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Food science and biotechnology 30건

  1. [국내논문]   Food-Grade Expression and Secretion Systems in Lactococcus   피인용횟수: 3

    Jeong, Do-Won (School of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Seoul National University ) , Hwang, Eun-Sun (School of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Seoul National University ) , Lee, Hyong-Joo (School of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Seoul National University)
    Food science and biotechnology v.15 no.4 = no.70 ,pp. 485 - 493 , 2006 , 1226-7708 ,

    초록

    Lactococcus species are noninvasive and nonpathogenic microorganisms that are widely used in industrial food fermentation and as well-known probiotics. They have been modified by traditional methods and genetic engineering to produce useful food-grade materials. The application of genetically modified lactococci in the food industry requires their genetic elements to be safe and stable from integration with endogenous food microorganisms. In addition, selection for antibiotic-resistance genes should be avoided. Several expression and secretion signals have been developed for the production and secretion of useful proteins in lactococci. Food-grade systems composed of genetic elements from lactic acid bacteria have been developed. Recent developments in this area have focused on food-grade selection markers, stabilization, and integration strategies, as well as approaches for controlled gene expression and secretion of foreign proteins. This paper reviews the expression and secretion signals available in lactococci and the development of food-grade markers, food-grade cloning vectors, and integrative food-grade systems.

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  2. [국내논문]   Sensory Difference Testing: The Problem of Overdispersion and the Use of Beta Binomial Statistical Analysis  

    Lee, Hye-Seong (Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California ) , O'Mahony, Michael (Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California)
    Food science and biotechnology v.15 no.4 = no.70 ,pp. 494 - 498 , 2006 , 1226-7708 ,

    초록

    An increase in variance (overdispersion) can occur when a binomial statistical analysis is applied to sensory difference test data in which replicate sensory evaluations (tastings) and multiple evaluators (judges) are combined to increase the sample size. Such a practice can cause extensive Type I errors, leading to serious misinterpretations of the data, especially when traditional simple binomial analysis is applied. Alternatively, the use of beta binomial analysis will circumvent the problem of overdispersion. This brief review discusses the uses and computation methodology of beta binomial analysis and in practice evidence for the occurrence of overdispersion.

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  3. [국내논문]   Clostridium botulinum and Its Control in Low-Acid Canned Foods  

    Reddy, N. Rukma (National Center for Food Safety and Technology / U.S. Food and Drug Administration ) , Skinner, Guy E. (National Center for Food Safety and Technology / U.S. Food and Drug Administration ) , Oh, Sang-Suk (Department of Food Science and Technology, Ewha Womans University)
    Food science and biotechnology v.15 no.4 = no.70 ,pp. 499 - 505 , 2006 , 1226-7708 ,

    초록

    Clostridium botulinum spores are widely distributed in nature. Type A and proteolytic type B bacteria produce heat-resistant spores that are primarily involved in most of the food-borne botulism outbreaks associated with low-acid canned foods. Food-borne botulism results from the consumption of food in which C. botulinum has grown and produced neurotoxin. Growth and toxin production of type A and proteolytic type B in canned foods can be prevented by the use of thermal sterilization alone or in combination with salt and nitrite. The hazardousness of C. botulinum in low-acid canned foods can also be reduced by preventing post-process contamination and introducing hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) practices during production. Effectiveness of non-thermal technologies such as high pressure processing with elevated process temperatures on inactivation of spores of C. botulinum will be discussed.

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  4. [국내논문]   Improved Astaxanthin Availability due to Drying and Rupturing of the Red Yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous   피인용횟수: 4

    An, Gil-Hwan (College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University ) , Song, Jae-Yeon (College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University ) , Kwak, Woong-Kwon (College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University ) , Lee, Bong-Duk (College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University ) , Song, Kyung-Bin (College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University ) , Choi, Jae-Eul (College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University)
    Food science and biotechnology v.15 no.4 = no.70 ,pp. 506 - 510 , 2006 , 1226-7708 ,

    초록

    To be used as a source of astaxanthin by animals, the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous needs to be dried and the cell wall ruptured. Spray-drying and flat-roller milling successfully prepared the yeast as a feed additive with little loss of astaxanthin. Spray-drying successfully dried the yeast with negligible decomposition of astaxanthin compared to drum-drying. By repeated milling with a flat-roller mill, astaxanthin extracted with ethanol increased from 0.01 to 1.31 mg astaxanthin/g yeast. This method did not decompose astaxanthin in contrast to chemical digestion of the cell wall. Flat-roller milling effectively flattened and cracked the dried cells. Astaxanthin in yeast prepared by spray-drying and flat-roller milling was well absorbed by animals. Specifically, when spray-dried and milled yeast was supplied in the feed (40 mg astaxanthin/kg feed), astaxanthin was successfully absorbed (1,500 ng/mL blood and 1,100 ng/g skin) by laying hens.

