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한국농화학회지 = Journal of the Korean society of Agricul... 14건

  1. [국내논문]   Mercury Adsorption of Chemically Modified Polysaccharide from Methylobacterium organophilum  

    Lee, Jung-Gul (Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology ) , Kim, Sang-Yong (Tong Yang Confectionery, R&D Center ) , Oh, Deok-Kun (Department of Food Science and Technology, Woosuk University ) , Kim, Jung-Hoe (Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology)
    한국농화학회지 = Journal of the Korean society of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology v.41 no.4 ,pp. 209 - 212 , 1998 , 0368-2897 ,

    초록

    Methylan, a polysaccharide produced from Methylobacterium organophilum, was chemically modified by adding diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) group to the backbone of methylan. The structure of DEAE-methylan was determined by measuring its nitrogen content obtained from an elemental analysis. From the analysis of mass spectrum, the DEAE group in DEAE-methylan was also confirmed by determining diethylaminoethene as a separate form of DEAE. Mercury adsorption of DEAE-methylan was higher than that of native methylan. This fact was valid for a variety of pH, reaction times, metal concentrations, and polysaccharide concentrations. In particular, native methylan and DEAE-methylan adsorbed 16% (w/w) and 18% (w/w) for mercury after 30 min at pH 7, respectively. The increase in mercury adsorption of DEAE-methylan may be resulted from mercury adsorption by the lone pair electron of nitrogen atom in DEAE group.

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  2. [국내논문]   A Spectrophotometric Assay for Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Activity  

    Lee, Sung-Eun (Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California ) , Choi, Won-Sik (Department of Life Science, Soonchunhyang University ) , Park, Byeoung-Soo (Department of Life Science, Soonchunhyang University ) , Lee, Byung-Ho (Department of Life Science, Soonchunhyang University)
    한국농화학회지 = Journal of the Korean society of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology v.41 no.4 ,pp. 213 - 217 , 1998 , 0368-2897 ,

    초록

    An assay for cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity by determination of the products of organophosphate oxidation via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was described. Extracts from strains of Oryzaephilus surinamensis selected for resistance to chlorpyrifos-methyl (QVOS 102), fenitrothion (VOS F) and malathion (VOS 3), and a standard susceptible strain VOS 48, were incubated with an organophosphate in the presence of a NADPH-generating system and acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition of the acetylchoinesterase activity was converted to manooxygenase activity using standard curves for the inhibition of acetylcholiesterase by chlorpyrifos-methyl-oxon, fenitrooxon and malaoxan. Activity was detectable in VOS 48 and was present at different increased levels with the different organophosphates in the three resistant strains, suggesting that different forms of P450 might be involved in organophosphate oxidation in these insects. The assays were carried out using crude insect homogenates and much smaller samples of insect material than the standard aldrin to dieldrin assay. It should be possible to use the method for determination of monooxygenase activity in single insert.

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  3. [국내논문]   Inhibition of Farnesyl Protein Transferase by Ortho-substituted Cinnamaldehyde Derivatives  

    Sung, Nack-Do (Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Chungnam National University ) , Kwon, Byoung-Mog (Protein Regulator RU, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology, KIST ) , Lim, Chi-Hwan (Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Chungnam National University ) , Cho, Young-Kwon (Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Chungnam National University)
    한국농화학회지 = Journal of the Korean society of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology v.41 no.4 ,pp. 218 - 221 , 1998 , 0368-2897 ,

    초록

    Various cinnamaldehyde derivatives were synthesized and their inhibition activity $(pI_{50})$ of farnesyl protein transferase (FPTase) was measured to examine the structure-activity relationships (SAR) on the basis that FPTase was inhibited by ortho-hydroxycinnamaldehyde derived from extracts of the bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume. The ortho-substituents on the phenyl backbone of cinnamaldehyde showed higher activity than those with meta- and para-substituents, and the side chain required unsaturated aldehyde. In particular, 2-chlorocinnamaldehyde, 5 showed the highest inhibition activity on the FPTase among them and its inhibition activity $(pI_{50})$ value was 4.45.

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  4. [국내논문]   Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv. Caloona) Nodules  

    Lee, Hoi-Seon (Division of Applied Biology & Chemistry and the Research Center for New Bio-Materials in Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University ) , Ahn, Young-Joon (Division of Applied Biology & Chemistry and the Research Center for New Bio-Materials in Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University)
    한국농화학회지 = Journal of the Korean society of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology v.41 no.4 ,pp. 222 - 227 , 1998 , 0368-2897 ,

    초록

    The activities of enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism have been determinated in the host cytosolic and bacteroid fractions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) nodules formed with B. japonicum I 16 and in roots of nodulated cowpeas. The host cytosolic fraction of the nodules contained the enzymes of glycolytic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway, whereas the bacteroids had only limited capacity for carbohydrate metabolism and appeared to be insufficient for the complete glycolytic pathway as well as starch synthesis and degradation. In a time-course study, using plants grown in a glasshouse, the acetylene-reducing activity (ARA) of the nodules increased in parallel with the total N content of plants and protein of the nodules until approximately 8 weeks after planting. Subsequently, the weight and size of the nodules and the weight of the plants continued to increase, but there was a sharp decrease in the ARA and the total N content of the plants.

