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Animals an open access journal from MDPI 12건

  1. [해외논문]   The Experience of Being a Guide Dog Puppy Raiser Volunteer: A Longitudinal Qualitative Collective Case Study  

    Chur-Hansen, Anna (School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia) , Werner, Lucy-Kate (E-Mails: lucyw@live.com.au (L.-K.W.)) , McGuiness, Clare E. (clare.mcguiness@adelaide.edu.au (C.E.M.) ) , Hazel, Susan (School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia) , Phillips, Clive J. C. (E-Mails: lucyw@live.com.au (L.-K.W.))
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.5 no.1 ,pp. 1 - 12 , 2015 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary Guide dogs are important service animals. They cannot be trained without the input of volunteer puppy raisers, who serve as custodians for the animals for around 12 months. To date very little research has considered the experience of being a guide dog puppy raiser, including the costs and benefits to psychological, physical and social health. In this study one litter of puppies and their raisers were followed from before the animal arrived until one year had passed. Overall, less positive experiences were reported than more negative ones. This has implications for the organisations that seek volunteers to raise service animals. Abstract There are no published studies that consider the experiences of guide dog puppy raisers. As these people are volunteers, their continued willingness to participate in the training of dogs for assisting the vision impaired and blind is essential for the viability of guide dog schools around the world. Using a qualitative, longitudinal methodology, data were collected from nine guide dog puppy raisers at four time points: before receiving the puppy, one week, then three months after the puppy arrived, and 13 months after the puppy arrived (at which time all puppies had left the raisers). Participants reported more challenges than benefits in raising the puppies. Volunteering to be a guide dog puppy raiser may not be the pleasant experience that is anticipated when community members first offer their services. Understanding what it is like to be a puppy raiser and working towards ways in which to address problems is essential, given that, without volunteers to train and care for puppies, vision impaired and blind people would not have access to guide dogs.

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  2. [해외논문]   Loading and Unloading Finishing Pigs: Effects of Bedding Types, Ramp Angle, and Bedding Moisture  

    Garcia, Arlene , McGlone, John J.
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.5 no.1 ,pp. 13 - 26 , 2015 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary Current guidelines suggest the use of ramps below 20 degrees to load and unload pigs; however, they do not suggest the use of any specific bedding. Bedding types (nothing, feed, sand, wood shavings, and hay) were tested with finishing pigs (70–120 kg) to determine which was most effective in reducing slips, falls, and vocalizations at three ramp angles, two moisture levels, over two seasons. Slips, falls, and vocalizations were summed to establish a scoring system for the types of beddings. Heart rate and the total time it took to load and unload pigs, increased as the slope increased. Bedding, bedding moisture, season, and ramp slope interacted to impact the total time it took for finishing pigs to load and unload the ramp. Selection of the best bedding depends on ramp slope, season, and wetness of bedding. Abstract The use of non-slip surfaces during loading and unloading of finishing pigs plays an important role in animal welfare and economics of the pork industry. Currently, the guidelines available only suggest the use of ramps with a slope below 20 degrees to load and unload pigs. However, the total time it takes to load and unload animals and slips, falls, and vocalizations are a welfare concern. Three ramp angles (0, 10 or 20 degrees), five bedding materials (nothing, sand, feed, wood shavings or wheat straw hay), two moistures (dry or wet bedding, >50% moisture) over two seasons (>23.9 °C summer, p p p p

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Selecting a Conservation Surrogate Species for Small Fragmented Habitats Using Ecological Niche Modelling  

    Nekaris, K. Anne-Isola , Arnell, Andrew P. , Svensson, Magdalena S.
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.5 no.1 ,pp. 27 - 40 , 2015 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary Large “charismatic” animals (with widespread popular appeal) are often used as flagship species to raise awareness for conservation. Deforestation and forest fragmentation are among the main threats to biodiversity, and in many places such species are disappearing. In this paper we aim to find a suitable species among the less charismatic animal species left in the fragmented forests of South-western Sri Lanka. We selected ten candidates, using a questionnaire survey along with computer modelling of their distributions. The red slender loris and the fishing cat came out as finalists as they were both appealing to local people, and fulfilled selected ecological criteria. Abstract Flagship species are traditionally large, charismatic animals used to rally conservation efforts. Accepted flagship definitions suggest they need only fulfil a strategic role, unlike umbrella species that are used to shelter cohabitant taxa. The criteria used to select both flagship and umbrella species may not stand up in the face of dramatic forest loss, where remaining fragments may only contain species that do not suit either set of criteria. The Cinderella species concept covers aesthetically pleasing and overlooked species that fulfil the criteria of flagships or umbrellas. Such species are also more likely to occur in fragmented habitats. We tested Cinderella criteria on mammals in the fragmented forests of the Sri Lankan Wet Zone. We selected taxa that fulfilled both strategic and ecological roles. We created a shortlist of ten species, and from a survey of local perceptions highlighted two finalists. We tested these for umbrella characteristics against the original shortlist, utilizing Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modelling, and analysed distribution overlap using ArcGIS. The criteria highlighted Loris tardigradus tardigradus and Prionailurus viverrinus as finalists, with the former having highest flagship potential. We suggest Cinderella species can be effective conservation surrogates especially in habitats where traditional flagship species have been extirpated.

