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Macromolecular research 12건

  1. [국내논문]   Hydrolytic Stability of Sulfonic Acid-Containing Polyimides for Fuel Cell Membranes   피인용횟수: 2

    Kim Hyoung-Juhn (Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Litt Morton H. (Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University ) , Shin Eun-Mi (Cable Research Lab., LG Cable Ltd. ) , Nam Sang Yong (Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University)
    Macromolecular research v.12 no.6 ,pp. 545 - 552 , 2004 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    The long-term stability of sulfonic acid-containing polyimides has been investigated. The hydrolytic degradation of homopolyimide and the block copolyimide comprising $27\;mol\%$ of 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine and $9\;mol\%$ of m-phenylenediamine (BTFMB27mPl0[7/(3+1)]), was quantified through viscosity measurements and FT-IR spectroscopic analyses. The viscosity decrease with respect to time and the degradation rate were similar. The degrees of degradation with respect to time under ambient conditions and at elevated temperature in water were monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy. A new absorption peak was observed at $1786\;cm^{-1},$ which we corresponds to the presence of anhydride end groups formed by hydrolytic scission of the imide rings.

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  2. [국내논문]   Effects of Surface Modification of the Membrane in the Ultrafiltration of Waste Water  

    Cho Dong Lyun (Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering and The Engineering Research Institute, Chonnam National University ) , Kim Sung-Hyun (Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering and The Engineering Research Institute, Chonnam National University ) , Huh Yang Il (Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering and The Engineering Research Institute, Chonnam National University ) , Kim Doman (Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering and The Engineering Research Institute, Chonnam National University ) , Cho Sung Yong (Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonnam National University ) , Kim Byung-Hoon (The Engineering Research Institute, Chonnam National University)
    Macromolecular research v.12 no.6 ,pp. 553 - 558 , 2004 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    An ultrafiltration membrane (polyethersulfone, PM 10) was surface-modified by treating it with low-tem­perature plasmas of oxygen, acrylic acid (AA), acetylene, diaminocyolohexane (DACH), and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO). The effects that these modifications have on the filtration efficiency of a membrane in waste water treat­ment were investigated. The oxygen, AA, and DACH plasma-treated membranes became more hydrophilic. The water contact angles ranged from $10^{\circ}\;to\;55^{\circ}$ depending on the type of plasma and the treatment conditions. The oxygen plasma-treated membranes displayed a higher initial flux $(312-429\%),$ but lower rejection $(6-91\%),$ than did an untreated membrane. The AA plasma-treated membranes displayed lower or higher initial flux $(42-156\%),$ depending upon the treatment conditions, but higher rejection $(224-295\%)$ in all cases. The DACH plasma-treated membranes displayed lower initial flux. All of them, especially the AA plasma-treated membrane, displayed improved fouling resistance with either a slower or no flux decline. Acetylene and HMDSO plasma-treated membranes became more hydrophobic and displayed both lower initial flux and lower fouling resistance.

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  3. [국내논문]   Ultrasonic Velocity and Absorption Measurements in an Aqueous Solution of Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)   피인용횟수: 1

    Rae Jong-Rim (Department of Physics, Daegu University)
    Macromolecular research v.12 no.6 ,pp. 559 - 563 , 2004 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    Both the ultrasonic velocity at 3 MHz and the absorption coefficient in the frequency range from 0.2 to 2 MHz were measured for aqueous solutions of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) over the concentration range from 5 to $25\%$ (by weight). The pulse echo overlap method was employed to measure the ultrasonic velocity over the temperature range from 10 to $90^{\circ}C;$ the high-Q ultrasonic resonator method was used for the measurement of the absorption coefficient at $20^{\circ}C.$ The velocities exhibited their maximum values at ca. 55, 59, 63, 67, and $71^{\circ}C.$ for the 25, 20, 15, 10, and $5\%$ solutions, respectively. The velocity increased with respect to the poly(sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate) concentration at a given temperature. A study of the concentration dependence of the both the relaxation frequency and amplitude indicated that the relaxation at ca. 200 kHz is related to structural fluctuations of the polymer molecules, such as the segmental motions of the polymer chains and that the relaxation at ca. 1 MHz resulted from the proton transfer reactions of the oxygen sites of $SO_3.$ Both the absorption and the shear viscosity increase upon increasing the polymer concentration, but they decrease upon increasing the temperature.

