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Animals an open access journal from MDPI 41건

  1. [해외논문]   Effects of Dietary Yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisia ) Supplementation in Practical Diets of Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus )  

    Ozó (CIMAR/CIIMAR, Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, 4050-123, Portugal ) , rio, Rodrigo O. A. (Universidade Federal do Paraná, Palotina, Paraná, 85950-000, Brazil) , Portz, Leandro (E-Mail: lportz@ufpr.br ) , Borghesi, Ricardo (Departamento de Zootecnia, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Setor Piscicultura, 13418-900, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil) , Cyrino, José (E-Mails: borghesi@cpap.embrapa.br (R.B)) , E. P. (jepcyrin@esalq.usp.br (J.E.P.C) )
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.2 no.4 ,pp. 16 - 24 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the increasing impact of the aquaculture activities on fisheries resources. Aquaculture sector uses 2–5 times more fishmeal to feed farmed species than what is supplied by the farmed product. Therefore, the reduction of fishmeal dependency may provide more economic and environmentally friendly aquaculture. By identifying alternative protein sources, the authors find that brewer's yeast is a suitable raw material as fishmeal replacement in feed of tilapia. The 15% inclusion may promote growth without affecting the end-product quality. Abstract A 51-day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of various dietary levels of brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , in the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus , juveniles. Fish (7.6 ± 0.3 g) were stocked into eighteen 1,000-L tanks (100 fish per tank; n = 3) and fed to apparent satiation six isonitrogenous (27% crude protein) and isoenergetic (19 kJ/g) diets, formulated to contain different dried yeast levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% or 40% diet) in substitution to fishmeal. Body weight tripled at the end of the feeding trial for fish fed up to 20% dietary yeast incorporation. Daily growth coefficient (DGC, % body weight/day) decreased with increasing dietary yeast level ( P

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  2. [해외논문]   The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments: An Evaluation with Bias  

    Prankel, Susanne
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.2 no.4 ,pp. 25 - 26 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the increasing impact of the aquaculture activities on fisheries resources. Aquaculture sector uses 2–5 times more fishmeal to feed farmed species than what is supplied by the farmed product. Therefore, the reduction of fishmeal dependency may provide more economic and environmentally friendly aquaculture. By identifying alternative protein sources, the authors find that brewer's yeast is a suitable raw material as fishmeal replacement in feed of tilapia. The 15% inclusion may promote growth without affecting the end-product quality. Abstract A 51-day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of various dietary levels of brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , in the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus , juveniles. Fish (7.6 ± 0.3 g) were stocked into eighteen 1,000-L tanks (100 fish per tank; n = 3) and fed to apparent satiation six isonitrogenous (27% crude protein) and isoenergetic (19 kJ/g) diets, formulated to contain different dried yeast levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% or 40% diet) in substitution to fishmeal. Body weight tripled at the end of the feeding trial for fish fed up to 20% dietary yeast incorporation. Daily growth coefficient (DGC, % body weight/day) decreased with increasing dietary yeast level ( P

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  3. [해외논문]   Social Environment and Control Status of Companion Animal-Borne Zoonoses in Japan  

    Takahashi-Omoe, Hiromi (Science and Technology Foresight Center, National Institute of Science and Technology Policy, Kasumigaseki 3-2-2, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0013, Japan ) , Omoe, Katsuhiko (Disease Control and Environmental Sciences, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Iwate University, Ueda 3-18-8, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan)
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.2 no.4 ,pp. 38 - 54 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary The risk of companion animal-borne zoonoses has been rising in Japan with the tendency for increasing number of households to ever-growing numbers and varieties of animals as pets. In response, the Japanese government has implemented measures for the domestic and border control of zoonoses. However, it is impossible to determine whether these measures have adequately controlled the transmission of companion animal-borne zoonoses, due to a lack of (i) direct evidence linking companion animal involvement in disease and (ii) understanding of current trends in disease outbreak. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data necessary to make this determination and identify these trends. Abstract Changing social and environmental factors have been the cause of an increase in the number and variety of animals are being imported into Japan. Moreover, the number of Japanese households are keeping companion animals has also risen. These factors, along with the high density of the Japanese population and the low percentage of registered dogs, have increased the risk of animal-to-human transmission of zoonoses. To control zoonosis outbreaks, the Japanese government has implemented a three-stage approach for the border control of zoonoses and has stipulated the monitoring and reporting of eight companion animal-borne zoonoses under the Rabies Prevention Law and the Infectious Diseases Control Law. The fact that no case of human and animal rabies has been reported over the past 50 years indicates that these measures are highly effective in preventing rabies transmission. Although it is known that the total number of possible companion animal-borne zoonosis outbreaks decreased between 2005 and 2009 when compared with numbers between 2001 and 2004, the number of zoonosis cases that can be attributed to transmission by companion animals remains unclear. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data necessary to determine this number and identify trends in companion-animal transmitted diseases. Using the data collected, regulation systems should be evaluated to determine whether they have met reasonable goals and policy planning conducted for the control of emerging diseases.

