) , Nisa, M.U. (Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, Heidelberg, D 69029 Germany ) , Parsons, R.D. (Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej im Henryka Niewodniczanskiego Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Krakow, Poland ) , Greus, F. Salesa (Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA ) , Zhang, H. (Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA) , Zhou, H.
    Astroparticle physics v.102 ,pp. 1 - 11 , 2018 , 0927-6505 ,

    초록

    Abstract The positron excess measured by PAMELA and AMS can only be explained if there is one or several sources injecting them. Moreover, at the highest energies, it requires the presence of nearby ( ∼ hundreds of parsecs) and middle age (maximum of ∼ hundreds of kyr) sources. Pulsars, as factories of electrons and positrons, are one of the proposed candidates to explain the origin of this excess. To calculate the contribution of these sources to the electron and positron flux at the Earth, we developed EDGE (Electron Diffusion and Gamma rays to the Earth), a code to treat the propagation of electrons and compute their diffusion from a central source with a flexible injection spectrum. Using this code, we can derive the source’s gamma-ray spectrum, spatial extension, the all-electron density in space, the electron and positron flux reaching the Earth and the positron fraction measured at the Earth. We present in this paper the foundations of the code and study how different parameters affect the gamma-ray spectrum of a source and the electron flux measured at the Earth. We also studied the effect of several approximations usually performed in these studies. This code has been used to derive the results of the positron flux measured at the Earth in [1].

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  3. [해외논문]   Direct measurement of neutrons induced in lead by cosmic muons at a shallow underground site   SCI SCIE

    Du, Q. (Corresponding author at: College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China. ) , Abt, I. (Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich 80805, Germany ) , Empl, A. (Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich 80805, Germany ) , Gooch, C. (Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich 80805, Germany ) , Kneissl, R. (Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich 80805, Germany ) , Lin, S.T. (College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China ) , Majorovits, B. (Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich 80805, Germany ) , Palermo, M. (Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich 80805, Germany ) , Schulz, O. (Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich 80805, Germany ) , Wang, L. (Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China ) , Yue, Q. (Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China ) , Zsigmond, A.J. (Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich 80805, Germany)
    Astroparticle physics v.102 ,pp. 12 - 24 , 2018 , 0927-6505 ,

    초록

    Abstract Neutron production in lead by cosmic muons has been studied with a Gadolinium doped liquid scintillator detector. The detector was installed next to the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment (MINIDEX), permanently located in the TUbingen shallow underground laboratory where the mean muon energy is approximately 7 GeV. The MINIDEX plastic scintillators were used to tag muons; the neutrons were detected through neutron capture and neutron-induced nuclear recoil signals in the liquid scintillator detector. Results on the rates of observed neutron captures and nuclear recoils are presented and compared to predictions from GEANT4-9.6 and GEANT4-10.3. The predicted rates are significantly too low for both versions of GEANT4. For neutron capture events, the observation exceeds the predictions by factors of 1.65 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.07 (syst.) and 2.58 ± 0.03 (stat.) ± 0.11 (syst.) for GEANT4-9.6 and GEANT4-10.3, respectively. For neutron nuclear recoil events, which require neutron energies above approximately 5 MeV, the factors are even larger, 2.22 ± 0.05 (stat.) ± 0.25 (syst.) and 3.76 ± 0.09 (stat.) ± 0.41 (syst.), respectively. Also presented is the first statistically significant measurement of the spectrum of neutrons induced by cosmic muons in lead between 5 and 40 MeV. It was obtained by unfolding the nuclear recoil spectrum. The observed neutron spectrum is harder than predicted by GEANT4. An investigation of the distribution of the time difference between muon tags and nuclear recoil signals confirms the validity of the unfolding procedure and shows that GEANT4 cannot properly describe the time distribution of nuclear recoil events. In general, the description of the data is worse for GEANT4-10.3 than for GEANT4-9.6.