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  5. [국내논문]   Characteristic of Antibiotic Resistance of Foodborne Pathogens Adapted to Garlic, Allium sativum L.   피인용횟수: 2

    Moon, Bo-Youn (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungwon University ) , Lee, Eun-Jin (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungwon University ) , Park, Jong-Hyun (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungwon University)
    Food science and biotechnology v.15 no.4 = no.70 ,pp. 511 - 515 , 2006 , 1226-7708 ,

    초록

    Antibiotic resistance of foodborne pathogens adapted to garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) was determined in order to understand the relationship between antibiotic resistance and garlic. The Gram (-) strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium and the Gram (+) strains of Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus were subcultured consecutively in a garlic broth, and the surviving colonies on the agar were selected as the adapted strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for 15 antibiotics on the adapted strains were determined on Muller-Hinton Infusion agar. Adaptation to 1.3%(v/v) garlic juice increased MIC for vancomycin, aminoglycoside, and erythromycin on B. cereus, and for ampicillin and erythromycin on E. coli O157:H7. MIC of aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin on the adapted S. aureus increased. The adapted S. typhimurium was more resistant to penicillin and vancomycin than the non-treated strain. The adapted S. typhimurium and S. aureus lost their antibiotic resistance in non-garlic stress conditions. However, the adapted B. cereus was still resistant to erythromycin and vancomycin, and the adapted E. coli was also resistant to erythromycin. Antibacterial garlic might increase the antibiotic resistance of E. coli, B. cereus, S. aureus, and S. typhimurium and this resistance can continue even without the stress of garlic. Therefore, garlic as a food seasoning could influence the resistance of such pathogens to these antibiotics temporarily or permanently.

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  6. [국내논문]   Anti-Cariogenicity of 2-Hydroxyethyl ${\beta}$-Undecenate from Cumin (Cuminum cymium L.) Seed  

    Ryu, Il-Hwan (College of Life Science and Natural Resources, Wonkwang University ) , Kang, Enn-Ju (Department of Dental Hygienic, Wonkwang Health Science Collage ) , Lee, Kap-Sang (College of Life Science and Natural Resources, Wonkwang University)
    Food science and biotechnology v.15 no.4 = no.70 ,pp. 516 - 522 , 2006 , 1226-7708 ,

    초록

    This study was to assess the antimicrobial action of 2-hydroxyethyl ${\beta}$ -undecenate purified from cumin (Cuminum cymium L.) seed against the oral anaerobe, Streptococcus mutans, which is associated with gingivitis, specifically focusing on the catabolic effect. 2-Hydroxyethyl ${\beta}$ -undecenate inhibited the acid production and growth of S. mutans after 30 hr incubation at 50 mM. The glycolysis of S. mutans with glucose as substrate was similarly sensitive to 2-hydroxyethyl ${\beta}$ -undecenate, with 70% inhibition of glucose utilization at 5 mM and 90% inhibition at 50 mM. In addition, this substance potently inhibited the glycolysis enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADP); the phosphoenolpyruvate, glucose phosphotransferase (Glucose-PTS); and membrane ATPase, in a concentration dependent manner. The $IC_{50}$ values for inhibition of GADP, Glucose-PTS, and ATPase were 1, 0.9, and 5 mM, respectively. Furthermore, 2-hydroxyethyl ${\beta}$ -undecenate inhibited teeth calcium ion elution by 80% at 50 mM. These results suggest that 2-hydroxyethyl ${\beta}$ -undecenate is a potent inhibitor of carbohydrate metabolism and the growth of S. mutans JC-2.

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  7. [국내논문]   Heat and High-Pressure Treatments on In Vitro Digestibility and Allergenicity of Beef Extract   피인용횟수: 3

    Han, Gi-Dong (Department of Food Technology and Food Service Industry, Yeungnam University)
    Food science and biotechnology v.15 no.4 = no.70 ,pp. 523 - 528 , 2006 , 1226-7708 ,

    초록

    The digestibility of heat- or high-pres sure-treated beef extracts was evaluated with an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model and each sample also underwent immune assay to detect its antigenicity with the sera of beef allergic patients. Heat treatment of the beef extracts considerably decreased their digestibility, whereas high-pressure treatment at 200 MPa improved their digestibility compared with the control, but the difference was not significant. The digestibility of the high pressure-treated beef extract was generally higher than that of the heat-treated samples. Depending on the degree of digestion, the degree of antigenicity of the main beef allergens decreased. On the basis of these results, we hypothesized that the allergenicity of beef could be eliminated if the allergenic proteins are sufficiently digested in the digestive organ, leading to the suggestion that the digestibility of allergenic proteins must be improved in food processing. In conclusion, high-pressure processing is a more acceptable food processing technique for beef considering its digestibility.

