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Austral ecology 13건

  1. [해외논문]   At high densities kangaroo grazing can reduce biodiversity  


    Austral ecology v.43 no.5 ,pp. e11 - e13 , 2018 , 1442-9985 ,

    초록

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Issue Information  


    Austral ecology v.43 no.5 ,pp. 489 - 489 , 2018 , 1442-9985 ,

    초록

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Modelling the responses of Australian subtropical rainforest birds to changes in environmental conditions along elevational gradients   SCI SCIE

    Leach, Elliot C. (Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, Qld, 4111, Australia) , Burwell, Chris J. (Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, Qld, 4111, Australia) , Jones, Darryl N. (Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, Qld, 4111, Australia) , Kitching, Roger L. (Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, Qld, 4111, Australia)
    Austral ecology v.43 no.5 ,pp. 490 - 501 , 2018 , 1442-9985 ,

    초록

    Abstract Montane birds face significant threats from a warming climate, so determining the environmental factors that most strongly influence the composition of such assemblages is of critical conservation importance. Changes in temperature and other environmental conditions along elevational gradients are known to influence the species richness and abundance of bird assemblages occupying mountains. However, the role of species‐specific traits in mediating the responses of bird species to changing conditions remains poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether different bird species responded differently to changing environmental conditions in a relatively understudied biodiversity hotspot in subtropical rainforest on the east coast of Australia. We examined patterns in avian species richness and abundance along two rainforest elevational gradients using monthly point counts between September 2015 and October 2016. Environmental data on temperature, wetness, canopy cover and canopy height were collected simultaneously, and trait information on body size and feeding guild membership for each bird species was obtained from the Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. We used a generalized linear mixed modelling (GLMM) framework to determine the drivers of species richness and abundance and to quantify species’ trait–environment interactions. GLMMs indicated that temperature alone was significantly positively correlated with species richness and abundance. Species richness declined with increasing elevation. When modelling abundance, we found that feeding guild membership did not significantly affect species’ responses to environmental conditions. In contrast, the predicted abundance of a species was found to depend on its body size, due to significant positive interactions between this trait, temperature and canopy cover. Our findings indicate that large‐bodied birds are likely to increase in abundance more rapidly than small‐bodied birds with continued climatic warming. These results underline the importance of temperature as a driving factor of avian community assembly along environmental gradients.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Reptiles and frogs use most land cover types as habitat in a fine‐grained agricultural landscape   SCI SCIE

    Pulsford, Stephanie A. (Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, 2601, Australia) , Barton, Philip S. (Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, 2601, Australia) , Driscoll, Don A. (Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia) , Kay, Geoffrey M. (Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, 2601, Australia) , Lindenmayer, David B. (Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, 2601, Australia)
    Austral ecology v.43 no.5 ,pp. 502 - 513 , 2018 , 1442-9985 ,

    초록

    Abstract Agricultural landscapes comprise much of the earth's terrestrial surface. However, knowledge about how animals use and move through these landscapes is limited, especially for small and cryptic taxa, such as reptiles and amphibians. We aimed to understand the influence of land use on reptile and frog movement in a fine‐grained grazing landscape. We surveyed reptiles and frogs using pitfall and funnel traps in transects located in five land use types: 1) woodland remnants, 2) grazed pastures, 3) coarse woody debris added to grazed pastures, 4) fences in grazed pastures and 5) linear plantings within grazed pastures. We found that the different land cover types influenced the types and distances moved by different species and groups of species. Reptiles moved both within, and out of, grazed paddocks more than they did in woodland remnants. In contrast, frogs exhibited varying movement behaviours. The smooth toadlet ( Uperoleia laevigata ) moved more often and longer distances within remnants than within paddocks. The spotted marsh frog ( Limnodynastes tasmaniensis) moved out of grazed pastures more than out of pastures with coarse woody debris added or fences and were never recaptured in plantings. We found that most recaptured reptiles and frogs (76.3%) did not move between trapping arrays, which added to evidence that they perceived most of the land cover types as habitat. We suggest that even simple fences may provide conduits for movement in the agricultural landscape for frogs. Otherwise, most reptile and frog species used all land cover types as habitat, though of varying quality. Reptiles appeared to perceive the woodland remnants as the highest quality habitat. This landscape is fine‐grained which may facilitate movement and persistence due to high heterogeneity in vegetation cover over short distances. Therefore, intensification and increasing the size of human land use may have negative impacts on these taxa.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지
  5. [해외논문]   Differential seedling regeneration patterns across forest–grassland ecotones in two tropical treeline species (Polylepis spp.)   SCI SCIE