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  4. [국내논문]   Electroactive Polymer Composites as a Tactile Sensor for Biomedical Applications   피인용횟수: 3

    Kim GeunHyung (Samsung Electronics Co., LTD.)
    Macromolecular research v.12 no.6 ,pp. 564 - 572 , 2004 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    Modem applications could benefit from multifunctional materials having anisotropic optical, electrical, thermal, or mechanical properties, especially when coupled with locally controlled distribution of the directional response. Such materials are difficult to engineer by conventional methods, but the electric field-aided technology presented herein is able to locally tailor electroactive composites. Applying an electric field to a polymer in its liquid state allows the orientation of chain- or fiber-like inclusions or phases from what was originally an isotropic material. Such composites can be formed from liquid solutions, melts, or mixtures of pre-polymers and cross-linking agents. Upon curing, a 'created composite' results; it consists of these 'pseudofibers' embedded in a matrix. One can also create oriented composites from embedded spheres, flakes, or fiber-like shapes in a liquid plastic. Orientation of the externally applied electric field defines the orientation of the field-aided self-assembled composites. The strength and duration of exposure of the electric field control the degree of anisotropy created. Results of electromechanical testing of these modified materials, which are relevant to sensing and actuation applications, are presented. The materials' micro/nanostructures were analyzed using microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

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  5. [국내논문]   Preparation of a Hydrophobized Chitosan Oligosaccharide for Application as an Efficient Gene Carrier  

    Son Sohee (Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University ) , Chae Su Young (Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University ) , Choi Changyong (Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University ) , Kim Myung-Yul (Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University ) , Ngugen Vu Giang (Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University ) , Jang Mi-Kyeong (Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University ) , Nah Jae-Woon (Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University ) , Kweon Jung Keoo (Department of Bioenvironmental & Chemical Engineering, Chosun College of Science and Technology)
    Macromolecular research v.12 no.6 ,pp. 573 - 580 , 2004 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    To prepare chitosan-based polymeric amphiphiles that can form nanosized core-shell structures (nanopar­ticles) in aqueous milieu, chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs) were modified chemically with hydrophobic cholesterol groups. The physicochemical properties of the hydrophobized COSs (COSCs) were investigated by using dynamic light scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy. The feasibility of applying the COSCs to biomedical applications was investigated by introducing them into a gene delivery system. The COSCs formed nanosized self-aggregates in aqueous environments. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of the COSC nanoparticles were closely related to the molecular weights of the COSs and the number of hydrophobic groups per COS chain. The critical aggregation concentration values decreased upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the COSCs. The COSCs effi­ciently condensed plasmid DNA into nanosized ion-complexes, in contrast to the effect of the unmodified COSs. An investigation of gene condensation, performed using a gel retardation assay, revealed that $COS6(M_n=6,040 Da)$ containing $5\%$ of cholesteryl chloroformate (COS6C5) formed a stable DNA complex at a COS6C5/DNA weight ratio of 2. In contrast, COS6, the unmodified COS, failed to form a stable COS/DNA complex even at an elevated weight ratio of 8. Furthermore, the COS6C5/DNA complex enhanced the in vitro transfection efficiency on Human embryonic kidney 293 cells by over 100 and 3 times those of COS6 and poly(L-lysine), respectively. Therefore, hydrophobized chitosan oligosaccharide can be considered as an efficient gene carrier for gene delivery systems.

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  6. [국내논문]   Mono- and Multi-layer Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Maleimide Polymers Possessing Nonlinear Optical-Active Side Chains   피인용횟수: 2

    Yoon Kuk Ro (Department of Chemisty, Sogang University ) , Lee Hoosung (Department of Chemisty, Sogang University ) , Rhee Bum Ku (Department of Physics, Sogang University ) , Jung Changsoo (Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology)
    Macromolecular research v.12 no.6 ,pp. 581 - 585 , 2004 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    A copolymer P[OSA-MI] was synthesized by copolymerization of its corresponding monomers, N-phenyl maleimide (MI) and 2-octen-l-ylsuccinic anhydride (OSA). The polymer (poly[2-[1-(2,5-dioxo-l-phenylpyrroli­din-3-ylmethyl)heptyl]-succinic acid 4-(2- $\{$ ethyl-[4-(4-nitrophen-ylazo)phenyl]amino $\}$ ethyl)ester]) P[DR1MA-MI] was obtained from the reaction of P[OSA-MI] with 2-[4-(4-nitrophenylazo)-N-ethylphenylamino] ethanol (DR1). A stable monolayer of P[DRIMA-MI] was formed by spreading the solution of the polymer in chloroform. In Y-type Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films prepared using this Langmuir-Blodgett method, the second harmonic waves generated from adjacent mono layers canceled each other out. In X-and Z-type LB films, the second harmonic intensity increased upon increasing the number of monolayers, but this increase was somewhat smaller than predicted by the square law. This phenomenon is due to defects or imperfect alignment of the dipoles in the LB film. The generation of second harmonic waves from Y-type LB films having an even number of mono layers supports this argument. The degree of imperfection seemed to increase as the number of layers increased. The second-order nonlinear optical properties of spin-cast films of these polymers were also measured. The largest second harmonic coefficient of the poled P[DRIMA-MI] film coated on a glass plate was 19 pm/V.