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  4. [해외논문]   Energy spectrum of fast second order Fermi accelerators as sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays   SCI SCIE

    Winchen, Tobias (Corresponding author.) , Buitink, Stijn
    Astroparticle physics v.102 ,pp. 25 - 31 , 2018 , 0927-6505 ,

    초록

    Abstract Stochastic acceleration of cosmic rays in second order Fermi processes is usually considered too slow to reach ultra-high energies, except in specific cases. In this paper we present the energy spectrum obtained from second order Fermi acceleration in highly turbulent magnetic fields as e.g. found in the outskirts of AGN jets in situations where it can be sufficiently fast to accelerate particles to the highest observed energies. We parametrize the resulting non-power-law spectra and show that these can describe the cosmic ray energy spectrum and mass-composition data at the highest energies if propagation effects are taken into account.

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  5. [해외논문]   Analysis of gamma-ray families with halos and estimation of mass composition of primary cosmic radiation at energies 1–100 PeV   SCI SCIE

    Mukhamedshin, R.A. (Institute for Nuclear Research, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia ) , Puchkov, V.S. (P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia ) , Pyatovsky, S.E. (P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia ) , Shaulov, S.B. (P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
    Astroparticle physics v.102 ,pp. 32 - 38 , 2018 , 0927-6505 ,

    초록

    Abstract Characteristics of γ-ray families with halos observed with X-ray emulsion chambers at the Pamirs and data of EAS experiments are analyzed to estimate the summary fraction of proton and helium nuclei (p + He) in the primary cosmic radiation (PCR) at E 0 = 1–100 PeV. It is shown that the p + He fraction at E 0 = 10 PeV is (39 ± 6) %. The mass composition, estimated by EAS age, remains mixed at E 0 = 1–100 PeV with a tendency to become heavier with increasing energy.

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  6. [해외논문]   Production and propagation of ultra-high energy photons using CRPropa 3   SCI SCIE

    Heiter, C. (RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut A, Otto-Blumenthal-Str., Aachen 52056, Germany ) , Kuempel, D. (RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut A, Otto-Blumenthal-Str., Aachen 52056, Germany ) , Walz, D. (RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut A, Otto-Blumenthal-Str., Aachen 52056, Germany ) , Erdmann, M. (Corresponding author.)
    Astroparticle physics v.102 ,pp. 39 - 50 , 2018 , 0927-6505 ,

    초록

    Abstract In order to interpret cosmic ray observations, detailed modeling of propagation effects invoking all important messengers is necessary. We introduce a new photon production and propagation code as an inherent part of the CRPropa 3 software framework. By implementing additional photon production channels, which are important for energies below ∼ 10 18 eV, this code can be used for multi-messenger studies connecting the TeV and sub EeV energy regime and for interpreting models of ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources. We discuss the importance of the individual production channels and propagation effects and present example applications.

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  7. [해외논문]   Measurement of low-energy events due to 222Rn daughter contamination on the surface of a NaI(Tl) crystal   SCI SCIE

    Kim, K.W. (Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047, South Korea ) , Ha, C. (Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047, South Korea ) , Kim, N.Y. (Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047, South Korea ) , Kim, Y.D. (Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047, South Korea ) , Lee, H.S. (Corresponding author at: Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), 55 Expo-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34047, South Korea. ) , Park, B.J. (Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047, South Korea ) , Park, H.K. (Department of Accelerator Science, Korea University, Sejong 30019, South Korea)
    Astroparticle physics v.102 ,pp. 51 - 55 , 2018 , 0927-6505 ,

    초록

    It has been known that decays of daughter elements of Rn-222 on the surface of a detector cause significant background at energies below 10 keV. In particular Pb-210 and Po-210 decays on the crystal surface result in significant background for dark matter search experiments with Nal(Tl) crystals. In this report, measurement of Pb-210 and Po-210 decays on surfaces are obtained by using a Rn-222 contaminated crystal. Alpha decay events of Po-210 on the surface are measured by coincidence requirements of two attached crystals. Due to recoiling of Pb-206, rapid nuclear recoil events are observed. A mean time characterization demonstrates that Pb-206 recoil events can be statistically separated from those of sodium or iodine nuclear recoil events, as well as electron recoil events. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  8. [해외논문]   Response of photomultiplier tubes to xenon scintillation light   SCI SCIE

