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International journal of greenhouse gas control 26건

  1. [해외논문]   Editorial Board   SCI SCIE


    International journal of greenhouse gas control v.71 ,pp. ii - ii , 2018 , 1750-5836 ,

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  2. [해외논문]   Analysis for the speciation in CO2 loaded aqueous MEDA and MAPA solution using 13C NMR technology   SCI SCIE

    Zhang, Rui (Joint International Center for CO2 Capture and Storage (iCCS), Provincial Hunan Key Laboratory for Cost-effective Utilization of Fossil Fuel Aimed at Reducing Carbon-dioxide Emissions, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082, PR China ) , Luo, Xiao (Joint International Center for CO2 Capture and Storage (iCCS), Provincial Hunan Key Laboratory for Cost-effective Utilization of Fossil Fuel Aimed at Reducing Carbon-dioxide Emissions, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082, PR China ) , Yang, Qi (CSIRO Manufacturing, Clayton Victoria, 3168, Australia ) , Yu, Hai (CSIRO Energy, Newcastle, Australia ) , Puxty, Graeme (CSIRO Energy, Newcastle, Australia ) , Liang, Zhiwu (Joint International Center for CO2 Capture and Storage (iCCS), Provincial Hunan Key Laboratory for Cost-effective Utilization of Fossil Fuel Aimed at Reducing Carbon-dioxide Emissions, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082, PR China)
    International journal of greenhouse gas control v.71 ,pp. 1 - 8 , 2018 , 1750-5836 ,

    초록

    Abstract The competitive and cooperative reactions between the intramolecular primary and secondary amino groups in CO 2 absorption have been investigated in this work. N -Methylethylenediamine (MEDA) and N -methylpropane-1,3-diamine (MAPA) were studied with various CO 2 loadings at 25 °C. The 13 C NMR technology was employed to obtain accurate 13 C peak areas and chemical shifts for determining the concentration of each species in both of the diamine-CO 2 H 2 O systems. The results showed that the relative amounts of the species is primary-carbamate secondary-carbamate > di-carbamate in the CO 2 absorption process. Moreover, the relative hydrolysis order of the carbamates is di-carbamate > secondary-carbamate > primary-carbamate. The competitive and cooperative reaction mechanism was then proposed based on these results. Finally, it was found that in both the MEDA and the MAPA ternary systems, the whole CO 2 absorption process can be divided into three stages: competitive stage, buffer stage and hydrolysis stage, each of which showed a different trend in the amount of each species as well as in the pH value. Highlights The relationship between the intramolecular primary and secondary amino groups to reacts with CO 2 were evaluated. The CO 2 absorption process in MEDA and MAPA solution were divided into three reaction stages. The speciation in CO 2 loaded MEDA and MAPA were studied.

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  3. [해외논문]   Integration of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and chemical looping combustion (CLC) for ultra-high efficiency power generation and CO2 production   SCI SCIE

    Spallina, Vincenzo (Group of Catalysis and Porous Materials, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom ) , Nocerino, Pasquale (Group of Energy Conversion Systems, Department of Energy, Politecnico of Milano, Milano, Italy ) , Romano, Matteo C. (Group of Energy Conversion Systems, Department of Energy, Politecnico of Milano, Milano, Italy ) , van Sint Annaland, Martin (Chemical Process Intensification, Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands ) , Campanari, Stefano (Group of Energy Conversion Systems, Department of Energy, Politecnico of Milano, Milano, Italy ) , Gallucci, Fausto (Chemical Process Intensification, Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands)
    International journal of greenhouse gas control v.71 ,pp. 9 - 19 , 2018 , 1750-5836 ,