    Morales, Laura V. (Department of Plant Sciences and Graduate Group in Ecology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, 95616, USA) , Sevillano‐ (Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA) , Rios, Cristian Steven (Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden) , Fick, Stephen (Department of Plant Sciences and Graduate Group in Ecology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, 95616, USA) , Young, Truman P.
    Austral ecology v.43 no.5 ,pp. 514 - 526 , 2018 , 1442-9985 ,

    초록

    Abstract Successful forest expansion into grassland can be limited by seed dispersal and adverse conditions for tree seedlings in the grassland environment. In the high‐elevation Andes, human‐induced fragmentation has exacerbated the patchy distribution of Polylepis forests, threatening their unique biological communities and spurring restoration interest. Studies of Polylepis forest extent in Peru suggest that forest borders have remained stable over the past century despite decreasing anthropogenic disturbance, suggesting that tree seedling recruitment is being limited in the open grassland habitat. We studied natural seedling dispersion patterns of Polylepis sericea and Polylepis weberbaueri (Rosaceae) at forest–grassland edges across a range of environmental conditions to examine seedling recruitment and colonization of grasslands in Huascaran National Park (Peru). Using data from 2367 seedlings found in 48 forest–grassland edge plots (15 m × 15 m) at forest patches between 3900–4500 masl, we employed generalized mixed modelling to identify the significant associations of seedling densities with environmental covariates. In addition, we compared these associations to patterns of adult presence on the landscape. Seedling densities were associated with a combination of variables varying within (distance to forest edge) and among (elevation and dry season solar irradiation) plots across the landscape. For both species, seedling densities decreased with increasing distance away from the forest in a manner consistent with short‐distance seed dispersal by wind. Our results suggest that such short‐distance dispersal may slow forest expansion, but that there also appear to be substantial post‐dispersal limitations to seedling establishment in the grassland. Polylepis sericea densities decreased with elevation, while P. weberbaueri increased with elevation and decreased with solar irradiation. Associations of adult presence with elevation and solar irradiation mirrored those of seedling densities. Management of areas with forest patches dominated by these species should consider these differences in their environmental tolerances, particularly during species selection and zonation for reforestation.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [해외논문]   Sugarcane and Eucalyptus plantation equally limit the movement of two forest‐dependent understory bird species   SCI SCIE

    Giubbina, Marina Furlan (Laboratório de Ecologia Espacial e Conservação (LEEC), Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP –) , Martensen, Alexandre Camargo (Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, Av.24‐A, 1515, Bela Vista, Rio Claro, 13506‐900, Brasil ) , Ribeiro, Milton Cezar (Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
    Austral ecology v.43 no.5 ,pp. 527 - 533 , 2018 , 1442-9985 ,

    초록

    Abstract Habitat fragmentation results in landscape configuration, which affects the species that inhabit it. As a consequence, natural habitat is replaced by different anthropogenic plantation types (e.g. pasture, agriculture, forestry plantations and urban areas). Anthropogenic plantations are important for biodiversity maintenance because some species or functional groups can use it as a complementary habitat. However, depending on plantation permeability, it can act as a barrier to the movement of organisms between habitat patches, such as forest fragments, reducing functional connectivity for many species. Anthropogenic plantations are becoming the most common land use and cover type in the Anthropocene and biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes requires information on how different plantation types affect the capacity of the species to move through the landscape. In this study, we evaluated the influence of the type and structure of plantations on the movement of two forest‐dependent understory bird species – plain antvireo ( Dysithamnus mentalis ) and flavescent warbler ( Myiothlyps flaveola ) – within a highly fragmented landscape of Atlantic Forest hotspot. Knowing that forestry plantation is assumed to be more permeable to dependent forest bird species than open ones, we selected six study areas containing a forest fragment and surrounding plantation: three with sugarcane plantation and three with Eucalyptus sp. plantation. We used playback calls to stimulate the birds to leave forest fragments and traverse the plantations. Control trials were also carried out inside the forest fragments to compare the distances crossed. We observed that individuals moved longer distances inside forest than between plantation types, which demonstrate that plantations do constrict the movements of both species. The two plantation types equally impeded the movements of the species, suggesting the opposite of the general assumption that forestry plantations are more permeable. Our results indicate that, for generalist species, plantation type does not matter, but its presence negatively impacts movement of these bird species. We highlight that plantations have negative influences on the movements of common bird species, and discuss why this is important when setting conservation priorities.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  7. [해외논문]   Ticks on snakes: The ecological correlates of ectoparasite infection in free‐ranging snakes in tropical Australia   SCI SCIE