    Ló (Corresponding author.) , pez Paredes, B. , Araú , jo, H.M. , Froborg, F. , Marangou, N. , Olcina, I. , Sumner, T.J. , Taylor, R. , Tomá , s, A. , Vacheret, A.
    Astroparticle physics v.102 ,pp. 56 - 66 , 2018 , 0927-6505 ,

    초록

    Abstract We present the precision calibration of 35 Hamamatsu R11410-22 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with xenon scintillation light centred near 175 nm. This particular PMT variant was developed specifically for the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) dark matter experiment. A room-temperature xenon scintillation cell coupled to a vacuum cryostat was used to study the full-face PMT response at both room and low temperature ( ∼ −100 °C), in particular to determine the quantum efficiency (QE) and double photoelectron emission (DPE) probability in LZ operating conditions. For our sample with an average QE of (32.4 ± 2.9)% at room temperature, we find a relative improvement of (17.9 ± 5.2)% upon cooling (where uncertainty values refer to the sample standard deviation). The mean DPE probability in response to single vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons is (22.6 ± 2.0)% at low temperature; the DPE increase relative to room temperature, measured here for the first time, was (12.2 ± 3.9)%. Evidence of a small triple photoelectron emission probability ( ∼ 0.6%) has also been observed. Useful correlations are established between these parameters and the QE as measured by the manufacturer. The single VUV photon response is also measured for one ETEL D730/9829QB, a PMT with a more standard bialkali photocathode used in the ZEPLIN-III experiment, for which we obtained a cold DPE fraction of (9.1 ± 0.1)%. Hence, we confirm that this effect is not restricted to the low-temperature bialkali photocathode technology employed by Hamamatsu. This highlights the importance of considering this phenomenon in the interpretation of data from liquid xenon scintillation and electroluminescence detectors, and from many other optical measurements in this wavelength region.

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  9. [해외논문]   Performance of tracking stations of the underground cosmic-ray detector array EMMA   SCI SCIE

    Kuusiniemi, P. (Corresponding author. ) , Bezrukov, L. (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia ) , Dzaparova, I. (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia ) , Enqvist, T. (Kerttu Saalasti Institute and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland ) , Fynbo, H. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Denmark ) , Inzhechik, L. (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia ) , Joutsenvaara, J. (Kerttu Saalasti Institute and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland ) , Loo, K. (Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ) , Lubsandorzhiev, B. (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia ) , Petkov, V. (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia ) , Słupecki, M. (Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ) , Trzaska, W.H. (Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ) , Virkajä (Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ) , rvi, A. (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia ) , Volchenko, G. (Ins) , Volchenko, V. , Yanin, A.
    Astroparticle physics v.102 ,pp. 67 - 76 , 2018 , 0927-6505 ,

    초록

    Abstract The new cosmic-ray experiment EMMA operates at the depth of 75 m (50 GeV cutoff energy for vertical muons; 210 m.w.e.) in the PyhAsalmi mine, Finland. The underground infrastructure consists of a network of eleven stations equipped with multi-layer, position-sensitive detectors. EMMA is designed for cosmic-ray composition studies around the energy range of the knee, i.e., for primary particles with energies between 1 and 10 PeV. In order to yield significant new results EMMA must be able to record data in the full configuration for about three years. The key to the success of the experiment is the performance of its tracking stations. In this paper we describe the layout of EMMA and construction of the two main detector types used for muon tracking: the high-resolution drift chambers and fast scintillation detector arrays. We also show the measured tracking efficiencies, position and angular resolutions, and sensitivity of drift chambers to the air pressure. The measured angular muon distributions are well reproduced by CORSIKA simulations folded with the known density distribution of the overburden. The single muon flux at the depth of 210 m.w.e. is (1.29 ± 0.06) m − 2 s − 1 . This value was determined from the reconstructed tracks registered by a six-layer array of position-sensitive drift chambers.

