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美術史學硏究 = Korean journal of art history 6건

  1. [국내논문]   金屬工藝의 鏤金細工技法 硏究 - 고신라 고분출토품을 중심으로  

    李榮姬
    美術史學硏究 = Korean journal of art history no.225/226 ,pp. 5 - 35 , 2000 , 1225-2565 ,

    초록

    The paper attempts to explore the origin of the filigree technique used in metal craft works of Silla dynasty. The filigree technique was first used in Mesopotamia around 2600 BC. It was transmitted to Syria and Palestine in the eastern seashore of the Mediterranean around 2000 BC, and to Egypt around 1800 BC. Afterwards, it reached the western part of the Mediterranean and highly developed in Greece and Etruria. The European filigree technique influenced Scythian gold-works through the colonizing Greeks. The filigree technique was extended in the East as far as the eastern part of Siberia. and appeared in China during the Han dynasty. During the Three Kingdoms period in Korea, the filigree technique developed at a highly refined level. particularly in Silla. This technique was used in Silla mostly for surface decoration of ear ornaments. It gradually developed from "filigree" (the golden strands decoration) to "granulation" (golden grains decoration). In the golden strands technique. beaded wire was more commonly used than plain wire. The beaded wire had gradually changed into a globular form that resembles golden grains. This seems to be intended to achieve the effect of the golden grains technique. The golden grains technique developed from the stage of decorating golden grains outlined with golden strands to the stage of decorating golden grains without golden strands. The most representative example is the surface decoration of ear ornaments such as golden small-ball earrings from Tomb no. 14 of Kyerim Road and golden large-ball earrings from Pubuch"ong (Tomb of Husband and Wife). Especially. golden strands 0.7-0.8㎜ thick and golden grains 0.67㎜ thick of golden large-ball earrings from Pubuch"ong show the highly developed technique. The development of the filigree technique in Silla is traced in a sequence from Hwangnam-daech"ong (Great tomb of Hwangnam) to Kumny ngch"ong (Tomb of golden bell): then to Tomb no.14 of Kyerim Road and Pubuch"ong. This chronicle of the filigree technique shows the same locus of the tombs of Silla. The filigree technique gradually declined as the funerary custom became simple and frugal under the influence of Buddhism. It lost its importance in metal craft due to the simplification of the burial structure and the reduction of burial goods. The filigree technique was introduced in Silla as part of the nomadic culture of the Altai and Ordos regions. This supposition is supported by the examination of the origin of the wood-lined chamber tombs with stone mounds and ear ornaments closely related to Silla filigree technique. The structural resemblance with Scythian Kurgans indicates that the wood-lined chamber tombs with stone mounds originated in Siberia and that ear ornaments were also based on those of nomadic tribes. The filigree technique that originated in ancient Orient seems to have transmitted to Altai in the Central Asia. It was then transmitted to Silla passing through the Korean peninsula via the Ordos region southwest of Mongolia. It is also suggested that the route toward Silla via Koguryo territory after the movement towards the east from the foot of Altai mountains. In conclusion, the filigree technique is an example of Central Asian influence in the art of Silla. The affinity between Silla and Central Asian arts is proved by golden crowns and glassware excavated as well as the filigree technique. The filigree technique of Silla is important not only as a technique in gold-work but also provides a clue for understanding characteristics of Silla art.

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  2. [국내논문]   尙州 靑里 고분 출토 청자 편년 연구  

    남진주
    美術史學硏究 = Korean journal of art history no.225/226 ,pp. 37 - 66 , 2000 , 1225-2565 ,

