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Learning and motivation 4건

  1. [해외논문]   Duration of wheel-running reinforcement: Effects on reinforcement value and motivation in free-feeding and food-deprived rats   SSCI

    Belke, Terry W. (Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada ) , Pierce, W. David (University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada ) , Cathcart, Ian E.A. (Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada)
    Learning and motivation v.60 ,pp. 1 - 9 , 2017 , 0023-9690 ,

    초록

    Abstract Ten (pair housed) female Long-Evans rats were exposed to 5s, 30s, and 90s wheel-running reinforcement durations on a response-initiated variable interval 20s schedule as food deprivation was manipulated. On free feeding, never-deprived rats showed low wheel running and lever-pressing rates with long postreinforcement pauses (PRPs) for the 5-s reinforcement duration. Subsequently, when food deprived (Deprived 1), rats showed no effect of reinforcement duration on all measures. Under a second deprived condition (Deprived 2) with the rats maintained in single cages, there was no effect of housing (single vs. paired). When data from both deprivation assessments (Deprived 1 and Deprived 2) were combined, rats showed lower wheel running and overall lever-pressing rates with longer pauses on the 90-s duration compared to 30s and 5s bouts of wheel activity. The pattern of results challenges a reinforcement value interpretation, but is consistent with shifts in the motivational basis of wheel running. On free feeding, never-deprived rats were intrinsically motivated to run on wheels and operant lever-pressing was maintained at moderate rates by the automatic reinforcement of wheel running, except at the short reinforcement duration (5s). When food deprived, motivation became food-related and rats showed high rates of lever pressing even at the shortest duration. The weak effects under initial deprivation (Deprived 1) raise questions about equivalence between wheel-running reinforcement duration and reinforcement magnitude using food reinforcement. Highlights Wheel-running reinforcement duration effect on operant responding. Prior results with deprived rats show shorter duration of higher value. Current results with never deprived rats show shorter duration of lower value. Possible explanation – motivational basis of wheel running differs. Wheel-running reinforcement duration ≠ reinforcement magnitude.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Working memory decline in normal aging: Memory load and representational demands affect performance   SSCI

    Klencklen, Giuliana (Corresponding author at: Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Development, Institute of Psychology, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.) , Banta Lavenex, Pamela , Brandner, Catherine , Lavenex, Pierre
    Learning and motivation v.60 ,pp. 10 - 22 , 2017 , 0023-9690 ,

    초록

    Abstract Normal aging is associated with numerous changes in cognitive capacities, including an overall decline in working memory performance. Nevertheless, whereas some neuropsychological evaluations have suggested that visuo-spatial working memory may exhibit a greater age-related decline than verbal working memory, other assessments made in real-world tasks, or in tasks with higher memory loads, have suggested that age-related declines in working memory performance may be similar for spatial, visual and verbal information. Here, we tested young (20–30 years) and older (64–73 years) healthy adults in real-world laboratory memory tasks designed to assess the impact of memory load (one, two or three items to remember) on age-related changes in working memory performance for color and allocentric spatial information. We used several measures to characterize working memory performance: the total number of choices to find the goal(s), a measure of overall task performance; the number of correct choices before erring, an estimate of memory capacity; and the number of errorless trials, a measure of perfect memory. All measures revealed: (1) an overall decline of working memory performance with age; (2) a greater age-related decline of working memory performance with higher memory loads, regardless of the type of information; (3) no evidence that spatial working memory was more affected by age than color working memory. We discuss how age-related declines in working memory performance may be most influenced by memory load, the representational demands of the task and its dependence on hippocampal function, and not by the type of information to be remembered.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  3. [해외논문]   Geometric vs. non-geometric information. Explaining male rats' selective preferences in a navigation task   SSCI

    Mesa, Virginia (Corresponding author at: Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Psicologia, Institut de Neurociències, Departament de Cognició, Desenvolupament i Psicologia de l'Educació, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 171, 08035-Barcelona, Spain.) , Osorio, Alba , Ballesta, Sandra , Marimon, Josep M. , Chamizo, V.D.
    Learning and motivation v.60 ,pp. 23 - 33 , 2017 , 0023-9690 ,

    초록

    Abstract In three experiments, male rats were trained to find a hidden platform in a Morris pool which was completely surrounded by circular curtains (black in Experiments 1 and 2, and beige in Experiment 3). Experiment 1, a preliminary experiment, addressed single landmark learning and established that a plain shiny white cylinder and a striped cylinder were of different salience. Then in Experiments 2 and 3 rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool with the platform defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool (either the white or the striped cylinder) and a particular corner of the pool (as in RodrIguez, Torres, Mackintosh, & Chamizo, 2010, Experiment 2). Following acquisition, a test trial without the platform pitted these two sources of information against one another. In Experiment 2, rats spent more time in the area of the pool that corresponded to the cylinder when it was white, whereas they spent more time in the distinctive corner of the pool when the cylinder was striped. However, in Experiment 3 (with beige curtains in order to reduce the salience of the white cylinder) all rats spent more time in the distinctive corner of the pool. Subsequent tests with the two cues (landmark and pool-geometry) presented individually showed that all rats in the two experiments had learned to find the platform using the two sources of information. In addition, a clear geometry advantage was found in both groups of rats tested in Experiment 3. This study shows for the first time that changing the salience of a landmark can strongly affect the preference for a geometric cue over a landmark cue in male rats.

    원문보기

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  4. [해외논문]   Differential reinforcement of low rate responding in social skills training   SSCI

    Gadaire, Dana M. (Corresponding author at: The Scott Center for Autism Treatment, 150 W. University Blvd, Melbourne, FL 32903, United States.) , Marshall, Genevieve , Brissett, Elanor
    Learning and motivation v.60 ,pp. 34 - 40 , 2017 , 0023-9690 ,

    초록

    Abstract Social skills are unique in that excessive rates of responding may be just as socially undesirable as deficient responding. Furthermore, most social skills training programs utilize group formats such that one intervention (e.g., differential reinforcement) is applied universally to children with varied behavioral repertoires. Following exposure to continuous schedules of reinforcement for pro-social behaviors, we observed excessive levels of peer-directed compliments and physical contact. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of a full-session differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL) schedule in maintaining socially appropriate levels of these interactions. We used descriptive observations of typically developing children to establish normative criteria for the DRL schedules. Results indicated full-session DRL schedules were effective in maintaining participants’ responding at levels below criterion levels without wholly eliminating responding.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지

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