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  10. [해외논문]   Limits on the flux of tau neutrinos from 1 PeV to 3 EeV with the MAGIC telescopes   SCI SCIE

    Ahnen, M.L. (ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland ) , Ansoldi, S. (Università) , Antonelli, L.A. (di Udine, and INFN Trieste, Udine, I-33100, Italy ) , Arcaro, C. (National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), Rome, I-00136, Italy ) , Baack, D. (Università) , Babić (di Padova and INFN, Padova, I-35131, Italy ) , , A. (Technische Universität Dortmund, Dortmund, D-44221, Germany ) , Banerjee, B. (Croatian MAGIC Consortium: University of Rijeka, Rijeka, 51000, Croatia ) , Bangale, P. (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Salt Lake, Sector-1, Kolkata, 700064, India ) , Barres de Almeida, U. (Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München, D-80805, Germany ) , Barrio, J.A. (Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München, D-80805, Germany ) , Gonzá (Unidad de Partículas y Cosmología (UPARCOS), Universidad Complutense, Madrid, E-28040, Spain ) , lez, J. Becerra (Institute de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Universidad de La Laguna, Dpto. Astrofísica, La Laguna, Tenerife, E-38206, Spain ) , Bednarek, W. (Department of Astrophysics, University of Łódź, Łódź, PL-90236, Poland ) , Bernardini, E. (Corres) , Berse, R.Ch. , Berti, A. , Bhattacharyya, W. , Biland, A. , Blanch, O. , Bonnoli, G. , Carosi, R. , Carosi, A. , Ceribella, G. , Chatterjee, A. , Colak, S.M. , Colin, P. , Colombo, E. , Contreras, J.L. , Cortina, J. , Covino, S. , Cumani, P. , Vela, P. Da , Dazzi, F. , Angelis, A. De , Lotto, B. De , Delfino, M. , Delgado, J. , Pierro, F. Di , Domí , nguez, A. , Prester, D. Dominis , Dorner, D. , Doro, M. , Einecke, S. , Elsaesser, D. , Fallah Ramazani, V. , Ferná , ndez-Barral, A. , Fidalgo, D. , Fonseca, M.V. , Font, L. , Fruck, C. , Galindo, D. , Garcí , a Ló , pez, R.J. , Garczarczyk, M. , Gaug, M. , Giammaria, P. , Godinović , , N. , Gó , ra, D. , Guberman, D. , Hadasch, D. , Hahn, A. , Hassan, T. , Hayashida, M. , Herrera, J. , Hose, J. , Hru
    Astroparticle physics v.102 ,pp. 77 - 88 , 2018 , 0927-6505 ,

    초록

    Abstract A search for tau neutrino induced showers with the MAGIC telescopes is presented. The MAGIC telescopes located at an altitude of 2200 m a.s.l. in the Canary Island of La Palma, can point towards the horizon or a few degrees below across an azimuthal range of about 80°. This provides a possibility to search for air showers induced by tau leptons arising from interactions of tau neutrinos in the Earth crust or the surrounding ocean. In this paper we show how such air showers can be discriminated from the background of very inclined hadronic showers by using Monte Carlo simulations. Taking into account the orography of the site, the point source acceptance and the event rates expected have been calculated for a sample of generic neutrino fluxes from photo-hadronic interactions in AGNs. The analysis of about 30 h of data taken towards the sea leads to a 90% C.L. point source limit for tau neutrinos in the energy range from 1.0 × 10 15 eV to 3.0 × 10 18 eV of about E ν τ 2 × ϕ ( E ν τ ) 10 − 4 GeV cm − 2 s − 1 for an assumed power-law neutrino spectrum with spectral index γ =&minus −2. However, with 300 h and in case of an optimistic neutrino flare model, limits of the level down to E ν τ 2 × ϕ ( E ν τ ) 10 − 6 GeV cm − 2 s − 1 can be expected.

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