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Molecular & cellular toxicology 10건

  1. [국내논문]   Endocrine Disrupting Organotin Compounds are Potent Inducers of Imposex in Gastropods and Adipogenesis in Vertebrates  

    Iguchi, Taisen (Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institute for Basic Biology, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, and Department of Basic Biology, Faculty of Life Science, the Graduate University for Advanced Studies ) , Katsu, Yoshinao (Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institute for Basic Biology, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, and Department of Basic Biology, Faculty of Life Science, the Graduate University for Advanced Studies ) , Horiguchi, Toshihiro (Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology Science and Technology Corporation ) , Watanabe, Hajime (Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institute for Basic Biology, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, and Department of Basic Biology, Faculty of Life Science, the Graduate University for Advanced Studies ) , Blumberg, Bruce (Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California Irvine ) , Ohta, Yasuhiko (Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology Science and Technology Corporation)
    Molecular & cellular toxicology v.3 no.1 ,pp. 1 - 10 , 2007 , 1738-642x ,

    초록

    The persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminant, tributyltin chloride (TBT), induces not only imposex in gastropods but also the differentiation of adipocytes in vitro and increases adipose mass in vivo in vertebrates. TBT is a nanomolar affinity ligand for retinoid X receptor (RXR) in the rock shell(Thais clavigera) and for both the RXR and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor $\gamma(PPAR\gamma)$ in the amphibian (Xenopus laevis), mouse, and human. The molecular mechanisms underlying induction of imposex by TBT have not been clarified, though several hypotheses are proposed. TBT promotes adipogenesis in the murine 3T3-L1 cell model and perturbs key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathways in vivo primarily through activation of RXR and $PPAR\gamma$ . Moreover, in utero exposure to TBT leads to strikingly elevated lipid accumulation in adipose depots, liver, and testis of neonate mice and results in increased adipose mass in adults. In X. laevis, ectopic adipocytes form in and around gonadal tissues following organotin, RXR or $PPAR\gamma$ ligand exposure. TBT represents the first example of an environmental endocrine disrupter that promotes adverse effects from gastropods to mammals.

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  2. [국내논문]   Proteomics in Insecticide Toxicology  

    Park, Byeoung-Soo (Institute of Ecological Phytochemistry, Hankyong National University ) , Lee, Sung-Eun (Nanotoxtech Inc.)
    Molecular & cellular toxicology v.3 no.1 ,pp. 11 - 18 , 2007 , 1738-642x ,

    초록

    Mechanisms of insecticide resistance found in insects may include three general categories. Modified behavioral mechanisms can let the insects avoid the exposure to toxic compounds. The second category is physiological mechanisms such as altered penetration, rapid excretion, lower rate transportation, or increased storage of insecticides by insects. The third category relies on biochemical mechanisms including the insensitivity of target sites to insecticides and enhanced detoxification rate by several detoxifying mechanisms. Insecticides metabolism usually results in the formation of more water-soluble and therefore more readily eliminated, and generally less toxic products to the host insects rather than the parent compounds. The representative detoxifying enzymes are general esterases and monooxygenases that catalyze the toxic compounds to be more water-soluble forms and then secondary metabolism is followed by conjugation reactions including those catalyzed by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). However, a change in the resistant species is not easily determined and the levels of mRNAs do not necessarily predict the levels of the corresponding proteins in a cell. As genomics understands the expression of most of the genes in an organism after being stressed by toxic compounds, proteomics can determine the global protein changes in a cell. In this present review, it is suggested that the environmental proteomic application may be a good approach to understand the biochemical mechanisms of insecticide resistance in insects and to predict metabolomic changes leading to physiological changes of the resistant species.

