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한국대기환경학회지 = Journal of Korean Society for Atmosphe... 14건

  1. [국내논문]   RAMS의 실시간 기상장 예측 향상을 위한 최신 토지피복도 자료의 적용가능성   피인용횟수: 1

    원경미 (부산대학교 지구환경시스템학부 ) , 이화운 (부산대학교 지구환경시스템학부 ) , 유정아 (국립환경과학원 화학안전예방과 ) , 홍현수 (대전대학교 환경공학과 ) , 황만식 (국립환경과학원 화학안전예방과 ) , 천광수 (국립환경과학원 화학안전예방과 ) , 최광수 (국립환경과학원 화학안전예방과 ) , 이문순 (국립환경과학원 화학안전예방과)
    한국대기환경학회지 = Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment v.24 no.1 ,pp. 1 - 15 , 2008 , 1598-7132 ,

    초록

    Chemical Accident Response Information System (CARIS) which has been designed for the efficient emergency response of chemical accidents produces the real-time atmospheric fields through the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, RAMS. The previous studies were emphasized that improving an initial input data had more effective results in developing prediction ability of atmospheric model. In a continuous effort to improve an initial input data, we replaced the land-use dataset using in the RAMS, which is a high resolution USGS digital data constructed in April, 1993, with the latest land-use data of the Korea Ministry of Environment over the South Korea and simulated atmospheric fields for developing a real-time prediction in dispersion of chemicals. The results showed that the new land-use data was written in a standard RAMS format and shown the modified surface characteristics and the landscape heterogeneity resulting from land-use change. In the results of sensitivity experiment we got the improved atmospheric fields and assured that it will give more reliable real-time atmospheric fields to all users of CARIS for the dispersion forecast in associated with hazardous chemical releases as well as general air pollutants.

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  2. [국내논문]   아파트 실내 환경에서 실시간 측정시스템을 활용한 HONO 농도 측정 및 생성기작 연구   피인용횟수: 1

    박승식 (전남대학교 환경공학과 ) , 홍진의 (광주과학기술원 환경공학과 환경모니터링 신기술 연구센터 ) , 이재훈 (광주과학기술원 환경공학과 환경모니터링 신기술 연구센터 ) , 김영준 (광주과학기술원 환경공학과 환경모니터링 신기술 연구센터 ) , 조성용 (전남대학교 환경공학과 ) , 김승재 (전남대학교 환경공학과)
    한국대기환경학회지 = Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment v.24 no.1 ,pp. 16 - 29 , 2008 , 1598-7132 ,

    초록

    Nitrous acid (HONO) can be produced by heterogenous reactions of nitrogen dioxide on surface materials and direct emission from combustion sources. However, a little is known of indoor HONO levels or the relationship between residential HONO, NO, and $NO_2$ concentrations in occupied houses. Therefore, we measured simultaneously NO, $NO_2$ , and HONO concentrations in living room of an apartment using continuous analyzers to study the production of HONO (June $22{\sim}30$ , 2006). The 4-min average concentrations of indoor NO, $NO_2$ , and HONO were 4.3 (range: $0.4{\sim}214.3$ ), 10.3 ( $2.0{\sim}87.3$ ), and 1.8 ppb ( $0.3{\sim}7.7$ ), respectively. Peak levels of HONO up to 7.7 ppb and 24-hr averages as high as 1.7 ppb were measured. In agreement with previous studies, indoor HONO concentrations increased during operation of an unvented gas range. Examination of the observed kinetics suggests that the secondary production of indoor HONO, possibly as a result of heterogeneous reactions involving $NO_2$ and $H_2O$ is associated with $[NO_2]^2[H_2O]\;(r^2=0.88)$ rather than with $[NO][NO_2][H_2O]\;(r^2=0.75)$ . Three combustion experiments at nighttime were also carried out to investigate the effects of vented combustion on the HONO, NO, and $NO_2$ concentrations. It was found to release HONO for $10{\sim}15$ minutes after NO and $NO_2$ source was turned off, and peak values were finally attained. Compared to unvented combustion, peak $NO_2$ and HONO concentrations were 3.2 and 2.0 times lower at weak vented combustion (air flow: $340\;m^3/hr$ ) and 4.9 and 2.4 times lower at strong vented combustion (air flow: $540\;m^3/hr$ ), respectively, emphasizing importance of operating ventilation hood fan during combustion to improve indoor air quality.