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  7. [국내논문]   Radiolytic Immobilization of Lipase on Poly(glycidyl methacrylate )-grafted Polyethylene Microbeads  

    Choi Seong-Ho (Department of Chemistry, Hannam University ) , Lee Kwang-Pill (Department of Chemistry Graduate School, Kyungpook National University ) , Kang Hee-Dong (Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University ) , Park Hyun Gyu (Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology (KAIS))
    Macromolecular research v.12 no.6 ,pp. 586 - 592 , 2004 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-grafted polyethylene microbeads (POPM) presenting epoxy groups were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate on the polyethylene microbead. The obtained POPM was characterized by IR spectroscopic, X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analyses. Furthermore, the abundance of epoxy groups on the POPM was determined by titration and elemental analysis after amination. The epoxy group content was calculated to be in the range 0.29-0.34 mmol/g when using the titration method, but in the range 0.53-0.59 mmol./g when using elemental analysis (EA) after amination. The lipase was immobilized to the epoxy groups of the POPM under various experi­mental conditions, including changes to the pH and the epoxy group content. The activity of the lipase-immobilized POPM was in the range from 160 to 500 unit/mg-min. The activity of the lipase-immobilized POPM increased upon increasing the epoxy group content. The lipase-immobilized POPM was characterized additionally by SEM, elec­tron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and EA.

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  8. [국내논문]   Preparation and Characterization of Electroactive Acrylic Polymer- Platinum Composites  

    Jeong Han Mo (Department of Chemistry, University of Ulsan ) , Woo Sung Min (Department of Chemistry, University of Ulsan ) , Kim Hyun Soo (Department of Chemistry, University of Ulsan ) , Kim Byung Kyu (Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University ) , Bang Ju Hyun (Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University ) , Lee Sukmin (Korea Orthopedics & Rehabilitation Engineering Center (KOREC) ) , Mun Mu Seong (Korea Orthopedics & Rehabilitation Engineering Center (KOREC))
    Macromolecular research v.12 no.6 ,pp. 593 - 597 , 2004 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    A new ionomeric polymer-metal composite (IPMC) was prepared using a cast membrane of acrylic copolymer, which was synthesized by radical copolymerization of fluoroalkyl acrylate and acrylic acid (AA). To examine its performance as a new electroactive polymer, the current and displacement responses to a step voltage applied across the IPMC were measured. The largest responses were observed when the AA content in the copolymer was $10.6\;wt\%$ .

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  9. [국내논문]   Gas Separation Membranes Containing $Re_6Se_8(MeCN)_6^{2+}$ Cluster-Supported Cobalt-Porphyrin Complexes  

    Park Su Mi (Department of Applied Chemistry, Sejong University ) , Won Jongok (Department of Applied Chemistry, Sejong University ) , Lee Myung-Jin (Center for Facilitated Transport Membranes, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Kang Yong Soo (Center for Facilitated Transport Membranes, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Kim Se-Hye (Department of Chemistry, Ewha Wommans University ) , Kim Youngmee (Department of Chemistry, Ewha Wommans University ) , Kim Sung-Jin (Department of Chemistry, Ewha Wommans University)
    Macromolecular research v.12 no.6 ,pp. 598 - 603 , 2004 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    Cellulose nitrate (CN) composite membranes, containing cobalt porphyrin (CoP) complexes self-assembled within nanometer-sized rhenium clusters (ReCoP), have been prepared and their oxygen and nitrogen gas perme­abilities were analyzed. The solubility of ReCoP and the characteristics of the corresponding composite membranes were analyzed using a Cahn microbalance, FT-IR spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry. The nitrogen permeability through the CN composite membranes decreased upon addition of ReCoP and CoP, which implies that the presence of these oxygen carrier complexes affects the structure of the polymer matrix. The oxygen permeability through the composite membranes containing small quantities of ReCoP decreased, but it increased upon increasing the concentration. The oxygen gas transport was affected by the matrix at low ReCoP concentrations, but higher concentrations of ReCoP increased the oxygen permeability as a result of its reversible and specific interactions with oxygen, effectively realizing ReCoP carrier-mediated oxygen transport.

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  10. [국내논문]   Synthesis and Characterization of ${\omega}-Sulfonated$ Polystyrene-stabilized Cadmium Sulfide Nanoclusters  

    Jin Yong Hyun (Polymer Hybrids Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Kim Jungahn (Polymer Hybrids Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Im Seung Soon (Department of Textile Engineering, Hanyang University)
    Macromolecular research v.12 no.6 ,pp. 604 - 607 , 2004 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    We report an important and useful method for preparing ${\omega}-sulfonated$ polystyrene-stabilized cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoclusters. The ${\omega}-sulfonated$ polystyrene $(M_n\;=\;5000\;g/mol)$ was prepared successfully through chain-end sulfonation of poly(styryl)lithium using 1,3-propanesultone; the resulting polymer was used successfully as a polymeric stabilizing agent for the preparation of semiconductor CdS nanoclusters by reduction of cadmium acetate in a mixture of toluene and methanol (9:1, v/v). The nanoclusters that formed were characterized by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UVN is spectroscopic analysis. The ${\omega}-sulfonated$ polystyrene-stabilized CdS nanoclusters synthesized in this study exhibited the cubic phase (zinc-blende phase) structure in the range of 2-8 nm.

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