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  3. [국내논문]   Growth of Budding Yeasts under Optical Trap  

    Im, Kang-Bin (Department of Physics, Hanyang University ) , Kim, Hyun-Ik (Department of Physics, Hanyang University ) , Kim, Soo-Ki (Department of Microbiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine ) , Kim, Chul-Geun (Department of Life Science, Hanyang University ) , Oh, Cha-Hwan (Department of Physics, Hanyang University ) , Song, Seok-Ho (Department of Physics, Hanyang University ) , Kim, Pill-Soo (Department of Physics, Hanyang University)
    Molecular & cellular toxicology v.3 no.1 ,pp. 19 - 22 , 2007 , 1738-642x ,

    초록

    Optic tweezer is powerful tool to investigate biologic cells. Of eukaryotic cells, it was poorly documented regarding to optic trapping to manipulate yeasts. In preliminary experiment to explore yeast biology, interferometric optical tweezers was exploited to trap and manipulate budding yeasts. Successfully, several budding yeasts are trapped simultaneously. We found that the budding direction of the daughter cell was almost outward and the daughter cell surrounded by other yeasts grows slowly or fail to grow. Thus it was assumed that neighboring cells around budding yeast may be critical in budding and the growth of daughter cells. This is first report pertaining to the pattern of yeast budding under the optical trap when multiple yeasts were trapped.

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  4. [국내논문]   Forward Gene Mutation Assay of Seven Benzophenone-type UV Filters using L5178Y Mouse Lymphoma Cell  

    Jeon, Hee-Kyung (Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Sarma, Sailendra Nath (Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Kim, Youn-Jung (Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Ryu, Jae-Chun (Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology)
    Molecular & cellular toxicology v.3 no.1 ,pp. 23 - 30 , 2007 , 1738-642x ,

    초록

    The effects of high energy short wave solar radiation on human skin have received much publicity as the major cause of accelerated skin ageing and of skin cancers. To meet public demand, the cosmetic industry has developed sun protection factor products, which contain a variety of so-called "UV filters", among others benzophenone (BP) and its metabolites are the widely used UV filters. UV filters are also used to prevent UV light from damaging scents and colors in a variety of cosmetics products and to protect of plastic products against light-induced degradation. There are many variants of BP in use. In this respect, to regulate and to evaluate the hazardous effect of BP-type UV filters will be important to environment and human health. The genotoxicity of 7 BP-type UV filters was evaluated in L5178Y $(tk^{+/-})$ mouse lymphoma cells in vitro. BP, benzhydrol, 4-hydroxybenzophenone 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2, 4-dihydroxybenzophenone did not induce significant mutation frequencies both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system. 2, 2'-Dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone appeared the positive results at the highest dose, i.e. 120.4 ${\mu}g/mL$ only in the absence of metabolic activation system. And also, 2, 3, 4-trihydroxybenzophenone revealed a significant increase of mutation frequencies in the range of 138.1-207.2 ${\mu}g/mL$ in the absence of metabolic activation system and 118.3-354.8 ${\mu}g/mL$ in the presence of metabolic activation system. Through the results of MLA with 7 BP-type UV filters in L5178Y cells in vitro, we may provide the important clues on the genotoxic potentials of these BP-type UV filters.

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  5. [국내논문]   Hesperidin Induces Apoptosis in SNU-668, Human Gastric Cancer Cells  

    Park, Hae-Jeong (Department of Pharmacology, Kohwang Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University ) , Ra, Je-Hyun (Department of Pharmacology, Kohwang Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University ) , Han, Mi-Young (Department of Pharmacology, Kohwang Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University ) , Chung, Joo-Ho (Department of Pharmacology, Kohwang Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University)
    Molecular & cellular toxicology v.3 no.1 ,pp. 31 - 35 , 2007 , 1738-642x ,

    초록

    Hesperidin, known as a flavonoid constituent of citrus, has been known to reduce the proliferation of several cancer cells. We investigated whether hesperidin-induced cell death on SNU-668, human gastric cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of hesperidin on SNU-668 cells was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at the concentration of 1, 10, 50, and 100 ${\mu}M$ . Cell viability by hesperidin was 53.18 $\pm$ 2.85% of control value at 100 ${\mu}M$ . The cell death by hesperidin showed apoptotic features, which were confirmed using a combination of 4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. In the apoptosis-regulating genes, treatment of hesperidin decreased mRNA expression of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), whereas expression of BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) was increased. The mRNA expression and the activity of caspase3 (CASP3), a major apoptotic factor, was significantly increased by hesperidin treatment. These results suggest that hesperidin could induce apoptosis through CASP3 activation on SNU-668, human gastric cancer cells.

