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Zoonoses and Public Health 16건

  1. [해외논문]   Issue Information   SCI SCIE


    Zoonoses and Public Health v.65 no.5 ,pp. i - iii , 2018 , 1863-1959 ,

    초록

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus: Past, present and future insights for animal modelling and medical countermeasures   SCI SCIE

    Mendoza, E. J. (Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada) , Warner, B. (Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada) , Safronetz, D. (Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada) , Ranadheera, C. (Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada)
    Zoonoses and Public Health v.65 no.5 ,pp. 465 - 480 , 2018 , 1863-1959 ,

    초록

    Summary Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick‐borne viral zoonosis with a case‐fatality rate ranging from 9% to 50% in humans. Although a licensed vaccine to prevent infection by the CCHF virus (CCHFV) exists, its ability to induce neutralizing antibodies is limited and its efficacy against CCHFV remains undetermined. In addition, controlling CCHF infections by eradication of the tick reservoir has been ineffective, both economically and logistically, and the treatment options for CCHF remain limited. In this review, we first critically discuss the existing animal models to evaluate therapeutics for CCHF. We then review the therapeutic options for CCHF that have been investigated in human cases, followed by investigational drugs that have been evaluated in pre‐clinical studies. We highlight the importance of understanding human prognostic factors in developing an animal model for CCHF that recapitulates hallmarks of human disease and its implication for selecting therapeutic candidates.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Relationship between Salmonella infection, shedding and serology in fattening pigs in low–moderate prevalence areas   SCI SCIE

    San Romá (Instituto de Agrobiotecnología (CSIC‐UPNA‐Gobierno de Navarra), Mutilva, Spain) , n, B. (Instituto de Agrobiotecnología (CSIC‐UPNA‐Gobierno de Navarra), Mutilva, Spain) , Garrido, V. (Instituto de Agrobiotecnología (CSIC‐UPNA‐Gobierno de Navarra), Mutilva, Spain) , Sá (Dpto. de Inmunología, Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de farmacia, UPV/EHU, Calle Paseo de la Universidad, Vitoria, Spain) , nchez, S. (Dpto. de Inmunología, Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de farmacia, UPV/EHU, Calle Paseo de la Universidad, Vitoria, Spain) , Martí (Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain) , nez‐ (Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal, Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàrie) , Ballesteros, I. , Garaizar, J. , Mainar‐ , Jaime, R. C. , Migura‐ , Garcia, L. , Grilló , , M. J.
    Zoonoses and Public Health v.65 no.5 ,pp. 481 - 489 , 2018 , 1863-1959 ,

    초록

    Summary Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen causing important zoonosis worldwide. Pigs asymptomatically infected in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) can be intermittent shedders of the pathogen through faeces, being considered a major source of human infections. European baseline studies of fattening pig salmonellosis are based on Salmonella detection in MLN. This work studies the relationship between Salmonella infection in MLN and intestinal content (IC) shedding at slaughter and the relationship between the presence of the pathogen and the serologic status at farm level. Mean Salmonella prevalence in the selected pigs (vertically integrated production system of Navarra, Spain) was 7.2% in MLN, 8.4% in IC and 9.6% in serum samples. In this low–moderate prevalence context, poor concordance was found between MLN infection and shedding at slaughter and between bacteriology and serology. In fact, most of shedders were found uninfected in MLN (83%) or carrying different Salmonella strains in MLN and in IC (90%). The most prevalent Salmonellae were Typhimurium resistant to ACSSuT ± Nx or ASSuT antibiotic families, more frequently found invading the MLN (70%) than in IC (33.9%). Multivariable analysis revealed that risk factors associated with the presence of Salmonella in MLN or in IC were different, mainly related either to good hygiene practices or to water and feed control, respectively. Overall, in this prevalence context, detection of Salmonella in MLN is an unreliable predictor of faecal shedding at abattoir, indicating that subclinical infections in fattening pigs MLN could have limited relevance in the IC shedding.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) as an occupational hazard: 2. Use of personal protective equipment and infection control practices among raccoon rehabilitators   SCI SCIE