    초록

    Recent excavations of Kory tombs at Locality A of the Chung-ri site in Sangju. Ky ngsangbuk-do Province, unearthed a number of celadons of early type. presumably dated earlier than the 12th century. as well as a variant of celadon with greenish color called nokch ngja (綠靑磁). The purpose of this paper is to identify the stylistic characteristics of those finds and to establish the proper chronological order of sequence. The materials for this analysis consist of 55 celadons. 1 white porcelain. and 7 pieces of earthenware. Most of them are bottles, dishes, bowls, and basins (wan 碗) with the halo-shaped design on the bottom called haemurigup. They are classified in several types and then arranged in a chronological sequence by applying the seriation method and comparing them with the materials from other sites. The sequence thus revealed consists of: earthenware type Ⅰ: haemurigup wan. bowl type Ⅰ:, celadon bottle type Ⅰ-1. bowl with foliated rim: bowl type Ⅱ-1, dish: bowl type Ⅱ-2, celadon bottle type Ⅰ-2: bowl type Ⅲ-1, bottle with underglaze iron: bowl Ⅲ-2. By comparison with the materials from other sites each of them are dated: earthenware from the mid-9th to the early 10th centuries: haemurigup wan from the late 9th to the early 11th centuries: celadon bottle type Ⅰ-1, bowl with foliated rim from the late 9th to the mid-10th centuries: bowl type Ⅱ and Ⅲ, dish, and celadon bottle type Ⅰ-2 from the late 10th to the late 11th centuries. These dates corresponds well with the result from the seriation.

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  3. [국내논문]   博山香爐의 昇仙圖像 연구  

    朴景垠
    美術史學硏究 = Korean journal of art history no.225/226 ,pp. 67 - 101 , 2000 , 1225-2565 ,

    초록

    This study explores the symbol and meaning of the Chinese incense burner called boshanxianglu (博山香爐) focusing on its most important symbolic element, the mountain and dragon motif. Boshanxianglu, which makes its first appearance in the reign of Empreor Wu of Han Dynasty, is an incense burner in the shape of a mountain and was originally called simply "xianglu" or "xunlu" (薰爐) as other types of incense burners. However, considering that it was depicted in the scene of heavenly world in stone reliefs carved inside tombs of Han Dynasty, it is quite possible that it had a specific purpose. We find several particularities in the shape of boshanxianglu, for example, the unstable shape where a couple of mountains are stacked together on a single stem and grotesque peaks where appear fabulous wild animals chased by hunters and immortals. The smoke of the burning incense emitting through the apertures in the lid was intended to create a mysterious atmosphere of mountain and dragons, the supernatural creatures, were almost always located in its stem and base. Boshanxianglu has a close relationship with the immortality cult formulated by a new conception of immortality which was introduced in the Warring States period. The immortality cult was believed to transform human body into that of immortals and thus enable the pursuit of immortality in the paradise. Immortals were regarded as living on a high mountain that connects earth and heaven. Most of the Chinese in the period believed in the heaven where there is a sacred mountain as paradise, on which they can ascend alive. From this it is easily understandable that the cloud pattern, which was the stage of heavenly world in artifacts, slowly changed to the mountain pattern full of bushes. The most popular examples of such sacred mountains are Mt. Gunlun (崑崙山) in the west, which had a symbolic meaning as an axis mundi connecting earth and heaven and an access to the heaven of immortals from ancient times. and Mt. Penglai(蓬萊山) in the east sea, which was regarded as the realm of immortals by the fangshi (方士) of Yen and Qi during Qin and the Eastern Han. The sacred mountains were legendarily described as being narrow at the bottom and broad on the top, and their columns were vertically facing to heaven so that people believed that it was almost impossible to make an access to those mountains. We find in the tomb carvings from Han Dynasty that the sacred mountain was depicted as narrow at the bottom and wider near the peak. This shows that boshanxianglu inherited the shape of these sacred mountains. In boshanxianglu, a dragon is situated under the sacred mountains. Similar dragons are depicted as popular mounts for those ascending to heaven in silk paintings of the Warring States period. They are intermediate beings which fly from the youdu (幽都), nether world, to the realm of immortals in silk paintings found at Mawangdui (馬王堆) and on Mt. Jingque (金雀山). In Shiji (史記) it is stated that only the dragon can fly to the mountain of immortals like Mt. Gunlun. From this, we can understand easily the necessary combination of dragon and mountains of immortals in boshanxianglu. The boshanxianglu, which is a miniature model for sacred mountains, had its function as a kindred of immortal, which stems from the philosophy of sympathetic kinds causing response (同類相動) and the idea of yin and yang and the five elements (陽陰五行說). After Han Dynasty, the making of boshanxianglu and its elaborate symbolism seem to have declined. However, various aspects of boshanxianglu referred to in the literature of the Six Dynasties period are reiterated not in Chinese examples, but in a gilt-bronze incense burner found at N ngsan-ri in Puy in Korea from the Paekche period, which is normally called the "incense burner of dragon and phoenix" (百

