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Macromolecular research 16건

  1. [국내논문]   Self-Assembled Nanoparticles of Bile Acid-Modified Glycol Chitosans and Their Applications for Cancer Therapy   피인용횟수: 2

    Kim Kwangmeyung (Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, KIST Regional Laboratory in Advanced Medical Technology Cluster for Diagnosis & Prediction ) , Kim Jong-Ho (Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, KIST Regional Laboratory in Advanced Medical Technology Cluster for Diagnosis & Prediction ) , Kim Sungwon (Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Chung Hesson (Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Choi Kuiwon (Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Kwon Ick Chan (Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, KIST Regional Laboratory in Advanced Medical Technology Cluster for Diagnosis & Prediction ) , Park Jae Hyung (Department of Advanced Polymer and Fiber Materials, College of Environment and Applied Chemistry, Kyung Hee University ) , Kim Yoo-Shin (Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Advanced Medical Technology Cluster for Diagnosis & Prediction ) , Park Rang-Won (Department of Biochemistry,) , Kim In-San , Jeong Seo Young
    Macromolecular research v.13 no.3 ,pp. 167 - 175 , 2005 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    This review explores recent works involving the use of the self-assembled nanoparticles of bile acid-modified glycol chitosans (BGCs) as a new drug carrier for cancer therapy. BGC nanoparticles were produced by chemically grafting different bile acids through the use of l-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC). The precise control of the size, structure, and hydrophobicity of the various BGC nanoparticles could be achieved by grafting different amounts of bile acids. The BGC nanoparticles so produced formed nanoparticles ranging in size from 210 to 850 nm in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH=7.4), which exhibited substantially lower critical aggregation concentrations (0.038-0.260 mg/mL) than those of other low-molecular-weight surfactants, indicating that they possess high thermodynamic stability. The SOC nanoparticles could encapsulate small molecular peptides and hydrophobic anticancer drugs with a high loading efficiency and release them in a sustained manner. This review also highlights the biodistribution of the BGC nanoparticles, in order to demonstrate their accumulation in the tumor tissue, by utilizing the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The different approaches used to optimize the delivery of drugs to treat cancer are also described in the last section.

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  2. [국내논문]   Preparation of Nanoporous Poly(methyl silsesquioxane) Thin Films Derived from Chemically Linked Carbon Cages  

    Cha Bong Jun (School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Nano Systems Institute-National Core Research Center, Seoul National University ) , Kim Suhan (School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Nano Systems Institute-National Core Research Center, Seoul National University ) , Char Kookheon (School of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Nano Systems Institute-National Core Research Center, Seoul National University)
    Macromolecular research v.13 no.3 ,pp. 176 - 179 , 2005 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    This review explores recent works involving the use of the self-assembled nanoparticles of bile acid-modified glycol chitosans (BGCs) as a new drug carrier for cancer therapy. BGC nanoparticles were produced by chemically grafting different bile acids through the use of l-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC). The precise control of the size, structure, and hydrophobicity of the various BGC nanoparticles could be achieved by grafting different amounts of bile acids. The BGC nanoparticles so produced formed nanoparticles ranging in size from 210 to 850 nm in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH=7.4), which exhibited substantially lower critical aggregation concentrations (0.038-0.260 mg/mL) than those of other low-molecular-weight surfactants, indicating that they possess high thermodynamic stability. The SOC nanoparticles could encapsulate small molecular peptides and hydrophobic anticancer drugs with a high loading efficiency and release them in a sustained manner. This review also highlights the biodistribution of the BGC nanoparticles, in order to demonstrate their accumulation in the tumor tissue, by utilizing the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The different approaches used to optimize the delivery of drugs to treat cancer are also described in the last section.

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  3. [국내논문]   Photochromic Behavior and Its Stability of a New Bifunctional Dye Composed of Spirobenzopyran and a Cinnamoyl Moiety  

    Shen Kaihua (I State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Institute of Natural Sciences, Kyung Hee University ) , Kim Jae Hong (Institute of Natural Sciences, Kyung Hee University ) , Kim Go Woon (Department of Chemistry, Korea University ) , Cho Min Ju (Department of Chemistry, Korea University ) , Lee Sang Kyu (Department of Chemistry, Korea University ) , Choi Dong Hoon (Department of Chemistry, Korea University)
    Macromolecular research v.13 no.3 ,pp. 180 - 186 , 2005 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    A novel bifunctional dye composed of spirobenzopyran and a cinnamoyl moiety was prepared and its photochromic behavior under the illumination of monochromatic UV light was investigated. This colorless bifunctional dye exhibits typical photochromism in both the film and in solution, through the structural and geometrical transformation from spirobenzopyran to merocyanine accompanied by a photocrosslinking reaction between the cinnamoyl moieties. Two kinds of photochemical reaction were selectively achieved by irradiation with monochromatic UV light at wavelengths of 275 and 365 nm, respectively. The effect of the selective photochemical reaction on the photochromism of the dye and its decaying behavior was investigated.