    Sapp, S. G. H. (Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA) , Murray, B. (Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA) , Hoover, E. R. (National Environmental Health Association, Denver, CO, USA) , Green, G. T. (Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA) , Yabsley, M. J. (Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA)
    Zoonoses and Public Health v.65 no.5 ,pp. 490 - 500 , 2018 , 1863-1959 ,

    초록

    Summary Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, is a zoonotic ascarid of importance to human and animal health. Wildlife rehabilitators who care for raccoons may be at an increased risk for exposure to the parasite, especially if proper precautions are not taken. In a wider effort to evaluate awareness regarding B. procyonis in the wildlife rehabilitation community, an online survey (38–39 questions) including questions about B. procyonis knowledge and attitudes was developed and administered to wildlife rehabilitators. To assess precautions taken among raccoon rehabilitators, participants who rehabilitated raccoons ( n = 447) answered additional questions about use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and infection control practices (ICPs). Reported use of gloves was variable, but hand hygiene was generally consistent. Masks and gowns were seldom used. Part‐time or infrequent volunteers and rehabilitators located in the Central, Midwest and Southeast were significantly less likely to report consistent use of PPE. A total knowledge score from the survey was used to predict the likelihood of reporting the use of particular ICPs/PPE. Knowledge score had a highly significant but small effect on the likelihood of prophylactic use of anthelmintics, anthelmintics use for B. procyonis specifically, cleaning appropriately, and using species‐dedicated housing. Risk factor analysis was performed on data from a prior serologic survey to evaluate factors associated with exposure to B. procyonis and inconsistent handwashing after contact with live raccoons and their faeces; practising rehabilitation in B. procyonis hyperendemic regions and practising rehabilitation in the western region were significant risk factors for being seropositive. These data further demonstrate that correct PPE/ICPs are critical in mitigating the risk of B. procyonis exposure among raccoon rehabilitators and among other captive species.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  5. [해외논문]   Hepatitis E virus infection of slaughtered healthy pigs in Brazil   SCI SCIE

    Amorim, A. R. (Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil ) , Mendes, G. S. (Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil ) , Pena, G. P. A. (Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil ) , Santos, N. (Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil)
    Zoonoses and Public Health v.65 no.5 ,pp. 501 - 504 , 2018 , 1863-1959 ,

    초록

    Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that can be transmitted through contaminated raw or undercooked meat derived from domestic pigs. HEV infections have been documented among pig herds, pig products and environmental samples raising concern about the spread of the virus. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are considered zoonotic and have been linked to human cases. HEV was detected in 51 of 335 bile samples (15.2%) from healthy pigs in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences from ORF1 and ORF2 regions yielded discordant results, assigning isolates to subtypes 3c and 3i, respectively, suggesting intragenotypic HEV recombination.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [해외논문]   Serological evidence of widespread exposure of Grenada fruit bats to chikungunya virus   SCI SCIE

    Stone, D. (Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George's University, St. George, Grenada) , Lyons, A. C. (Department of Diagnostic Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA) , Huang, Y.‐ (Department of Diagnostic Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA) , J. S. (Department of Diagnostic Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA) , Vanlandingham, D. L. (Department of Diagnostic Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA) , Higgs, S. (Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA) , Blitvich, B. J. (Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of the) , Adesiyun, A. A. , Santana, S. E. , Leiser‐ , Miller, L. , Cheetham, S.
    Zoonoses and Public Health v.65 no.5 ,pp. 505 - 511 , 2018 , 1863-1959 ,

    초록

    Summary Antibody detection against selected potentially zoonotic vector‐borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses was conducted on sera from bats from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were tested for (i) antibodies to flaviviruses West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, IlhEus virus, Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Rio Bravo virus and all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT); (ii) antibodies to alphaviruses western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus by epitope‐blocking enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and (iii) antibodies to the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) by PRNT. Two species of fruit bats were sampled, Artibeus jamaicensis and Artibeus lituratus , all roosting in or within 1,000 m of human settlements. Fifteen (36%) of the 42 bats tested for neutralizing antibodies to CHIKV were positive. The CHIKV‐seropositive bats lived in localities spanning five of the six parishes. All 43 bats tested for epitope‐blocking ELISA antibody to the other alphaviruses were negative, except one positive for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. All 50 bats tested for neutralizing antibody to flaviviruses were negative, except one that had a BSQV PRNT 80 titre of 20. The CHIKV serology results indicate that bats living close to and within human settlements were exposed to CHIKV in multiple locations. Importantly, bats for this study were trapped a year after the introduction and peak of the human CHIKV epidemic in Grenada. Thus, our data indicate that bats were exposed to CHIKV possibly during a time of marked decline in human cases.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   Human noroviruses in the faeces of wild birds and rodents—new potential transmission routes   SCI SCIE