    초록

    Abstract This work presents a thermodynamic analysis of the integration of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with chemical looping combustion (CLC) in natural gas power plants. The fundamental idea of the proposed process integration is to use a dual fluidized-bed CLC process to complete the oxidation of the H 2 -CO-rich anode exhausts from the SOFC in the CLC fuel reactor while preheating the air stream to the cathode inlet temperature in the CLC air reactor. Thus, fuel oxidation can be completed in N 2 -free environment without the high energy and economic costs associated to O 2 production, avoiding at the same time the high temperature and high cost heat exchanger needed in conventional SOFC plants for air preheating. In the proposed configurations, the CLC plant is operated at mild conditions (atmospheric pressure and temperature in the range of 700–800 °C), already demonstrated in several pilot plants. Two different scenarios have been investigated: in the first one, the SOFC is designed for large-scale power generation (100 MW LHV of heat input), featuring a heat recovery steam cycle and CO 2 capture for subsequent storage. In the second scenario, the system is designed for a small-scale plant, producing 145 kg/h of pure CO 2 for industrial utilization, as a possible early market application. The main parameters affecting the plant performance, i.e. SOFC voltage (V) and S/C ratio at SOFC inlet, have been varied in a sensitivity analysis. Three different materials (Ni, Fe and Cu-based) are also compared as oxygen carriers (OCs) in the CLC unit. The integrated plant shows very high electric efficiency, exceeding 66% LHV at both small and large scale with a carbon capture ratio (CCR) of nearly 100%. It was found that, except for the cell voltage, the other operating parameters do not affect significantly the efficiency of the plant. Compared to the benchmark SOFC-based hybrid cycles using conventional CO 2 capture technologies, the SOFC-CLC power plant showed an electric efficiency ∼2 percentage points higher, without requiring high temperature heat exchangers and with a simplified process configuration. Highlights The integration of SOFC and CLC results in >66% electric efficiency with 100% CO 2 capture. An increase of SOFC voltage leads to electric efficiency of up to 72% LHV . Oxygen carrier type has no significant influence on plant efficiency. The plant can produce CO 2 at commercial scale (145 kg/h) with electric efficiency of 63% LHV .

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  4. [해외논문]   Assessing the potential to use repeated ambient noise seismic tomography to detect CO2 leaks: Application to the Aquistore storage site   SCI SCIE

    Stork, Anna L. (School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen's Rd, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK ) , Allmark, Claire (School of GeoSciences, The University of Edinburgh, Grant Institute, King's Buildings, West Mains Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, UK ) , Curtis, Andrew (School of GeoSciences, The University of Edinburgh, Grant Institute, King's Buildings, West Mains Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, UK ) , Kendall, J.-Michael (School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen's Rd, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK ) , White, Don J. (Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth St., Ottawa, ON K1A 0E8, Canada)
    International journal of greenhouse gas control v.71 ,pp. 20 - 35 , 2018 , 1750-5836 ,

    초록

    Abstract The Aquistore project in Saskatchewan, Canada provides carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage for the world's first combined commercial power plant and carbon capture and storage (CCS) project. CO 2 has been injected at a depth of 3.2 km since April 2015 and a permanent near surface geophone array provides passive seismic monitoring. The ability to identify any containment breach is a vital part of risk management and reduction for CO 2 storage sites. We therefore investigate the potential to monitor seismic velocity changes following a hypothetical leak of CO 2 from the reservoir using passive monitoring methods. We estimate the expected shear-wave velocity change with CO 2 saturation, and using data from the geophone array we investigate whether ambient noise interferometry (ANI) and a tomographic inversion for Rayleigh wave group-velocity maps could provide a suitable CO 2 leakage detection tool. To assess the repeatability of the method, we conduct, for the first time, a time-lapse ambient noise tomography survey of a CO 2 storage site to cover time periods preceding and following injection start-up. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that usable surface wave data derived from the current array configuration are sensitive to depths of ∼400 m and shallower. We do not expect to observe any changes due to CO 2 migration at such shallow depths and the estimated seismic velocities pre- and post-injection agree to within 60 m s −1 , which is on the order of double the predicted velocity change with CO 2 saturation. Therefore, due to uncertainties in travel-time picks (5–15%) and variations in the obtained velocity structure between consecutive days (up to 20%), we would be unable to resolve the expected seismic velocity change with an influx of CO 2 at 400 m (∼3–4%). Additionally, the noise source variability does not allow stable velocity estimates to be made in the time-frame of currently-available data. Consequently, in the event of a CO 2 leak at the Aquistore site, using the standard ambient noise analysis methods applied herein, Rayleigh wave tomography could be deployed to detect velocity changes due to CO 2 saturation only if (a) a wider aperture surface array was in place to allow longer period surface waves to be used, providing sensitivity at greater depths, (b) arrival times of interferometrically-synthesised surface waves could be picked with increased accuracy, and (c) there is stability of the noise source distribution between repeated surveys. However, a map of three-dimensional near surface velocities, as obtained in this study, could nevertheless be useful for near surface static corrections when using active-source seismic reflection surveys to image and monitor the reservoir. More generally, further similar studies are required to assess the applicability of ANI for leak detection at other CO 2 storage sites. Highlights Ambient noise interferometry (ANI) study to monitor the Aquistore CO 2 storage site. First pre- and post-injection noise tomography survey of a major CO 2 storage site. In specific circumstances, Rayleigh wave tomography would detect CO 2 leakage.