    Natusch, Daniel J. D. (School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006, Australia) , Lyons, Jessica A. (Resource Evaluation and Development Limited, Frogs Hollow, New South Wales, Australia) , Dubey, Sylvain (Hintermann & Weber, Montreux, Switzerland) , Shine, Richard (School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006, Australia)
    Austral ecology v.43 no.5 ,pp. 534 - 546 , 2018 , 1442-9985 ,

    초록

    Abstract Parasites profoundly influence the lives of their hosts, yet the dynamics of host–parasite interactions are poorly understood – especially in reptiles. We examined the ecological correlates of parasitism by ixodid ticks in an assemblage of 10 snake species in tropical Australia. In total, we recorded 3803 ticks on 1841 individual snakes of six species (no ticks were found on the other species). Molecular analyses confirmed the tropical reptile tick ( Amblyomma fimbriatum : Ixodidae) to be the most common snake tick at our study site, with inter‐ and intraspecific variation in tick prevalence and intensity. Tick attachment sites were random on most snake species, but both male and female ticks congregated on the heads of the colubrid snake Boiga irregularis and the python Simalia amethistina . In these same species, tick loads were higher on snakes captured in woodland than in rainforest. Females of two python species ( Aspidites melanocephalus and S. amethistina ) had higher tick loads than did males. In B. irregularis , individuals captured in the dry season had higher tick loads than those captured in the wet season. In most parasitized snake species, larger individuals had greater tick loads. Data from snake recaptures confirmed individual tick burdens frequently varied, with little correlation between tick loads on the same snake at successive captures (except for B. irregularis ). Finally, tick intensity was not correlated with (and thus, presumably did not influence) the body condition of any snake species in our study. Use of specific types of refuge sites may strongly influence tick loads on snakes in this system.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지
  8. [해외논문]   Consequences of dispersal limitation and habitat fragmentation for the Brazilian heart‐tongued frogs (Phyllodytes spp.)   SCI SCIE

    Mageski, Marcio Marques (Programa de Pós‐Graduação em Ecologia de Ecossistemas, Universidade Vila Velha, 29102‐920, Vila Velha, ES, Brazil) , Varela, Sara (Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Berlin, Germany) , Roper, James Joseph (Programa de Pós‐Graduação em Ecologia de Ecossistemas, Universidade Vila Velha, 29102‐920, Vila Velha, ES, Brazil)
    Austral ecology v.43 no.5 ,pp. 547 - 557 , 2018 , 1442-9985 ,

    초록

    Abstract Poorly known species may be cryptically endangered, especially when they inhabit fragmented and threatened habitats. Heart‐tongued frogs (genus Phyllodytes , family Hylidae, Lophyohylinae) comprise 17 species of poorly known frogs that have obligatory associations with tank bromeliads. The distributions of all species are restricted to a small, extremely fragmented, region of Atlantic Forest in eastern Brazil. We model climate and tank bromeliad distributions to better understand frog distribution limits. Using records from several sources for frogs and bromeliads with climate data from WorldClim, we modelled the distribution of Phyllodytes using maximum entropy. We compared climate and altitude within the distribution and nearby to test how climate may limit distribution. Climate together with bromeliad distributions provided the best model and predicted the smallest suitable area for Phyllodytes that was larger than that occupied, from the state of ParaIba in the north to Rio Grande do Sul in the south. Phyllodytes occurs in lower elevations that are warmer, wetter and less variable than the surrounding regions where it does not occur, and dispersal is apparently limited by the surrounding, inhospitable, region. Dispersal limitation and habitat fragmentation have relegated Phyllodytes to many very small habitat fragments. With many species in this genus being known from a single or few samples, this unfortunate combination of limitation and fragmentation suggests that some or all species of Phyllodytes may be threatened with extinction, especially if habitat fragmentation continues at its present pace in eastern Brazil.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지
  9. [해외논문]   The role of frugivorous birds in fruit removal and seed germination of the invasive alien Cotoneaster franchetii in central Argentina   SCI SCIE

