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Drinking water engineering and science 4건

  1. [해외논문]   Optimized photodegradation of Bisphenol A in water using ZnO, TiO2 and SnO2 photocatalysts under UV radiation as a decontamination procedure  

    Abo, Rudy , Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji , Merkel, Broder J.
    Drinking water engineering and science v.9 no.2 ,pp. 27 - 35 , 2016 , 1996-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract. Experiments on photodegradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) were carried out in water samples by means photocatalytic and photo-oxidation methods in the presence of ZnO, TiO 2 and SnO 2 catalysts. The objective of this study was to develop an improved technique that can be used as a remediation procedure for a BPA-contaminated surface water and groundwater based on the UV solar radiation. The photodegradation of BPA in water performed under a low-intensity UV source mimics the UVC and UVA spectrum of solar radiation between 254 and 365 nm. The archived results reveal higher degradation rates observed in the presence of ZnO than with TiO 2 and SnO 2 catalysts during 20 h of irradiation. The intervention of the advanced photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reduces the time of degradation to less than 1 h to reach a degradation rate of 90 % for BPA in water. The study proposes the use of ZnO as a competitor catalyst to the traditional TiO 2 , providing the most effective treatment of contaminated water with phenolic products.

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  2. [해외논문]   Application of machine learning for real-time evaluation of salinity (or TDS) in drinking water using photonic sensors  

    Roy, Sandip Kumar , Sharan, Preeta
    Drinking water engineering and science v.9 no.2 ,pp. 37 - 45 , 2016 , 1996-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract. The world is facing an unprecedented problem in safeguarding 0.4 % of potable water, which is gradually depleting day-by-day. From a literature survey it has been observed that the refractive index (RI) of water changes with a change in salinity or total dissolved solids (TDS). In this paper we have proposed an automatic system that can be used for real-time evaluation of salinity or TDS in drinking water. A photonic crystal (PhC) based ring resonator sensor has been designed and simulated using the MEEP (MIT Electromagnetic Equation Propagation) tool and the finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm. The modelled and designed sensor is highly sensitive to the changes in the RI of a water sample. This work includes a real-time-based natural sequence follower, which is a machine learning algorithm of the naive Bayesian type, a sequence of statistical algorithms implemented in MATLAB with reference to training data to analyse the sample water. Further interfacing has been done using the Raspberry Pi device to provide an easy display to show the result of water analysis. The main advantage of the designed sensor with an interface is to check whether the salinity or TDS in drinking water is less than 1000 ppm or not. If it is greater than or equal to 2000 ppm, the display shows “High Salinity/TDS Observed”, and if ppm are less than or equal to 1000 ppm, then the display shows “Low salinity/TDS Observed”. The proposed sensor is highly sensitive and it can detect changes in TDS level because of the influence of any dissolved substance in water.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Do low-cost ceramic water filters improve water security in rural South Africa?  

    Lange, Jens , Materne, Tineke , Grü , ner, Jö , rg
    Drinking water engineering and science v.9 no.2 ,pp. 47 - 55 , 2016 , 1996-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract. This study examined the performance of a low-cost ceramic candle filter system (CCFS) for point of use (POU) drinking water treatment in the village of Hobeni, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. CCFSs were distributed in Hobeni and a survey was carried out among their users. The performance of 51 CCFSs was evaluated by dip slides and related to human factors. Already after two-thirds of their specified lifetime, none of the distributed CCFSs produced water without distinct contamination, and more than one-third even deteriorated in hygienic water quality. Besides the water source (springs were preferable compared to river or rain water), a high water throughput was the dominant reason for poor CCFS performance. A stepwise laboratory test documented the negative effects of repeated loading and ambient field temperatures. These findings suggest that not every CCFS type per se guarantees improved drinking water security and that the efficiency of low-cost systems should continuously be monitored. For this purpose, dip slides were found to be a cost-efficient alternative to standard laboratory tests. They consistently underestimated microbial counts but can be used by laypersons and hence by the users themselves to assess critical contamination of their filter systems.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Investigation of the relationship between drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components and landform classes using fuzzy AHP (case study: south of Firozabad, west of Fars province, Iran)  

    Mokarram, Marzieh , Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh
    Drinking water engineering and science v.9 no.2 ,pp. 57 - 67 , 2016 , 1996-9457 ,

    초록

    Abstract. In this study, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to study the relationship between drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components and landform classes in the south of Firozabad, west of Fars province, Iran. For determination of drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components, parameters of calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), thorium (TH), sodium (Na), electrical conductivity (EC), sulfate (SO 4 ), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were used. It was found that 8.29 % of the study area has low water quality; 64.01 %, moderate; 23.33 %, high; and 4.38 %, very high. Areas with suitable drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components are located in parts of the south-eastern and south-western parts of the study area. The relationship between landform class and drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components shows that drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components is high in the stream, valleys, upland drainages, and local ridge classes, and low in the plain small and midslope classes. In fact we can predict water quality using extraction of landform classes from a digital elevation model (DEM) by the Topographic Position Index (TPI) method, so that streams, valleys, upland drainages, and local ridge classes have more water quality than the other classes. In the study we determined that without measurement of water sample characteristics, we can determine water quality by landform classes.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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