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  3. [국내논문]   미국 서부 해안 IMPROVE 측정소에 대한 대기 중 PM2.5의 오염원 기여도 추정   피인용횟수: 6

    황인조 (대구대학교 환경공학과 ) , 김동술 (경희대학교 환경.응용화학대학 대기오염연구실 및 환경연구센터 ;)
    한국대기환경학회지 = Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment v.24 no.1 ,pp. 30 - 42 , 2008 , 1598-7132 ,

    초록

    In this study, the chemical compositions of $PM_{2.5}$ samples collected at the Redwood National Park IMPROVE site in California from March 1988 to May 2004 were analyzed to provide source identification and apportionment. A total of 1,640 samples were collected and 33 chemical species were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission, proton elastic scattering analysis, photon induced X-ray fluorescence, ion chromatography, and thermal optical reflectance methods. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to develop source profiles and to estimate their mass contributions. The PMF modeling identified five sources and the average mass was apportioned to motor vehicle (35.8%, $1.58\;{\mu}g/m^3$ ), aged sea salt (23.2%, $1.02\;{\mu}g/m^3$ ), fresh sea salt (21.4%, $0.94\;{\mu}g/m^3$ ), wood/field burning (16.1%, $0.71\;{\mu}g/m^3$ ), and airborne soil (3.5%, $0.15\;{\mu}g/m^3$ ), respectively. To analyze local source impacts from various wind directions, the CPF and NPR analyses were performed using source contribution results with the wind direction values measured at the site. These results suggested that sources of $PM_{2.5}$ are also sources of visibility degradation and then source apportionment studies derived for $PM_{2.5}$ are also used for understanding visibility problem.

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  4. [국내논문]   가스상 암모니아 측정을 위한 분석방법별 특성 연구   피인용횟수: 4

    사재환 (세종대학교 환경.에너지연구소 ) , 윤석경 (세종대학교 지구환경과학과 ) , 노기환 (광주보건대학 환경행정과 ) , 전의찬 (세종대학교 지구환경과학과)
    한국대기환경학회지 = Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment v.24 no.1 ,pp. 43 - 54 , 2008 , 1598-7132 ,

    초록

    Management and control of ammonia at the sources and ambient largely depend on sampling and measurement techniques. Good sampling and measurement techniques provide high quality data. The main purpose of the study is compare the analytical characteristics of the Indolphenol method which is one of the standard method in Korea with automatic analyzers for continued measuring gaseous ammonia. For comparison with other analytical methods, the verification test was designed to evaluate performance parameters; linearity, absorption efficiency, reproducibility and repeatability test, accuracy, and response time test. $R^2$ of calibration curve using IPM and CLM was very high (value is 1.000), but for EcSM $R^2$ value was estimated to be lower than IPM and CLM (as 0.991). The RSD of the CLM ranged from 0.1 to 2.3% over the nine concentration levels measured, %Ds was 0.1 to 10.7%, and average RA over all the measurements was 3.3%. The RSD of IPM and EcSM was ranged from 1.0 to 8.1, 3.9 to 14.0 respectively, and average RA were 8.71, 4.9% respectively. Rise in response times of EcSM was estimated to be 1 minute. It is found to be more sensitive than response time (which ranged from 2 to 9 minute) of CLM. For ammonia concentration measured using the IPM and the CLM from the same ammonia source, linear regression of IPM versus CLM show a slope of 0.805, an intercept of 637 ppb, and $R^2$ of 0.868.

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  5. [국내논문]   중질유 연소시 유용성 유기금속화합물 연소촉진제의 Dust 저감특성   피인용횟수: 1

    김동찬 (한국에너지기술연구원, 화석에너지환경연구부 ) , 노남선 (한국에너지기술연구원, 화석에너지환경연구부 ) , 우제경 (한국에너지기술연구원, 화석에너지환경연구부 ) , 김진훈 (한국에너지기술연구원, 화석에너지환경연구부 ) , 이영서 (테크노바이오)
    한국대기환경학회지 = Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment v.24 no.1 ,pp. 55 - 62 , 2008 , 1598-7132 ,

    초록

    This study is aimed at substantially reducing the particulate matter (dust) emission during the combustion of heavy fuel in boilers by addition of combustion improver. The combustion improver used were the oil-soluble organometallic compounds that were found to be more effective than the dispersing agents that are generally used for reducing the particulate emission. The dust reduction effect was found to depend on the active materials (metals) as well as on the organic ligand part of organometallic compounds. Acetylacetonoate and naphthenate of Fe and Ca were found to be most effective for dust reduction. Addition of Fe and Ca organometallic compounds as combustion improver in concentration of 30 ppm (metal basis) to heavy fuel oil, caused dust reduction by 50 wt% to 80 wt%.