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  4. [해외논문]   Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets  

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.2 no.4 ,pp. 55 - 67 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human foods have been shown to have health benefits. We investigated the potential to incorporate them into rabbit meat by adding them to the diet. Good relationships between dietary fatty acids (FAs) and their content in longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of rabbits was established, especially the latter. The results should make it possible to enhance the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of rabbit meat, with benefits to the health of human consumers. Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds) as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA) sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA) analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R 2 = 0.94) and perirenal fat (R 2 = 0.96).

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  5. [해외논문]   Analysis of Animal Research Ethics Committee Membership at American Institutions  

    Hansen, Lawrence A. (Departments of Neurosciences and Pathology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA) , Goodman, Justin R. (E-Mail: lahansen@ucsd.edu ) , Chandna, Alka (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, 1536 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA)
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.2 no.4 ,pp. 68 - 75 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary This study analyzed the membership of animal experimentation oversight committees at leading U.S. research institutions. We found the leadership and general membership of these committees to be dominated by animal researchers and the remainder of the committees to be largely comprised of other institutional representatives. These arrangements may contribute to previously-documented committee biases in favor of approving animal experiments and dilute input from the few members representing animal welfare and the interests of the general public. Abstract Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) were created to review, approve and oversee animal experiments and to balance the interests of researchers, animals, institutions and the general public. This study analyzed the overall membership of IACUCs at leading U.S. research institutions. We found that these committees and their leadership are comprised of a preponderance of animal researchers, as well as other members who are affiliated with each institution; some of whom also work in animal laboratories. This overwhelming presence of animal research and institutional interests may dilute input from the few IACUC members representing animal welfare and the general public, contribute to previously-documented committee bias in favor of approving animal experiments and reduce the overall objectivity and effectiveness of the oversight system.

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  6. [해외논문]   The Interaction Between Dietary Valine and Tryptophan Content and Their Effect on the Performance of Piglets  

    Millet, Sam
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.2 no.4 ,pp. 76 - 84 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary To optimize animal performance, pig diets need the right amount of all essential amino acids. Usually, the ideal amino acid profile is used: If the dietary concentration of one particular amino acid is too low, other amino acids will not be used efficiently. In this experiment it was shown that amino acids that stimulate the feed intake may improve the performance of pigs, even if other amino acids are not at the optimal level. Abstract Four experimental diets for newly weaned pigs were formulated: (1) low valine and low tryptophan; (2) low valine and high tryptophan; (3) high valine and low tryptophan and (4) high valine and high tryptophan. Dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine content was 1.06 g/kg. The SID valine to SID lysine ratio was 0.58 and 0.67 for the low and high valine diets, respectively, and SID tryptophan to SID lysine ratios were 0.19 and 0.22 for the low and high tryptophan diets, respectively. In total, 64 pens of 6 pigs (3 barrows and 3 gilts) were divided over the four experimental treatments. No interaction between dietary supply of valine and tryptophan was observed ( P > 0.1 for all parameters). Increasing the dietary valine content increased the daily feed intake, daily gain and gain:feed ( P P P

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  7. [해외논문]   Bias During the Evaluation of Animal Studies?  

    Knight, Andrew
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.2 no.4 ,pp. 85 - 92 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary Animal experimentation evokes strong emotional responses in people on both sides of the debate surrounding its ethical status. However, the true level of its usefulness to society may only be discerned by careful examination of reliable scientific evidence. My recent book, The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments , reviewed more than 500 relevant scientific publications. Recently in this journal, however, a reviewer essentially accused me of bias. Yet the conclusions of my book are based on sound reasoning and strong evidence, and no critic has yet provided any substantive evidence to refute them. Abstract My recent book entitled The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments seeks to answer a key question within animal ethics, namely: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable? Or, more precisely, is it justifiable within the utilitarian cost:benefit framework that fundamentally underpins most regulations governing animal experimentation? To answer this question I reviewed more than 500 scientific publications describing animal studies, animal welfare impacts, and alternative research, toxicity testing and educational methodologies. To minimise bias I focused primarily on large-scale systematic reviews that had examined the human clinical and toxicological utility of animal studies. Despite this, Dr. Susanne Prankel recently reviewed my book in this journal, essentially accusing me of bias. However, she failed to provide any substantive evidence to refute my conclusions, let alone evidence of similar weight to that on which they are based. Those conclusions are, in fact, firmly based on utilitarian ethical reasoning, informed by scientific evidence of considerable strength, and I believe they are robust.