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  6. [국내논문]   Gene Expression of Osteosarcoma Cells on Various Coated Titanium Materials  

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa (Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Korea University ) , Lee, Jae-Bun (Department of Dentistry, College of Medicine, Korea University ) , Kim, Ki-Nam (Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Korea University ) , Kim, In-Kyoung (Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Korea University ) , Lee, Seung-Ho (Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Korea University ) , Kim, Hye-Won (Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Korea University ) , Seo, Sang-Hui (Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Korea University ) , Kim, Yu-Ri (Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Korea University ) , Shin, Sang-Wan (Department of Dentistry, College of Medicine, Korea University ) , Ryu, Jae-Jun (Department of Dentistry, College of Medicine, Korea University ) , Kim, Meyoung-Kon (Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Korea University)
    Molecular & cellular toxicology v.3 no.1 ,pp. 36 - 45 , 2007 , 1738-642x ,

    초록

    Several features of the implant surface, such as topography, roughness, and composition play a relevant role in implant integration with bone. This study was conducted in order to determine the effects of different-coatings on Ti surfaces on the biological responses of a human osteoblast-like cell line (MG63). MG63 cells were cultured on HA (Hydroxyapatite coating on Titanium), Ano (HA coating on anodized surface Titanium), Zr (zirconium-coating on Titanium), and control (non-coating on Titanium). The morphology of these cells was assessed by SEM. The cDNAs prepared from the total RNAs of the MG63 were hybridized into a human cDNA microarray (1,152 elements). The appearances of the surfaces observed by SEM were different on each of the three dental substrate types. MG63 cells cultured on HA, Ano, Zr, and control exhibited cell-matrix interactions. In the expression of several genes were up-, and down-regulated on the different surfaces. The attachment and expression of key osteogenic regulatory genes were enhanced by the surface morphology of the dental materials used.

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  7. [국내논문]   Immunoadjuvanticity of Novel CpG ODN (Oligodeoxynucleotide)  

    Park, Su-Jung (Department of Microbiology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine ) , Cho, Hyeon-Cheol (Department of Microbiology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine ) , Bae, Keum-Seok (Department of General Surgery, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine ) , Kim, Soo-Ki (Department of Microbiology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine)
    Molecular & cellular toxicology v.3 no.1 ,pp. 46 - 52 , 2007 , 1738-642x ,

    초록

    In the course of novel TLR (Toll like receptor) 9 ligand, we found novel CpG ODN (Oligodeoxynucleotide) was active in augmenting antibody in mice. However, immune mechanism of new CpG ODNs is unclear. To clarify this, we examined immunoadjuvanticity by employing in vitro and in vivo immune profiles. In brief, in vitro treatment of novel CpG ODN upregulated the expression of TNF- $\alpha$ , IL-6, and IL-12 mRNA in macrophages as well as that of IFN- $gamma$ mPNA in mouse splenocytes. In parallel, in vivo injection of novel CpG ODN directly activates macrophages and splenocytess, consequently upregulating MHC class II and CD86. Finally, we demonstrated anti-HBs antibody augmentation of novel CpG ODN. Collectively, this data indicates that novel CpG ODN is immunoadjuvant armed with Th1 typed immune machinery.

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  8. [국내논문]   Genotoxicity Study of Dimethyl Isophthalate in Bacterial and Mammalian Cell System  

    Chung, Young-Shin (Medvill Research Laboratory ) , Choi, Seon-A (Medvill Research Laboratory ) , Hong, Eun-Kyung (Medvill Research Laboratory ) , Ryu, Jae-Chun (Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology ) , Lee, Eun-Jung (National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex ) , Choi, Kyung-Hee (National Institute of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Complex)
    Molecular & cellular toxicology v.3 no.1 ,pp. 53 - 59 , 2007 , 1738-642x ,