    Summa, M. (Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland) , Henttonen, H. (Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland) , Maunula, L. (Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland)
    Zoonoses and Public Health v.65 no.5 ,pp. 512 - 518 , 2018 , 1863-1959 ,

    초록

    Summary Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading global causes of diarrhoeal diseases and are transmitted mainly from person to person but also through contaminated food, water and fomites. The possible zoonotic nature of NoVs has occasionally been discussed, although the viruses are generally considered to be host‐species‐specific. We investigated whether wild birds and rodents could serve as carriers of HuNoVs, thereby transmitting the virus to humans directly or indirectly by contaminating foods. All samples, 115 avian and 100 rat faeces collected in springs 2009–2013 from dump sites, and 85 faeces from yellow‐necked mice trapped in late autumn 2008 and 2009 after the rodents entered human settlements due to the first night frosts, were screened for HuNoV using real‐time reverse transcription PCR. HuNoVs were detected in 31 (27%) faecal samples of wild birds, in two (2%) faecal samples of rats and in no samples of mice. Most (25) of the positive bird samples and both rat samples contained genogroup II, and six positive bird samples contained genogroup I HuNoV. The avian species shedding faeces containing HuNoVs were identified as gulls and crows using DNA barcoding. Our results show that wildlife, birds and rats in particular, is capable of spreading HuNoVs in the environment.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  8. [해외논문]   Antimicrobial‐resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered from companion animal and livestock environments   SCI SCIE

    Adams, R. J. (Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA) , Kim, S. S. (Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA) , Mollenkopf, D. F. (Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA) , Mathys, D. A. (Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA) , Schuenemann, G. M. (Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA) , Daniels, J. B. (Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA) , Wittum, T. E. (Department of Vete)
    Zoonoses and Public Health v.65 no.5 ,pp. 519 - 527 , 2018 , 1863-1959 ,

    초록

    Summary Antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria represent an important concern impacting both veterinary medicine and public health. The rising prevalence of extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase (ESBL), AmpC beta‐lactamase, carbapenemase (CRE) and fluoroquinolone‐resistant Enterobacteriaceae continually decreases the efficiency of clinically important antibiotics. Moreover, the potential for zoonotic transmission of antibiotic‐resistant enteric bacteria increases the risk to public health. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of specific antibiotic‐resistant bacteria on human contact surfaces in various animal environments. Environmental surface samples were collected from companion animal shelters, private equine facilities, dairy farms, livestock auction markets and livestock areas of county fairs using electrostatic cloths. Samples were screened for Enterobacteriaceae expressing AmpC, ESBL, CRE or fluoroquinolone resistance using selective media. Livestock auction markets and county fairs had higher levels of bacteria expressing both cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone resistance than did equine, dairy, and companion animal environments. Equine facilities harboured more bacteria expressing cephalosporin resistance than companion animal shelters, but less fluoroquinolone resistance. The regular use of extended‐spectrum cephalosporins in livestock populations could account for the increased levels of cephalosporin resistance in livestock environments compared to companion animal and equine facilities. Human surfaces, as well as shared human and animal surfaces, were contaminated with resistant bacteria regardless of species environment. Detecting these bacteria on common human contact surfaces suggests that the environment can serve as a reservoir for the zoonotic transmission of antibiotic‐resistant bacteria and resistance genes. Identifying interventions to lower the prevalence of antibiotic‐resistant bacteria in animal environments will protect both animal and public health.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   Risk for interspecies transmission of zoonotic pathogens during poultry processing and pork production in Peru: A qualitative study   SCI SCIE