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  6. [국내논문]   KZ 필터법을 이용한 서울지역 미세먼지 농도의 장기변화 분석   피인용횟수: 4

    이정영 (국립환경과학원 대기환경과 ) , 공부주 (국립환경과학원 지구환경연구소 ) , 한진석 (국립환경과학원 대기환경과 ) , 이민도 (국립환경과학원 대기환경과)
    한국대기환경학회지 = Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment v.24 no.1 ,pp. 63 - 71 , 2008 , 1598-7132 ,

    초록

    Local meteorological conditions exert a strong influence over day-to-day variations in air pollutant concentrations. Therefore, the meteorological fluctuations have to be removed in order for air quality planners and managers to examine underlying emissions-related trends and make better air quality management decisions for future. In this study, the meteorologically adjusted $PM_{10}$ trends in Seoul are investigated over the period $1999{\sim}2006$ using Kolmogorov-Zurbenco (KZ) filter. The result indicated that meteorologicaJ variability accounts for about 25% of $PM_{10}$ variability. Both the meteorologically adjusted and unadjusted Jong-term daily $PM_{10}$ concentrations had a significant downward trends and the difference between the meteorologically adjusted and unadjusted was small. So it was assumed that in long-term daily $PM_{10}$ changes, localized changes in emissions is more important than the changes caused by meteorological conditions.

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  7. [국내논문]   국내 이동오염원에서 발생되는 벤젠 배출량 산정  

    이주형 (국립환경과학원 환경총량관리연구부 대기총량과 ) , 차준석 (국립환경과학원 환경총량관리연구부 대기총량과 ) , 홍지형 (국립환경과학원 환경총량관리연구부 대기총량과 ) , 정동일 (국립환경과학원 환경총량관리연구부 대기총량과 ) , 김지영 (국립환경과학원 환경총량관리연구부 대기총량과)
    한국대기환경학회지 = Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment v.24 no.1 ,pp. 72 - 82 , 2008 , 1598-7132 ,

    초록

    Benzene is a very harmful and toxic compound known as human carcinogen by all routes of exposure. Owing to the risky feature of benzene, several countries such as Japan, UK and EU have established the ambient air quality standard and protect from that risk of it. Korea also has designated it as one of the criteria air pollutants and established the concentration limit ( $5\;{\mu}g/m^3$ ) in the air and is going to apply the standard from 2010. Benzene is emitted from various sources such as combustion plants, production processes, waste treatment facilities and also automobiles. Mobile source is known as one of the major emission sources of benzene. In this study, we estimated the domestic emissions of benzene from mobile source and compared the results with those of advanced countries. Mobile source was divided into 2 categories, Le., on-road source and non-road source. The total emissions of benzene from mobile source were estimated as 3,106 tons/yr and 1,612 tons/yr was emitted from on-road source and 1,494 tons/yr was from non-road source. Emission ratio of benzene from on-road source showed that 80.0% was from passenger cars, 10.1% was from taxis, 7.2% was from light-duty vehicles, 2.5% was from heavy-duty vehicles and 0.2% was from buses. In the case of non-road source, the distribution showed that 66.3% was from construction machineries, 14.5% was from locomotives, 11.7% was from ships, 7.1% was from agriculture equipments and 0.5% was from aircrafts. The cold-start emissions were estimated as 942 tons/yr and this value was almost 1.5 times greater than that for hot engine emissions (608 tons/yr). In addition, the fuel-based distribution was 65.9%, 31.1% and 2.8% from gasoline, LPG and diesel vehicles, respectively. The emission ratio from mobile source occupied 65% and 30% of total benzene emissions in USA and UK, respectively. In case of Korea, the emission ratio of benzene from mobile source occupied 29% (15% from on-road source, 14% from non-road source) which showed similar value with UK.

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  8. [국내논문]   도시화에 의한 야간 대기 냉각율 변화에 관한 연구   피인용횟수: 4

    이순환 (부산대학교 BK21 연안환경시스템연구사업단 ) , 박명희 (계명대학교 지구환경보전학과 ) , 김해동 (계명대학교 지구환경보전학과)
    한국대기환경학회지 = Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment v.24 no.1 ,pp. 83 - 90 , 2008 , 1598-7132 ,