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  4. [국내논문]   The Effect of Camphorsulfonic Acid in TEMPO-Mediated Bulk and Dispersion Polymerization of Styrene   피인용횟수: 1

    Oh Sejin (Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University ) , Kim Gijung (Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University ) , Ko Narae (Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University ) , Shim Sang Eun (Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University ) , Choe Soonja (Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University)
    Macromolecular research v.13 no.3 ,pp. 187 - 193 , 2005 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    The TEMPO-mediated living free-radical bulk and dispersion polymerization of styrene in the presence of camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) are investigated. In the absence of TEMPO and CSA in the bulk polymerization, a conversion of $93\%$ is achieved within 6 hr of polymerization. When only TEMPO is involved in this polymerization, the pseudo-living free-radical polymerization is well achieved, however, the polymerization rate becomes quite slow. This retardation of the polymerization rate is solved by the addition of a low concentration of CSA. In the TEMPO-mediated dispersion polymerization in the presence of CSA, similar trends in the conversion, kinetics, and PDI are observed as those observed in the case of bulk polymerization. When only TEMPO is used in the dispersion polymerization, the resulting particle size becomes quite broad, due to the prolonged polymerization time. However, when a 1.0 molar ratio of CSA to TEMPO is added to the TEMPO-mediated dispersion polymerization, fairly mono-disperse PS microspheres having an average size of 5.83 $\mu$ m and a CV of 3.4 $\%$ are successfully obtained, due to the narrow molecular weight distribution of the intermediate oligomers and shortening of the polymerization time. This result indicates that the addition of CSA to the TEMPO-mediated bulk and the use of dispersion polymerization not only shortens the polymerization time, but also greatly improves the uniformity of the microspheres.

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  5. [국내논문]   New Functional Conductive Polymer Composites Containing Nickel Coated Carbon Black Reinforced Phenolic Resin  

    Farid El-Tantawy (Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University ) , Nadia Abdel Aal (Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University ) , Yong Kiel Sung (Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Dongguk University)
    Macromolecular research v.13 no.3 ,pp. 194 - 205 , 2005 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    The network structure of Ni-coated carbon black (NCB) composites filled with phenolic resin was investigated by means of using scanning electron microscopy, viscosity, interfacial tension, shrinkability, Flory-Huggins interaction parameters, and swelling index. The electrical properties of the composites have been characterized by measurement of the specific conductivity as a function of temperature. Additionally, the variation of conductivity with temperature for the composites has been reported and analyzed in terms of the dilution volume fraction, relative volume expansion, and barrier heights energy. The thermal stability of phenolic-NCB composites has been also studied by means of the voltage cycle processes. The experimental data of EMI wave shielding were analyzed and compared with theoretical calculations. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, hardness and elongation at break (EB) of NCB-phenolic resin composites were also investigated.

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  6. [국내논문]   Effect of Carbon Nanotube Pre-treatment on Dispersion and Electrical Properties of Melt Mixed Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes / Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composites   피인용횟수: 5

    Park Won Ki (Department of Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University ) , Kim Jung Uyun (Department of Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University ) , Lee Sang-Soo (Polymer Hybrids Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Kim Junkyung (Polymer Hybrids Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Lee Geon-Woong (Polymer Hybrids Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Park Min (Polymer Hybrids Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology)
    Macromolecular research v.13 no.3 ,pp. 206 - 211 , 2005 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) pre-treated by concentrated mixed acid or oxidized at high temperature were melt mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a twin screw extruder. The morphologies and electrical properties of the MWNT/PMMA composites were investigated. The thermally treated MWNTs (t-MWNTs) were well dispersed, whereas the acid treated MWNTs (a-MWNTs) were highly entangled, forming large-sized clusters. The resulting electrical properties of the composites were analyzed in terms of the carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersion. The experimental percolation threshold was estimated to be $3 wt\%$ of t-MWNTs, but no percolation occurred at similar concentrations in the a-MWNT composites, due to the poor dispersion in the matrix.

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  7. [국내논문]   Characterization for Pyrolysis of Thermoplastic Polyurethane by Thermal Analyses   피인용횟수: 2

    Kang Suk-Hwan (School of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University ) , Ku Dong-Cheol (School of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University ) , Lim Jung-Hun (School of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University ) , Yang Yun-Kyu (School of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University ) , Kwak Noh-Seok (School of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University ) , Hwang Taek-Sung (School of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University)
    Macromolecular research v.13 no.3 ,pp. 212 - 217 , 2005 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    The pyrolysis kinetics of polyurethanes synthesized from polycaprolactone diol (PCL) and diisocyanate (HDI, $H_{12}MDI$ ) using catalysts such as dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) were studied by a thermogravimetric (TG) technique, which involved heating the sample at the rates of 10, 20 and $30^{\circ}C$ /min. The effect of the kind of diisocyanate and the hard segment contents on the activation energy and reaction order were examined at conversions ranging from 1 to $100\%$ . The activation energies at first increased slowly with increasing conversion. Also, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the structural differences in each polyurethane. DSC can reveal the melting behavior, in terms of the glass transition temperature ( $T_g$ ), which is known to vary as a function of the stoichiometry and processing conditions.