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  5. [해외논문]   Investigation on the thermodynamic calculation of a 35 MWth oxy-fuel combustion coal-fired boiler   SCI SCIE

    Zhang, Zewu (Corresponding authors. ) , Li, Xiaoshan (Corresponding authors.) , Luo, Cong , Zhang, Liqi , Xu, Yongqing , Wu, Yongfu , Liu, Ji , Duan, Yansong , Zheng, Chuguang
    International journal of greenhouse gas control v.71 ,pp. 36 - 45 , 2018 , 1750-5836 ,

    초록

    Abstract Oxy-fuel combustion technology is one of the most promising technologies for CO 2 capture from coal-fired power plants and is remarkably characterized by the recycled flue gas (RFG). RFGs and pure oxygen are substitute for air, which alter the thermodynamics and heat transfer features for an oxy-fuel combustion coal-fired boiler. Hence, conventional thermodynamic calculation method for air combustion need to be improved for oxy-fuel combustion. This study primarily proposed a modified thermodynamic calculation method, which is subsequently verified by the experimental data for a 35 MWth coal-fired boiler under oxy-fuel combustion with dry and wet recycle modes. Validation results indicate that the modified method could predict the temperatures well in the main heating surfaces of the boiler for oxy-fuel combustion. Given the fine distinction between calculated and experimental temperatures for the main heating surfaces, several key parameters in the main heating surfaces are corrected to improve the precision of the corrected method. Compared with air combustion, the fouling factors for oxy-fuel wet recycle and dry recycle increase, while the effective coefficients and ash deposition coefficients for oxy-fuel combustion reduce. Notably, the utilization coefficients for oxy-fuel are relative to those for air combustion. The heat transfer features in the main heating surfaces are also discussed. Consequently, heat transfer is mainly controlled by the radiative heat transfer of flue gas in the furnace and is determined by the heat capacity of flue gas in the horizontal and vertical heating surfaces under oxy-fuel combustion. Highlights A corrected thermodynamic calculation method for oxy-fuel combustion is proposed. The corrected method is verified by a 35 MWth oxy-fuel coal-fired boiler. Some parameters are corrected to improve the precision of the calculation. The heat transfer features in the heating surfaces are also investigated.

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  6. [해외논문]   Numerical analysis of mixed-mode rupture propagation of faults in reservoir-caprock system in CO2 storage   SCI SCIE

    Gheibi, Sohrab (Department of Geoscience and Petroleum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), S. P. Andersens veg 15a, 7031 Trondheim, Norway ) , Vilarrasa, Victor (Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain ) , Holt, Rune M. (Department of Geoscience and Petroleum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), S. P. Andersens veg 15a, 7031 Trondheim, Norway)
    International journal of greenhouse gas control v.71 ,pp. 46 - 61 , 2018 , 1750-5836 ,

    초록

    Abstract Injection-induced seismicity and caprock integrity are among the most important concerns in CO 2 storage operations. Understanding and minimizing fault/fracture reactivation in the first place, and rupture growth/propagation beyond its surface afterwards, are fundamental to achieve a successful deployment of geologic carbon storage projects. Rock fracture mechanics provides useful concepts to study the propagation of discontinuities such as pre-existing faults and fractures. In this paper, we aim at developing a methodology to investigate the rupture propagation likelihood of faults/fractures inside a reservoir and its surrounding (including the caprock) as a result of reservoir pressurization. In this methodology, mode I (tensile) and mode II (shear) stress intensity factors of a given fault/fracture are calculated based on Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics. A fault/fracture can propagate either in mode I, mode II or a combination of both (also called mixed-mode) based on the comparison of the stress intensity factors and fracture toughness. The proposed methodology, which has been embedded into a hybrid Finite Element Method-Discrete Element Method in-house code called MDEM, has the capability to obtain the direction of mode I and mode II rupture in front of a fault/fracture tip. Two coefficients are defined as stress intensity paths ( κ ) for a fault/fracture, as the change of stress intensity factors for the two failure modes of a given discontinuity per unit pore pressure change of the reservoir after injection. Based on these stress intensity path coefficients, a relationship is given to calculate the threshold pressure buildup above which the two propagation modes may occur. We use the proposed methodology to investigate the rupture growth likelihood of faults in and around a closed reservoir due to its pressurization. Simulation results indicate that mode I failure is likely to occur inside the reservoir for faults with low dip angle in compressional stress regimes. However, the initiated mode I failure may not have the chance to grow upwards because the minimum principal is in the vertical direction and thus, the initiated rupture tends to rotate and grow horizontally. In contrast, mode I rupture is likely to occur in the caprock for faults with high dip angle in extensional stress regimes. The initiated rupture may grow upwards if the newly created fracture becomes hydraulically connected with the reservoir. We find that mode II rupture is not likely to occur in any of the investigated scenarios. Simulation results show that the coefficients of the stress intensity factors depend on the faults location, dipping angle, fault length, presence of other faults, reservoir aspect ratio and reservoir and caprock stiffness. Highlights A LEFM-based methodology is presented to study mode I-II rupture propagation of faults/fractures after reservoir pressurization. Stress intensity path coefficients are introduced as the change of stress intensity factors per pore pressure change in the reservoir. An analytical procedure is suggested to calculate the critical overpressure to avoid rupture propagation using the stress intensity paths.