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  5. [국내논문]   Alteration in Pyridine Nucleotide Status in Cells as an Adaptive Response to Water Stress in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedlings  

    Boo, Yong-Chool (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University ) , Jung, Jin (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University)
    한국농화학회지 = Journal of the Korean society of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology v.41 no.4 ,pp. 228 - 234 , 1998 , 0368-2897 ,

    초록

    An adaptive measure of photosynthetic cells to a condition identified with a reduction of cellular energy charge, caused by water deficit-induced impairment of photosynthetic ATP production, was investigated using hydroponically cultured rice seedlings. Water stress treatment of the seedlings resulted in a marked decrease in cellular ATP level, a significant increase in the content of NAD(H) and concurrent decrease in that of NADP(H) in shoots, which accompanied a decrease in the activity of NAD kinase (EC 2.7.1.23) that specifically converts NAD(H) to NADP(H). The decline in the enzyme activity was particularly evident in the $Ca^{2+}/calmodulin-dependent$ kinase, the major form of NAD kinase in plants, whereas the level of active calmodulin remained unchanged during water deficit. The ratio of $NADP^+$ to NADPH was maintained nearly constant and no increases were seen in the level of $H_2O_2$ and the activities of $superoxide/H_2O_2-detoxifying$ enzymes in shoots stress-treated for two days. Based on these results, it may be suggested that rice plants take a strategy to cope with an adverse situation of limited photophosphorylation created by water deficit in that cells facilitate ATP production through glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation; in doing so, rice cells suppress NAD kinase activity, consequently up-sizing the NAD(H) pool at the expense of the NADP(H) pool. Several parameters associated with the stress symptoms are also of implicative that there is no overproduction of superoxide radical or the related active oxygen at least in rice seedlings.

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  6. [국내논문]   Purification and Characterization of Myristoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Thioesterase from Iris tectorum  

    Kang, Han-Chul (Grape Experiment Center, Rural Development Administration ) , Cho, Kang-Jin (Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rural Development Administration ) , Hwang, Young-Soo (Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rural Development Administration)
    한국농화학회지 = Journal of the Korean society of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology v.41 no.4 ,pp. 235 - 240 , 1998 , 0368-2897 ,

    초록

    The myristoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) specific thioesterase from Iris tectorum was purified to a considerable homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme was eluted with a considerable stability by double-gradients using Triton X-100 and low ionic KCl or Na-phosphate through DEAE-52, Octyl-Sepharose, Q-Sepharose, and hydroxyapatite chromatoraphy. SDS-PAGE analysis showed a single band of 39 kDa. The native molecular weight was estimated to be 82 kDa by Sephacryl S-200 chromatography, indicating that the enzyme was a dimer. The thioesterase showed a chain-length specificity to myristoyl-ACP in preference to other-ACPs. The enzyme activity decreased by 1.0 mM myristate to about 27% of the original activity, whereas the remaining activity with decanoate was about 90%. The purified thioesterase was inhibited by myristoyl-CoA more than by myristate, suggesting that the myristoyl-AGP thiolesterase might be controlled by myristic acid and/or a subsequent product myristoyl-CoA. In addition, some biochemical characteristics of the enzyme were described.

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  7. [국내논문]   Effect of Organic Acids on Cr(III) Oxidation by Mn-oxide  

    Chung, Jong-Bae (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College of Natural Resources, Taegu University)
    한국농화학회지 = Journal of the Korean society of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology v.41 no.4 ,pp. 241 - 245 , 1998 , 0368-2897 ,