    초록

    In order to clarify the urbanization intensity of Daegu Metropolitan and its characteristics, comparative study on the variation of the cooling rate of two different sites was carried out using observation data for 40 years by Korea Meteorological Adminstration. Daegu Metropolitan and Chupungnyung represent well urbanized and rural areas, respectively. In comparison with Chupungnyung, yearly mean temperature at Daegu Metropolitan increases rapidly and especially the differences of minimum temperature increasing rate during 40 years becomes greater. These differences of regional warming are caused by the different urbanization intensity between two sites. And the impact of anthropogenic heat due to urbanization should be stronger in nighttime than in daytime. Sensible heat advection by regional wind during 6 hours from 18 LST contributes to atmospheric cooling. For this reason wind speed is in proportion to cooling rate of atmosphere. However, wind after 24 LST induces the warm air advection and makes decrease the cooling rate in urban area. Although the cooling rates between Daegu Metropolitan and Chupungnyung are some different, the variation tendencies of cooling rate of two site are almost same. Therefore atmospheric cooling rate in nighttime tends to be associated with the intensity of wind speed.

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  9. [국내논문]   운전조건에 따른 O3/UV, TiO2/UV 및 O3/TiO2/UV 시스템의 BTEX 증기처리에 관한 비교 연구   피인용횟수: 1

    김경진 (부산대학교 환경공학과 ) , 박옥현 (부산대학교 환경공학과)
    한국대기환경학회지 = Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment v.24 no.1 ,pp. 91 - 99 , 2008 , 1598-7132 ,

    초록

    A multilayer tower-type photoreactor, in which $TiO_2$ -coated glass-tubes were installed, was used to measure the vapor-phase BTEX removal efficiencies by ozone oxidation ( $O_3$ /UV), photocatalytic oxidation ( $TiO_2$ /UV) and the combination of ozone and photocatalytic oxidation ( $O_3/TiO_2$ /UV) process, respectively. The experiments were conducted under various relative humidities, temperatures, ozone concentrations, gas flow rates and BTEX concentrations. As a result, the BTEX removal efficiency and the oxidation rate by $O_3/TiO_2$ /UV system were highest, compared to $O_3$ /UV and $TiO_2$ /UV system. The $O_3/TiO_2$ /UV system accelerated the low oxidation rate of low-concentration organic compounds and removed organic compounds to a large extent in a fixed volume of reactor in a short time. Therefore, $O_3/TiO_2$ /UV system as a superimposed oxidation technology was developed to efficiently and economically treat refractory VOCs. Also, this study demonstrated feasibility of a technology to scale up a photoreactor from lab-scale to pilot-scale, which uses (i) a separated light-source chamber and a light distribution system, (ii) catalyst fixing to glass-tube media, and (iii) unit connection in series and/or parallel. The experimental results from $O_3/TiO_2$ /UV system showed that (i) the highest BTEX removal efficiencies were obtained under relative humidity ranging from 50 to 55% and temperature ranging from 40 to $50^{\circ}C$ , and (ii) the removal efficiencies linearly increased with ozone dosage and decreased with gas flow rate. When applying Langmuir-Hinshelwood model to $TiO_2$ /UV and $O_3/TiO_2$ /UV system, reaction rate constant for $O_3/TiO_2$ /UV system was larger than that for $TiO_2$ /UV system, however, it was found that adsorption constant for $O_3/TiO_2$ /UV system was smaller than that for $TiO_2$ /UV system due to competitive adsorption between organics and ozone.

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  10. [국내논문]   PMF를 응용한 구미시 PM-10 오염원의 정량적 기여도 추정연구   피인용횟수: 9

    황인조 (대구대학교 환경공학과 ) , 조영혁 (금오공과대학교 환경공학과 ) , 최우건 (금오공과대학교 환경공학과 ) , 이혜문 (한국기계연구원 부설 재료연구실 분말재료연구부 ) , 김태오 (금오공과대학교 환경공학과)
    한국대기환경학회지 = Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment v.24 no.1 ,pp. 100 - 107 , 2008 , 1598-7132 ,

    초록

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively estimate PM-10 source contribution in Gumi City, Korea. Ambient PM-10 samples were collected by a high volume air sampler, which operated for 84 different days with a 24-h sampling basis, from June 14,2001 though May 19, 2003. The filter samples were analyzed for determining 13 inorganic elements, 3 anions, and a total carbon. The study has intensively applied a receptor model, the PMF (Positive Matrix Factorization) model. The results from PMF modeling indicated that a total of seven sources were independently identified and each source was contributed to the ambient Gumi City from secondary sulfate (34%), motor vehicle (26%), soil relation (5%), field burning (3%), industrial relation (3%), secondary nitrate (22%), and incinration (7%) in terms of PM-10 mass, respectively.

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