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  7. [해외논문]   Experimental study of gravitational mixing of supercritical CO2   SCI SCIE

    Newell, Dennis L. (Department of Geology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, United States ) , Carey, J. William (Earth & Environmental Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, United States ) , Backhaus, Scott N. (Materials Physics and Applications, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, United States ) , Lichtner, Peter (OFM Research, Redmond, WA 98053, United States)
    International journal of greenhouse gas control v.71 ,pp. 62 - 73 , 2018 , 1750-5836 ,

    초록

    Abstract CO 2 injection into saline aquifers for sequestration will initially result in buoyant supercritical (sc)CO 2 trapped beneath the caprock seal. During this period, there is risk of CO 2 migration out of the reservoir along wellbore defects or fracture zones. Dissolution of the scCO 2 plume into brine results in solubility trapping and reduces this risk, but based on diffusion alone, this mechanism could take thousands of years. Gravitational (density-induced) mixing of CO 2 -saturated brine is shown to significantly accelerate this process in computational studies, but few experimental efforts have confirmed the phenomenon. Here, constant-pressure, 3-dimensional bench-scale experiments used the mass of added water to quantify the mass transfer of scCO 2 into water-saturated porous media at 40–90 °C and 20 MPa, with Rayleigh numbers from 2093 to 16256. Experiments exhibit a period of 7–35X enhancement in mass transfer rates over diffusion, interpreted as gravitational mixing. Convective CO 2 flux ranges from 1.6 × 10 −2 to 4.8 × 10 −3 mol s −1 m −2 in the experiments. Results are used to benchmark a computational model using PFLOTRAN. Experiments show an early diffusive onset period that is shorter with rates much higher than predicted by models and observed in analog experiments. Both experiments and models show convective mixing periods and similar overall rates of CO 2 mass transfer. Highlights 3-D high-pressure experiments quantify the mass transfer of supercritical CO 2 into water-saturated porous media. Enhanced CO 2 mass-transfer to water via gravitational mixing experimentally measured at a range of reservoir conditions. Experimental results benchmark PFLOTRAN model simulations of density driven supercritical CO 2 –brine mixing.

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  8. [해외논문]   3D architecture of the Aquistore reservoir: Implications for CO2 flow and storage capacity   SCI SCIE

    White, D.J.
    International journal of greenhouse gas control v.71 ,pp. 74 - 85 , 2018 , 1750-5836 ,

    초록

    Abstract Quantitative assessment of the Aquistore CO 2 storage reservoir has been conducted using a 30 km 2 3D seismic volume and a suite of well logs. 3D porosity was calculated using acoustic impedance from model-based seismic inversion and a log-based porosity-impedance relation. The reservoir has a mean thickness of 219 m ±ơ = 3% comprising 51% of pay . Strata dip at ∼1.75% SSE and include a prominent SSE-NNW structural fabric dominated by a ridge that corresponds to a Precambrian basement fault and overlying flexure. Porosity maps for Black Island and Deadwood reservoir zones show mean interval porosities of 0.071 ± ơ = 18% and 0.075 ± ơ = 9%, respectively with a weak degree of directionality that is sub-parallel to the strong NNW-SSE structural trends. Lateral spread of injected CO 2 will be strongly affected by the NNW-trending structural relief and bulk porosity/permeability trends. Local topographic channels may control CO 2 flow particularly when injection rates are low and local closed topographic structures may constitute traps for CO 2 . CO 2 static capacity estimates from well-based mean values are less than comparable seismic-based estimates by Highlights Quantitative assessment of 30 km 2 reservoir at Aquistore CO 2 storage site. Log-based petrophysical relation between impedance and porosity. 3D porosity model derived from seismic impedance. Strong structural fabric will control CO 2 flow.