    초록

    Two oxidation states of chromium commonly occur in natural soil/water systems, Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The oxidized form, Cr(VI), exists as the chromate ion and is more mobile and toxic than Cr(III). Therefore oxidation of Cr(III) by various Mn-oxides in natural systems is a very important environmental concern. Organic substances can inhibit the Cr(III) oxidation by binding, Cr(III) strongly and also by dissolving Mn-oxides. Most of Cr(III) oxidation studies were carried out using in vitro systems without organic substances which exist in natural soil/water systems. In this study effect of organic acids - oxalate and pyruvate - on Cr(III) oxidation by $birnessite({\delta}-MnO_2)$ was examined. The two organic acids significantly inhibited Cr(III) oxidation by birnessite. Oxalate showed more significant inhibition than pyruvate. As solution pH was lowered in the range of 3.0 to 5.0, the Cr(III) oxidation was more strongly depressed. Addition of more organic acids reduced the Cr(III) oxidation mare extensively. Different inhibition effects by the organic acids could be due to their ability of reductive dissolution of Mn-oxides and/or Cr(III) binding. Organic acids dissolved Mn-oxide during the Cr(III) oxidation by the oxide, Dissolution by oxalic acid was much greater than that by pyruvate, and the dissolution was more extensive at lower pH. Inhibition of Cr(III) oxidation was parallel to the dissolution of Mn-oxide by organic acids. Although the effect of Cr(III) binding by organic acids on Cr(III) oxidation is not known yet, Mn-oxide dissolution by organic acids could be a main reason for the inhibition of Cr(III) oxidation by Mn-oxide in presence of organic acids. Thus oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) by various Mn-oxides in natural systems could be much less than the oxidation estimated by in vitro studies with only Cr(III) and Mn-oxides.

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  8. [국내논문]   Cytotoxic Activity of Leguminous Seed Extracts against Human Tumor Cell Lines  

    Lee, Hoi-Seon (Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, and the Research Center for New Bio-Materials in Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University ) , Lee, Jeong-Ock (Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology ) , Lee, Hee-Kwon (National Institute of Sericulture and Entomology, Rural Development Administration ) , Oh, Jong-Hwan (Forestry Research Institute ) , Ahn, Young-Joon (Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, and the Research Center for New Bio-Materials in Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University)
    한국농화학회지 = Journal of the Korean society of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology v.41 no.4 ,pp. 246 - 250 , 1998 , 0368-2897 ,

    초록

    The cytotoxic activity of methanol extracts of 25 leguminous seeds in vitro was evaluated by sulforhodamine B assay, using the five human solid A549 lung, SK-OV-2 ovarian, SK-MEL-2 melanoma, XF-498 CNS and HCT-15 colon tumor cell lines. The responses varied with both cell line arid leguminous seed used. Extracts of Canavalia lineata and Glycine soja revealed potent cytotoxic activity against A549 arid SK-MEL-2 cell lines. Moderate activity was observed in the extracts of Cassia obtusifolia and Glyeine max var. chungtae, and C. lineata and Vigna angulasis against SK-MEL-2 and HCT-15 cell lines, respectively. The other seed extracts were ineffective against model tumor cell lines. Because of their potent cytotoxic activities, the activity of each solvent fraction from C. lineata and G. soja was determined and the potent activity was produced from their chloroform fractions. As a naturally occurring therapeutic agent, leguminous seeds described could be useful for developing new types of anti-tumor agents.

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  9. [국내논문]   Development of Analytical Methods for Insect Moulting Hormone $({\beta}-Ecdysone)$ by HPLC/UV Using Boronate Derivatization  

    Shim, Jae-Han (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Chonnam National University ) , Kim, In-Seon (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Chonnam National University ) , Lim, Kye-Taek (Division of Protein Engineering, Institute of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University)
    한국농화학회지 = Journal of the Korean society of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology v.41 no.4 ,pp. 251 - 256 , 1998 , 0368-2897 ,

    초록

    The analytical method of ${\beta}-ecdysone$ , the insect moulting hormone, by high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with UV detector was developed using boronic ester derivatization and applied to the extracts of Ajuga iva, Silene otites and Schistocerca egg. Derivatization of yield with methyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-boronate was completed under mild conditions with 20-hydroxyecdysone. The conversion ratios of boronate were estimated to be 70% in methylboronic acid, 89% in butylboronic acid and 93% in phenylboronic acid. Phenylboronate showed a high sensitivity and demonstrated an effective separation on HPLC. The optimum temperature and reaction time for derivative formation were $25^{\circ}C$ and 20 min. respectively. ${\beta}-Ecdysone$ was effectively identified in extracts of Ajuga iva, Silene otites and Schistocerca egg by the HPLC method.

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  10. [국내논문]   Identification of Anthocyanins from Pigmented Rice Seeds  

    Lee, Hun-Joong (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, and The Research Center for New Biomaterials in Agriculture, Seoul National University ) , Oh, Se-Kwan (Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration ) , Choi, Hae-Chune (Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration ) , Kim, Soo-Un (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, and The Research Center for New Biomaterials in Agriculture, Seoul National University)
    한국농화학회지 = Journal of the Korean society of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology v.41 no.4 ,pp. 257 - 260 , 1998 , 0368-2897 ,

    초록

    Anthocyanins pigments were isolated from the pigmented rice seeds (cultivar Killimhuk-mi) by a combination of Sephadex LH-20 and preparative high performance liquid chromatographies. Four anthocyanins were identified by their chromatographic, spectral and chemical properties. The major pigment was cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-oxalyl-glucoside was found in the rice for the first time.

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