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  4. [국내논문]   靜嘉堂 文庫 美術館 소장 十王圖의 국적에 대한 考察  

    권지연
    美術史學硏究 = Korean journal of art history no.225/226 ,pp. 103 - 126 , 2000 , 1225-2565 ,

    초록

    The "Ten Kings" at the Seikado Library, Japan, a most unusual and magnificent set of ten hanging scrolls replete with figural, landscape, flower, and decorative details, have been until now designated Important Artistic Properties by the Japanese government. Yet they have been admired without clear awareness of their provenance, likely patrons, function, and position in the evolution of Ten Kings paintings and East Asian painting at large. Through the uncovering of pertinent archaeological and textual evidence, iconographic and stylistic analysis, and the reassessment of their place in the development of Ten Kings paintings in East Asia, this study will demonstrate that the "Ten Kings" at Seikado, contrary to their present attribution to the Yuan dynasty (1286-1368), are instead most likely mid-Koryo dynasty (918-1392) paintings commissioned by the court. Comparative analysis to Koryo woodblock editions of the Ten Kings sutra in the Heainsa Repository and the Choson dynasty (1392-1910) depictions of the Ten Kings locate the Seikado set within the Ten Kings paintings tradition in Korea. Also, historical documentation on the architecture, ritual practice, and social customs in the Koryo court show great affinity corroborates the hypothesis that these paintings were likely commissioned by the Koryo royalty. In addition, formal comparisons to late Koryo paintings will suggest an earlier date than the 13th- and 14th-century Koryo Buddhist paintings known until now. In the end, the Ten kings at Seikado fill an important gap in the history of Korean painting and also stand as significant and unique painting monuments in the history of East Asian art.

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  5. [국내논문]   道敎 神仙 劉海蟾 圖像의 形成에 대하여  

    趙仁秀
    美術史學硏究 = Korean journal of art history no.225/226 ,pp. 127 - 148 , 2000 , 1225-2565 ,

    초록

    The search for immortality is one of the major Daoist concepts, and religious Daoism has developed a cult of immortals. Consequently, the Daoist immortals have been extremely popular motifs in Chinese painting. However, paintings of Daoist immortals have not been treated as an important topic in Chinese art history. As a first step toward a general understanding of the iconography of Daoist immortals, this article discusses one immortal, Liu Haichan, as a case study. Liu Haichan was a court official in the 10th century and later became a Daoist. He has been worshipped as the fourth patriarch of the Quanzhen school, one of the largest schools of religious Daoism since the 13th century. From the middle of the Ming dynasty, he has been extraordinarily popular and has gradually been transformed into a folk symbol of good fortune. In art, Liu Haichan is usually represented carrying a three-legged toad and appears as a young Daoist wanderer. Since the cult of Liu Haichan spread widely for a long time, pictorial representations of him do not exhibit a consistent iconography. Discrepancies also exist between Liu Haichan"s visual images and literary descriptions. In fact, the most distinctive iconographic motif, an auspicious three-legged toad, is totally missing in the pre-Qing texts. Therefore, the original identity of this immortal can be controversial. Some scholars have hesitated to identify him as Liu Haichan and named him tentatively the "Toad Immortal." Recently scholars have suggested new identifications. For example, Arming Jing renamed the "Toad Immortal" as Helan Qizhen (?-1010), a Daoist master in the Five Dynasties and the early Song periods. Houmei Song suggests another candidate, Ge Xuan (164-244) of the later Han Dynasty. However, this new identification is still dubious, and those candidates do not sufficiently qualify. Since the "Toad Immortal" has been identified as Liu Haichan after the mid-Ming period, he is still a highly probable figure for the original "Toad Immortal." Most of later knowledge of Liu Haichan strongly relies on Yuan-period Daoist hagiographies. As in the cases of other Daoist immortals. many legendary stories are included in Liu Haichan"s hagiography, and it has been fabricated through later periods. In the Song dynasty, records of Liu Haichan are found not only in Daoist literature but also in biji or note-form literature. To reconstruct Liu Haichan"s image, the information in biji draws our special attention because it clearly describes Liu Haichan as an eccentric wanderer and becomes a significant clue to identifying the "Toad Immoral In Song biji records, Liu Haichan appears as a strange and mysterious figure but displays supernatural abilities. Biji literature and many other vernacular stories of him may have been transmitted and become the main sources of the Yuan hagiographies. Since the typical iconography of the "Toad Immortal" is similar to Liu Haichan"s image in several biji records of the Song Dynasty, Liu Haichan could have been the prototype for the "Toad Immortal." Considering Liu Haichan"s popularity during the Song dynasty, we can assume that his icon originated in the Song Dynasty. However, there are no extant examples of Liu Haichan"s image from the Song Dynasty, and the earliest extant image of Liu Haichan is dated to the Yuan dynasty. His image was a popular subject-matter from the Ming dynasty onward. Relying on popular belief and literature, this article examines the formation of Liu Haichan"s iconography. And this study helps us to understand the radical transformation of his iconography in later period and other similar cases of popular immortals and deities.