    초록

    This study was conducted to evaluate the mutagenic potential of dimethyl isophthalate (DMIP) using Ames bacterial reverse mutation test, chromosomal aberration test and mouse lymphoma $tk^{+/-}$ gene assay. As results, in Ames bacterial reversion assay, DMIP was tested up to the concentration of 5,000 ${\mu}g$ /plate and did not induce mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA with or without metabolic activation (S9 mix). Using cytotoxicity test, the maximal doses of DMIP for chromosomal aberration assay were determined at 1,250 ${\mu}g/mL$ , which was a minimum precipitation concentration ( $IC_{50}>1,940\;{\mu}g/mL$ or 10 mM) and at 155 ${\mu}g/mL$ ( $IC_{50}:155\;{\mu}g/mL$ ) in the presence and the absence, respectively, of S9 mix. DMIP in the presence of S9 mix induced statistically significant (P ${\mu}g/mL$ , when compared with the negative control. However, DMIP in the absence of S9 mix did not caused significant induction in chromosomal aberrant cells. In MLA, DMIP at the dose range of 242.5-1,940 ${\mu}g/mL$ in the presence of S9 mix induced statistically significant increases in mutation frequencies related to small colony growth, whereas any significant mutation frequency was not observed in absence of S9 mix. From these results, it is conclusively suggested that dimethyl isophthalate may be a clastogen rather than a point mutagen.

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  9. [국내논문]   Gene Expression Analysis of Hepatic Response Induced by Gentamicin in Mice   피인용횟수: 1

    Oh, Jung-Hwa (Toxicogenomics Team ) , Park, Han-Jin (Toxicogenomics Team ) , Hwang, Ji-Yoon (Toxicogenomics Team ) , Jeong, Sun-Young (Toxicogenomics Team ) , Lim, Jung-Sun (Toxicogenomics Team ) , Kim, Yong-Bum (Clinical pathology Team, Korea Institute of Toxicology ) , Yoon, Seok-Joo (Toxicogenomics Team)
    Molecular & cellular toxicology v.3 no.1 ,pp. 60 - 67 , 2007 , 1738-642x ,

    초록

    Gentamicin is a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infection. Although side effects of gentamicin such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity have been investigated, the information on the hepatic effects of gentamicin is still limited. In the present study, gene expression profiles were analyzed in the liver of gentamicin treated mice using Affymetrix GeneChip $^{(R)}$ Mouse Expression 430A 2.0 Array. Totally, 400 genes were identified as being either up- or down-regulated over 1.5-fold changes (P

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  10. [국내논문]   Examination of $\alpha$-terpinene on Primary Eye Irritancy and Skin Sensitization  

    Park, Byeoung-Soo (Institute of Ecological Phytochemistry, Hankyong National University ) , Choi, Won-Sik (Department of Life Science, Soonchunhyang University ) , Lee, Sung-Eun (Nanotoxtech. Inc.)
    Molecular & cellular toxicology v.3 no.1 ,pp. 68 - 75 , 2007 , 1738-642x ,

    초록

    [ $\alpha$ ]-Terpinene has been known as a repellent against the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett based on a human forearm bioassay. $\alpha$ -Terpinene showed significantly greater repellency than a commercial formulation, N, N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (deet). In this study, skin and eye sensitivity of $\alpha$ -terpinene (2%) was examined with bioassays using white New Zealand rabbits. There were somewhat gross and histological changes observed in these treatments. Eye irritancy assays examined gross changes to cornea, iris and conjuctiva, and histological changes to smear of ocular discharge and eye tissue. Treated rabbits were divided into two cohorts, a saline washed cohort (W) or a non-washed cohort (NW). Opacity of cornea and redness, chemosis and discharge of conjuctiva were observed in both cohorts, but disappeared within 4 and 10 days in W and NW, respectively. Main components of ocular discharges were fibrin, epithelial or epitheloid cells, lymphoid cells, erythrocytes and granulocytes. These abnormal cellular components disappeared within 4 days and 10 days in W and NW, respectively. No permanent histological differences were observed between the two cohorts. However, severe irritation was determined as 57.2 of I.I.O.I value on the first day after treatment. These findings indicate a spray-type solution containing 2% $\alpha$ -terpinene may serve as an alternative mosquito repellent and further studies need to reduce the eye irritation with formulation changes.

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    Fig. 1 이미지

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