    Carnero, A. M. (Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru) , Kitayama, K. (Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA) , Diaz, D. A. (Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru) , Garvich, M. (Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru) , Angulo, N. (Asociación Benéfica Proyectos en Informática, Salud, Medicina y Agricultura (AB PRISMA), Lima, Peru) , Cama, V. A. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA) , Gilman, R. H. (Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA) , Bayer, A. M.
    Zoonoses and Public Health v.65 no.5 ,pp. 528 - 539 , 2018 , 1863-1959 ,

    초록

    Summary Interspecies transmission of pathogens is an unfrequent but naturally occurring event and human activities may favour opportunities not previously reported. Reassortment of zoonotic pathogens like influenza A virus can result from these activities. Recently, swine and birds have played a central role as “mixing vessels” for epidemic and pandemic events related to strains like H1N1 and H5N1. Unsafe practices in poultry markets and swine farms can lead to interspecies transmission, favouring the emergence of novel strains. Thus, understanding practices that lead to interspecies interactions is crucial. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate poultry processing practices in formal and informal markets and the use of leftovers by swine farmers in three Peruvian cities: Lima (capital), Tumbes (coastal) and Tarapoto (jungle). We conducted 80 direct observations at formal and informal markets and interviewed 15 swine farmers. Processors slaughter and pluck chickens and vendors and/or processors eviscerate chickens. Food safety and hygiene practices were suboptimal or absent, although some heterogeneity was observed between cities and chicken vendors versus processors. Both vendors (76%) and processors (100%) sold the chicken viscera leftovers to swine farmers, representing the main source of chicken viscera for swine farms (53%). Swine farmers fed the chicken viscera to their swine. Chicken viscera cooking times varied widely and were insufficient in some cases. Non‐abattoired poultry leads to the sale of poultry leftovers to small‐scale swine farms, resulting in indirect but frequent interspecies contacts that can lead to interspecies transmission of bacterial pathogens or the reassortment of influenza A viruses. These interactions are exacerbated by suboptimal safety and hygiene conditions. People involved in these activities constitute an at‐risk population who could play a central role in preventing the transmission of pathogens between species. Educational interventions on hygiene and food safety practices will be important for reducing the risk of interspecies influenza transmission.

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  10. [해외논문]   First insights into Puumala orthohantavirus circulation in a rodent population in Alsace, France   SCI SCIE

    Monchatre‐ (Laboratoire de la rage et de la Faune Sauvage, ANSES, Nancy, France) , Leroy, E. (Laboratoire de Lyon, ANSES, Unité) , Murri, S. (de virologie, Lyon, France) , Castel, G. (CBGP, INRA, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France) , Calavas, D. (Laboratoire de Lyon, ANSES, Unité) , Boué (d'épidémiologie, Lyon, France) , , F. (Laboratoire de la rage et de la Faune Sauvage, ANSES, Nancy, France) , Hé (Laboratoire de Lyon, ANSES, Unité) , naux, V. (d'épidémiologie, Lyon, France) , Marianneau, P. (Laboratoire de Lyon, ANSES, Unité)
    Zoonoses and Public Health v.65 no.5 ,pp. 540 - 551 , 2018 , 1863-1959 ,

    초록

    Summary In‐depth knowledge on the mechanisms that maintain infection by a zoonotic pathogen in an animal reservoir is the key to predicting and preventing transmission to humans. The Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV), the most prevalent orthohantavirus in Western Europe, causes a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. In France, this endemic illness affects the north‐eastern part of the country. We conducted a 4‐year capture–mark–recapture study in a bank vole population, combined with molecular analyses, to explore the epidemiological situation of PUUV in Alsace, a French region where human cases have occurred, but for which no studies have been conducted on this reservoir host. PUUV‐infected bank voles were detected in the 2 years that showed high bank vole density with a prevalence of 4%. The individual PUUV sequences identified in this study were similar from year to year and similar to other French sequences. On a very small spatial scale, the distribution of seropositive bank voles was very heterogeneous in time and space. The short distances travelled on average by bank voles resulted in spatial clusters of seropositive rodents, which spread only very gradually throughout the year.

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