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  9. [해외논문]   Fate of sulfur in chemical looping combustion of gaseous fuels using a copper-based oxygen carrier   SCI SCIE

    Pachler, Robert F. (Corresponding author.) , Mayer, Karl , Penthor, Stefan , Kollerits, Mario , Hofbauer, Hermann
    International journal of greenhouse gas control v.71 ,pp. 86 - 94 , 2018 , 1750-5836 ,

    초록

    Abstract The development of the chemical looping combustion technology for gaseous fuels has reached a point where it has been demonstrated in several pilot units for several thousands of hours using a variety of oxygen carriers. So far, a lot of experimental work was focused on fuel conversion performance and life time of oxygen carrier particles. In addition to the general performance of an oxygen carrier regarding fuel conversion, it is of special interest how it interacts with fuel impurities or contaminants like sulfur. Here, it is not only of interest if and how impurities affect fuel conversion performance, but also in which composition and in which reactor stream (air reactor or fuel reactor) they leave the CLC system. This knowledge is of great importance when it comes to the requirements of exhaust gas treatment facilities in large scale units. In the present study, the fate of sulfur in chemical looping combustion has been investigated in a 120 kW th pilot unit consisting of two interconnected circulating fluidized beds using a copper based oxygen carrier prepared by impregnation on an inert alumina support. Natural gas from the grid, originally without sulfur, was used as fuel. To investigate the influence of sulfur, H 2 S has been added to the fuel stream up to a concentration of 2000 ppmv. In order to close the mass balance of sulfur, the exhaust gas streams of air and fuel reactor are analyzed against H 2 S and SO 2 . Further, solid samples of the oxygen carrier particles were taken on a regular basis to investigate potential interaction of sulfur with the particles. The contribution shows how sulfur affects the general fuel conversion performance of the oxygen carrier as well as how much H 2 S is converted to SO 2 and in which exhaust gas stream it leaves the reactor system. Measurements were performed for several temperatures in the range of 800–850 °C.

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  10. [해외논문]   Assessment of a membrane contactor process for pre-combustion CO2 capture by modelling and integrated process simulation   SCI SCIE

    Usman, Muhammad (Corresponding authors. ) , Hillestad, Magne (Corresponding authors.) , Deng, Liyuan
    International journal of greenhouse gas control v.71 ,pp. 95 - 103 , 2018 , 1750-5836 ,

    초록

    Abstract A membrane contactor process for pre-combustion CO 2 capture from shifted synthesis gas originated from IGCC power plant is assessed from the technical and economical point of views. The process is designed as pressure swing absorption and desorption in a closed loop. The design basis for process simulation were synthesis gas containing CO 2 and H 2 only, and the CO 2 capture efficiency was fixed to 90%. The CO 2 gas was absorbed in ionic liquid [bmim][TCM] inside a hydrophobic, porous hollow fibre membrane contactor. One-dimensional mathematical model of membrane contactor developed in MATLAB was integrated to the process simulation software (HYSYS) through Cape-Open simulation compiler. The energy evaluation of this process revealed that compressors are the most energy demanding process equipment. The specific energy requirement for this process is estimated 0.75 MJ/kg CO 2 . A parametric study was also performed to analyse the effect of CO 2 concentration in feed gas and liquid to gas ratio. The capital cost investment and total operating costs of CO 2 capture unit were also evaluated. The capital investment required for capturing 0.14 M ton CO 2 /year including CO 2 compression is 47.4 M $, and the operating cost per year is 9.04 M $. The membrane absorber contributed about 39% to total investment cost. The specific cost of this capture unit is calculated to be 87 $/ton CO 2 . Highlights An IL-based membrane absorption process for pre-combustion CO 2 capture was studied by simulation. The closed loop process design of the membrane absorption process was assessed and optimized. The membrane absorber model was integrated into process simulation interface (HYSYS). The parametric analysis of the process was performed. The specific energy and cost of the designed process were calculated.

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