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  8. [해외논문]   Livestock Helminths in a Changing Climate: Approaches and Restrictions to Meaningful Predictions  

    Fox, Naomi J. (SAC, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK) , Marion, Glenn (E-Mails: naomi.fox@sac.ac.uk (N.J.F)) , Davidson, Ross S. (ross.davidson@sac.ac.uk (R.S.D) ) , White, Piran C. L. (Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ, UK) , Hutchings, Michael R. (E-Mail: glenn@bioss.ac.uk )
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.2 no.4 ,pp. 93 - 107 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary Parasitic helminths represent one of the most pervasive challenges to livestock, and their intensity and distribution will be influenced by climate change. There is a need for long-term predictions to identify potential risks and highlight opportunities for control. We explore the approaches to modelling future helminth risk to livestock under climate change. One of the limitations to model creation is the lack of purpose driven data collection. We also conclude that models need to include a broad view of the livestock system to generate meaningful predictions. Abstract Climate change is a driving force for livestock parasite risk. This is especially true for helminths including the nematodes Haemonchus contortus , Teladorsagia circumcincta , Nematodirus battus , and the trematode Fasciola hepatica, since survival and development of free-living stages is chiefly affected by temperature and moisture. The paucity of long term predictions of helminth risk under climate change has driven us to explore optimal modelling approaches and identify current bottlenecks to generating meaningful predictions. We classify approaches as correlative or mechanistic, exploring their strengths and limitations. Climate is one aspect of a complex system and, at the farm level, husbandry has a dominant influence on helminth transmission. Continuing environmental change will necessitate the adoption of mitigation and adaptation strategies in husbandry. Long term predictive models need to have the architecture to incorporate these changes. Ultimately, an optimal modelling approach is likely to combine mechanistic processes and physiological thresholds with correlative bioclimatic modelling, incorporating changes in livestock husbandry and disease control. Irrespective of approach, the principal limitation to parasite predictions is the availability of active surveillance data and empirical data on physiological responses to climate variables. By combining improved empirical data and refined models with a broad view of the livestock system, robust projections of helminth risk can be developed.

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  9. [해외논문]   Carbon Footprints for Food of Animal Origin: What are the Most Preferable Criteria to Measure Animal Yields?  

    Flachowsky, Gerhard (Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany ) , Kamphues, Josef (Institute of Animal Nutrition, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany)
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.2 no.4 ,pp. 108 - 126 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary Greenhouse gas emissions from animal production are substantial contributors to global emissions. Therefore Carbon Footprints (CF) were introduced to compare emissions from various foods of animal origin. The CF for food of animal origin depends on a number of influencing factors such as animal species, type of production, feeding of animals, level of animal performance, system boundaries and output/endpoints of production. Milk and egg yields are more clearly defined animal outputs of production than food from slaughtered animals. Body weight gain, carcass weight gain, meat, edible fractions of carcass or edible protein are measurable outputs of slaughtered animals. The pros and contras of various outcomes under special consideration of edible protein are discussed in this paper. Abstract There are increasing efforts to determine the origin of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activities (including food consumption) and to identify, apply and exploit reduction potentials. Low emissions are generally the result of increased efficiency in resource utilization. Considering climate related factors, the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and laughing gas are summarized to so-called carbon footprints (CF). The CF for food of animal origin such as milk, eggs, meat and fish depend on a number of influencing factors such as animal species, type of production, feeding of animals, animal performance, system boundaries and outputs of production. Milk and egg yields are more clearly defined animal yields or outcomes of production than food from the carcasses of animals. Possible endpoints of growing/slaughter animals are body weight gain, carcass weight gain (warm or cold), meat, edible fractions or edible protein. The production of edible protein of animal origin may be considered as one of the main objectives of animal husbandry in many countries. On the other hand, the efficiency of various lines of production and the CF per product can also be easily compared on the basis of edible protein. The pros and contras of various outputs of animal production under special consideration of edible protein are discussed in the paper.

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  10. [해외논문]   Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems  

    Capper, Judith L.
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.2 no.4 ,pp. 127 - 143 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary The environmental impact of three beef production systems was assessed using a deterministic model. Conventional beef production (finished in feedlots with growth-enhancing technology) required the fewest animals, and least land, water and fossil fuels to produce a set quantity of beef. The carbon footprint of conventional beef production was lower than that of either natural (feedlot finished with no growth-enhancing technology) or grass-fed (forage-fed, no growth-enhancing technology) systems. All beef production systems are potentially sustainable; yet the environmental impacts of differing systems should be communicated to consumers to allow a scientific basis for dietary choices. Abstract This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 10 9 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON), natural (NAT) and grass-fed (GFD) production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate) in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 10 9 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 10 9 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 10 9 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 10 3 t), intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 10 3 t) and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 10 3 t). The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

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