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  8. [국내논문]   Combined Effects of Postharvest Calcium Chloride and Heat Treatment on the Quality Characteristics of Fresh-Cut Tsugaru Apple   피인용횟수: 1

    Seo, Ja-Young (Korea Food Research Institute ) , Kim, Eun-Joeng (Korea Food Research Institute ) , Hong, Seok-In (Korea Food Research Institute ) , Yoon, Hye-Hyun (Department of Culinary Science and Arts, Kyung Hee University ) , Kim, Dong-Man (Korea Food Research Institute)
    Food science and biotechnology v.15 no.4 = no.70 ,pp. 529 - 533 , 2006 , 1226-7708 ,

    초록

    To produce fresh-cut fruit products of high quality, the combined effects of postharvest calcium and heat treatment on Tsugaru apple were examined. Whole fruits were treated for 20 min at three different conditions: dipping in 3% $CaCl_2$ solution at $45^{\circ}C$ or ambient temperature, or in heated water at $45^{\circ}C$ . The calcium content of the apples dipped in $CaCl_2$ solution at $45^{\circ}C$ was higher than that of the control and the non-heated calcium dipping. The fruits with calcium and heat treatment showed the same pattern of respiration rates as the control did during storage. The browning degree of the apple slices increased to approximately 3% after one-day storage, but no significant difference was observed between the treated and untreated apples. The fruits with $CaCl_2$ solution dipping at $45^{\circ}C$ had higher firmness than those with calcium dipping or heat treatment alone.

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  9. [국내논문]   Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death by Red Pericarp Rice (Jakwangchalbyeo) Extracts   피인용횟수: 7

    Chi, Hee-Youn (Department of Applied Life Science, College of Life and Environment Science, Konkuk University ) , Lee, Chang-Ho (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University ) , Kim, Kwang-Ho (Department of Applied Life Science, College of Life and Environment Science, Konkuk University ) , Kim, Sun-Lim (National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration (RDA) ) , Chung, Ill-Min (Department of Applied Life Science, College of Life and Environment Science, Konkuk University)
    Food science and biotechnology v.15 no.4 = no.70 ,pp. 534 - 542 , 2006 , 1226-7708 ,

    초록

    The effects of ethanol fractions of three different rice grain extracts, Jakwangchalbyeo, Hwasunchalbyeo, and Ilpumbyeo, on apoptotic cell death in the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line were investigated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] cell viability assay. One hundred mg/mL Jakwangchalbyeo extract significantly reduced cell viability to 69.5, 57.2, and 46.1% within 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses were also performed to characterize the cell death pattern caused by treatment with the rice grain extracts. Apoptotic cell death was clearly observed with time after treatment with the Jakwangchalbyeo extract. In Western blotting analysis, degradation of the 116 kDa poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) molecule was observed with concomitant formation of an 89 kDa product 24, 48, and 72 hr after treating cells with the Jakwangchalbyeo extract. This indicates that an apoptotic process caused cell death in these cells. In conclusion, red-pericarp Jakwangchalbyeo extract induced apoptotic cell death in H4IIE cells to a larger extent than the other rice extracts.

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  10. [국내논문]   Effect of Oligosaccharides and Inulin on the Growth and Viability of Bifidobacteria in Skim Milk   피인용횟수: 4

    Choi, Nam-Young (Department of Food Science and Technology, Dongguk University ) , Shin, Han-Seung (Department of Food Science and Technology, Dongguk University)
    Food science and biotechnology v.15 no.4 = no.70 ,pp. 543 - 548 , 2006 , 1226-7708 ,

    초록

    The effects of food grade fructooligosaccharide (FOS), isomaltooligosaccharide (MOS), galactooligosaccharide (GOS), and inulin on the growth of five strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk were investigated. Their effect on culture viability during refrigerated storage was also determined. FOS showed the highest growth-promoting activity for all bifidobacteria except for Bifidobacterium bifidum. Growth rates of B. adolescentis, B. breve, and B. infantis were stimulated by oligosaccharides and inulin, whereas B. longum growth was stimulated by the oligosaccharides but not inulin. In contrast, growth of B. bifidum was enhanced only by inulin. Both acetic and lactic acid production by Bifidobacterium spp. was also enhanced in the presence of 5.0% oligosaccharides. The viability of bifidobacteria cultured with oligosaccharides and inulin, particularly with FOS, was significantly higher than control cultures after 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The utilization of oligosaccharides is likely to enhance the growth rate, activity, and viability of bifidobacteria.

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