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  6. [국내논문]   學會消息  

    편집부
    美術史學硏究 = Korean journal of art history no.225/226 ,pp. 149 - 152 , 2000 , 1225-2565 ,

    초록

    The search for immortality is one of the major Daoist concepts, and religious Daoism has developed a cult of immortals. Consequently, the Daoist immortals have been extremely popular motifs in Chinese painting. However, paintings of Daoist immortals have not been treated as an important topic in Chinese art history. As a first step toward a general understanding of the iconography of Daoist immortals, this article discusses one immortal, Liu Haichan, as a case study. Liu Haichan was a court official in the 10th century and later became a Daoist. He has been worshipped as the fourth patriarch of the Quanzhen school, one of the largest schools of religious Daoism since the 13th century. From the middle of the Ming dynasty, he has been extraordinarily popular and has gradually been transformed into a folk symbol of good fortune. In art, Liu Haichan is usually represented carrying a three-legged toad and appears as a young Daoist wanderer. Since the cult of Liu Haichan spread widely for a long time, pictorial representations of him do not exhibit a consistent iconography. Discrepancies also exist between Liu Haichan"s visual images and literary descriptions. In fact, the most distinctive iconographic motif, an auspicious three-legged toad, is totally missing in the pre-Qing texts. Therefore, the original identity of this immortal can be controversial. Some scholars have hesitated to identify him as Liu Haichan and named him tentatively the "Toad Immortal." Recently scholars have suggested new identifications. For example, Arming Jing renamed the "Toad Immortal" as Helan Qizhen (?-1010), a Daoist master in the Five Dynasties and the early Song periods. Houmei Song suggests another candidate, Ge Xuan (164-244) of the later Han Dynasty. However, this new identification is still dubious, and those candidates do not sufficiently qualify. Since the "Toad Immortal" has been identified as Liu Haichan after the mid-Ming period, he is still a highly probable figure for the original "Toad Immortal." Most of later knowledge of Liu Haichan strongly relies on Yuan-period Daoist hagiographies. As in the cases of other Daoist immortals. many legendary stories are included in Liu Haichan"s hagiography, and it has been fabricated through later periods. In the Song dynasty, records of Liu Haichan are found not only in Daoist literature but also in biji or note-form literature. To reconstruct Liu Haichan"s image, the information in biji draws our special attention because it clearly describes Liu Haichan as an eccentric wanderer and becomes a significant clue to identifying the "Toad Immoral In Song biji records, Liu Haichan appears as a strange and mysterious figure but displays supernatural abilities. Biji literature and many other vernacular stories of him may have been transmitted and become the main sources of the Yuan hagiographies. Since the typical iconography of the "Toad Immortal" is similar to Liu Haichan"s image in several biji records of the Song Dynasty, Liu Haichan could have been the prototype for the "Toad Immortal." Considering Liu Haichan"s popularity during the Song dynasty, we can assume that his icon originated in the Song Dynasty. However, there are no extant examples of Liu Haichan"s image from the Song Dynasty, and the earliest extant image of Liu Haichan is dated to the Yuan dynasty. His image was a popular subject-matter from the Ming dynasty onward. Relying on popular belief and literature, this article examines the formation of Liu Haichan"s iconography. And this study helps us to understand the radical transformation of his iconography in later period and other similar cases of popular immortals and deities.

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