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  8. [국내논문]   Biodistribution and Genotoxicity of Transferrin-Conjugated Liposomes/DNA Complexes in Mice  

    Lee Sang Mi (College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women's University ) , Kim Jin-Seok (College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women's University ) , Oh Yu-Kyoung (Pocheon CHA University ) , Lee Yong-Bok (College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University ) , Sah Hongkee (College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu)
    Macromolecular research v.13 no.3 ,pp. 218 - 222 , 2005 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    Transferrin-conjugated liposomes ( $T_f$ -liposomes) were made and formulated with pCMVluc DNA to form a lipoplex. Among the various formulations studied, the $T_f$ -liposome: pCMVluc DNA complex at a ratio of 5: 1 (wt/wt) showed the highest transfection efficiency, which was twice that of $Lipofectin^{TM}$ on HeLa cells. The maxi-mum tolerated dose (MTD) of this lipoplex formulation from a single intravenous injection was over 10 mg/kg in healthy ICR mice. The RT-PCR results showed that the highest level of luciferase mRNA was detected in the lungs, followed by the liver, spleen, heart and kidneys, after an intravenous injection into mice. Two weeks after the injection, the levels of luciferase mRNA decreased gradually in the liver, spleen, heart, and kidney, but not in the lungs. The micro-array study showed that the cancer-related genes, including the bcl 6 gene, were highly up-regulated by the treatment with $T_f$ -liposome/ pCMVluc DNA complex on HeLa cells, indicating that there were possible interactions between the host chromosomal DNA and the $T_f$ -liposome within the cells. The results obtained from this study are expected to be useful for designing a safe and efficient gene delivery system using transferrin-conjugated liposomes.

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  9. [국내논문]   Zn-Ion Coated Structural $SiO_2$ Filled LDPE: Effects of Epoxy Resin Encapsulation  

    Reddy C. S. (Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology ) , Das C. K. (Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology ) , Agarwal K. (Defence Materials & Stores Research and Development establishment, (DMSRDE) ) , Mathur G N. (Defence Materials & Stores Research and Development establishment, (DMSRDE))
    Macromolecular research v.13 no.3 ,pp. 223 - 228 , 2005 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    In the present work, a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) composite, filled with Zn-ion coated structural silica encapsulated with the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA), was synthesized using the conventional melt-blending technique in a sigma internal mixer. The catalytic activity of the Zn-ions (originating from the structural silica) towards the oxirane group (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA): encapsulating agent) was assessed by infrared spectroscopy. Two composites, each with a filler content of $2.5 wt\%$ were developed. The first one was obtained by melt blending the Zn-ion coated structural silica with LDPE in a co-rotating sigma internal mixer. The second one was obtained by melt blending the same LDPE, but with DGEBA encapsulated Zn-ion coated structural silica. Epoxy resin encapsulation of the Zn-ion coated structural silica resulted in its having good interfacial adhesion and a homogeneous dispersion in the polymer matrix. Furthermore, the encapsulation of epoxy resin over the Zn-ion coated structural silica showed improvements in both the mechanical and thermal properties, viz. a $33\%$ increase in the elastic modulus and a rise in the onset degradation temperature from 355 to $371^{\circ}C$ , in comparison to the Zn-ion coated structural silica.

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  10. [국내논문]   Practical Synthesis of Alkoxyamine Initiators for Living Radical Polymerization  

    Moon Bongjin (Department of Chemistry, Sogang University ) , Kang Minhyuk (Department of Chemistry, Sogang University)
    Macromolecular research v.13 no.3 ,pp. 229 - 235 , 2005 , 1598-5032 ,

    초록

    Various alkoxyamine initiators for nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (NMRP) were prepared in high yields by a simple substitution reaction of nitroxide anions with benzyl bromide. The required nitroxide anions were easily generated by treating either nitroxide free radicals or hydroxy amine with an alkali metal such as sodium or potassium in THF. This method is both practical and efficient, since the ionic conditions prevent other side reactions from occurring, such as the self-coupling or oligomerization reactions that are observed in the case of radical trapping conditions. To demonstrate the utility of the resulting alkoxyamine initiators, end- and telechelic-alkoxyamine PEG macroinitiators derived from the alkoxyamines were synthesized by a simple chemical modification, and used for the preparation of PEG-b-PS and PS-b-PEG-b-PS block copolymers by NMRP.

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