    Dí (Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV‐CONICET), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Vélez Sársfield 1611, C.C. 495, 5000, Córdoba, Argentina) , az Vé (Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV‐CONICET), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Vélez Sársfield 1611, C.C. 495, 5000, Córdoba, Argentina) , lez, Marí (Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados (CSIC‐UIB), Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain) , a C. (Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV‐CONICET), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Vélez Sársfield 1611, C.C. 495, 5000, Córdoba, Argentina) , Sé , rsic, Alicia N. , Traveset, Anna , Paiaro, Valeria
    Austral ecology v.43 no.5 ,pp. 558 - 566 , 2018 , 1442-9985 ,

    초록

    Abstract Many invasive plant species have fleshy fruits that are eaten by native frugivorous birds which disperse their seeds and may facilitate their germination, playing an important role in plant invasion success. The fleshy‐fruited shrub Cotoneaster franchetii (Rosaceae) is an important invasive alien in the mountainous regions of central Argentina. To determine the role of avian frugivorous in fruit removal of this species, we conducted a frugivore exclusion experiment including bagged and unbagged branches in 75 plants of C. franchetii . At the end of the dispersal period, we compared the percentage of missing fruits (removed by birds + naturally dropped) in unbagged branches with the percentage of naturally dropped fruits in bagged branches. To assess whether any mechanism acting on seeds during their passage through bird guts (de‐inhibition by pulp removal and/or seed scarification) affects seed germination of this species, we compared percentage and speed of germination among seeds obtained from faeces of the native frugivorous Turdus chiguanco , from manually de‐pulped fruits, and from intact fruits. The percentage of missing fruits per shrub in unbagged branches was significantly higher than the percentage of naturally dropped fruits in bagged branches, suggesting that frugivorous birds play an important role in fruit removal of C. franchetii in the study area. Seeds from bird faeces and from manually de‐pulped fruits germinated in higher percentage and faster than seeds from intact fruits. Germination percentage and speed of seeds from manually de‐pulped fruits were significantly higher than those of gut‐passed seeds. These results indicate that T. chiguanco increases and accelerates seed germination of C. franchetii through pulp removal, but not through seed scarification. Overall, our findings indicate that native frugivorous birds facilitate the dispersal and germination success of C. franchetii , likely playing an important role in its invasion throughout the mountainous region of central Argentina.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   Germination response of common annual and perennial forbs to heat shock and smoke treatments in the Chaco Serrano, central Argentina   SCI SCIE

    Arcamone, Julieta R. (Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET‐Universidad Nacional de Córdoba) and FCEFyN, P.O. Box 495, 5000, Córdoba, Argentina) , Jaureguiberry, Pedro (Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET‐Universidad Nacional de Córdoba) and FCEFyN, P.O. Box 495, 5000, Córdoba, Argentina)
    Austral ecology v.43 no.5 ,pp. 567 - 577 , 2018 , 1442-9985 ,

    초록

    Abstract Fire is a key ecological factor affecting plant dynamics. In the last few decades, fire occurrence in the Chaco region has increased noticeably, challenging the adaptive capacity of plants to regenerate after a fire. Broad‐leaved forb species have been much less studied than woody and graminoids, although they are an important component of fire dynamics. Here we analysed the germination response to heat shock of 70 and 110°C, smoke and their combination in 10 broad‐leaved herbaceous species frequently occurring in the Chaco Serrano of COrdoba province, central Argentina, including five annual ( Bidens subalternans , Conyza bonariensis , Schkuhria pinnata , Tagetes minuta and Zinnia peruviana ) and five perennial species ( Borreria eryngioides , Sida rhombifolia , Solidago chilensis , Taraxacum officinale and Verbena litoralis ). We also compared the response of annual versus perennial species. Six species had highest germination when treated with heat and smoke combined, whereas two had lowest germination under this treatment, indicating synergistic and antagonistic interaction of these factors respectively. Most of the species tolerated heat shock (i.e. germination was similar to that in control treatment), whereas others had higher germination in response to heat shock, especially under the moderate 70°C treatment. Germination was higher than control (i.e. no heat and no smoke) after smoke treatment in four species. Perennial species showed higher average germination than annuals in both heat treatments and in the control. Annual species had higher average germination for all treatments involving smoke. The high variability observed at the species level, and the limited number of species studied calls for precaution in interpreting and extrapolating results. Nevertheless, our study shows a general positive response of both perennial and annual species to fire cues, suggesting an advantage of these species for colonizing post‐fire environments, and being favoured under scenarios of increasingly frequent low‐to‐medium intensity fires.

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