    원문보기

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Animals in 2014  


    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.5 no.1 ,pp. 41 - 42 , 2015 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary Large “charismatic” animals (with widespread popular appeal) are often used as flagship species to raise awareness for conservation. Deforestation and forest fragmentation are among the main threats to biodiversity, and in many places such species are disappearing. In this paper we aim to find a suitable species among the less charismatic animal species left in the fragmented forests of South-western Sri Lanka. We selected ten candidates, using a questionnaire survey along with computer modelling of their distributions. The red slender loris and the fishing cat came out as finalists as they were both appealing to local people, and fulfilled selected ecological criteria. Abstract Flagship species are traditionally large, charismatic animals used to rally conservation efforts. Accepted flagship definitions suggest they need only fulfil a strategic role, unlike umbrella species that are used to shelter cohabitant taxa. The criteria used to select both flagship and umbrella species may not stand up in the face of dramatic forest loss, where remaining fragments may only contain species that do not suit either set of criteria. The Cinderella species concept covers aesthetically pleasing and overlooked species that fulfil the criteria of flagships or umbrellas. Such species are also more likely to occur in fragmented habitats. We tested Cinderella criteria on mammals in the fragmented forests of the Sri Lankan Wet Zone. We selected taxa that fulfilled both strategic and ecological roles. We created a shortlist of ten species, and from a survey of local perceptions highlighted two finalists. We tested these for umbrella characteristics against the original shortlist, utilizing Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modelling, and analysed distribution overlap using ArcGIS. The criteria highlighted Loris tardigradus tardigradus and Prionailurus viverrinus as finalists, with the former having highest flagship potential. We suggest Cinderella species can be effective conservation surrogates especially in habitats where traditional flagship species have been extirpated.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  5. [해외논문]   Pet Food Palatability Evaluation: A Review of Standard Assay Techniques and Interpretation of Results with a Primary Focus on Limitations  

    Aldrich, Gregory C. (Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA) , Koppel, Kadri (E-Mail: aldrich4@ksu.edu ) , Chambers, Edgar (Sensory Analysis Center, Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, 1310 Research Park Drive, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA) , von Keyserlingk, Marina
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.5 no.1 ,pp. 43 - 55 , 2015 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary Palatability of pet foods is typically measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl test. While these tests give a general understanding of the liking or preference of one food over another, opportunities exist for further method development. Abstract The pet food industry continues to grow steadily as a result of new innovative products. Quality control and product development tests for pet foods are typically conducted through palatability testing with dogs and cats. Palatability is the measure of intake of a food that indicates acceptance or the measure of preference of one food over another. Pet food palatability is most commonly measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl assay. While these tests answer some questions about the animals' perception of the food, there are many limitations as well. This review addresses some of these limitations and indicates opportunities for future research.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [해외논문]   Evaluating the Age-Dependent Potential for Protein Deposition in Naked Neck Meat Type Chicken  

    Khan, Daulat R. (Division Animal Nutrition Physiology, Department of Animal Sciences, Georg-August-University, Kellnerweg 6, 37077 Goettingen, Germany) , Wecke, Christian (E-Mails: dkhan@gwdg.de (D.R.K.)) , Sharifi, Ahmad R. (cwecke@gwdg.de (C.W.) ) , Liebert, Frank (Division Animal Nutrition Physiology, Department of Animal Sciences, Georg-August-University, Kellnerweg 6, 37077 Goettingen, Germany)
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.5 no.1 ,pp. 56 - 70 , 2015 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary Growth rates of fast-growing chickens are reduced by a higher ambient temperature (AT) because of difficulties in dissipating heat through the feather coverage. Naked neck meat type genotypes could be helpful in increasing the tolerance for high AT. However, basic model parameters of this genotype necessary to further assess amino acid requirements are as yet unavailable. The experiments were conducted to estimate both the daily nitrogen maintenance requirement (NMR) and the potential for daily nitrogen retention NR max T). These observed model parameters provide the basic information to characterize the growth potential of the genotype for further application in modeling of individual amino acid requirements of naked neck meat type chicken. Abstract The introduction of the naked neck gene ( Na ) into modern meat type chicken is known to be helpful in increasing the tolerance for a high ambient temperature (AT) by reducing the feather coverage which allows for a higher level of heat dissipation compared to normally feathered ( na / na ) birds. In addition, reduced feather coverage could affect requirements for sulfur containing amino acids. As a prerequisite for further modeling of individual amino acid requirements, the daily N maintenance requirement (NMR) and the threshold value of daily N retention (NR max T) were determined. This was carried out using graded dietary protein supply and exponential modeling between N intake (NI) and N excretion (NEX) or N deposition (ND), respectively. Studies with homozygous ( Na / Na ) and heterozygous ( Na / na ) naked neck meat type chicken utilized 144 birds of average weight (50% of each genotype and sex) within two N balance experiments during both the starter (days 10–20) and the grower period (days 25–35). Birds were randomly allotted to five diets with graded dietary protein supply but constant protein quality. The observed estimates depending on genotype, sex and age varied for NMR and NR max T from 224 to 395 and 2881 to 4049 mg N/BW kg 0.67 /day, respectively.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  7. [해외논문]   Modification of the Feline-Ality™ Assessment and the Ability to Predict Adopted Cats' Behaviors in Their New Homes   SCOPUS

    Weiss, Emily (Shelter Research and Development, Community Outreach, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA ), 3201 Winding Way, Palm City, FL 34990, USA ) , Gramann, Shannon (Shelter Research and Development, Community Outreach, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA ), 2340 S. 80th Street, West Allis, WI 53219, USA) , Drain, Natasha (E-Mail: shannon.gramann@aspca.org ) , Dolan, Emily (Shelter Research and Development, Community Outreach, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA ), P.O. Box 4323, Arlington, VA 22204, USA) , Slater, Margaret (E-Mail: natasha.drain@aspca.org )
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.5 no.1 ,pp. 71 - 88 , 2015 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary While millions of cats enter animal shelters every year, only 11.5% of pet cats are obtained from a shelter in the United States. Previous research has indicated that unrealistic expectations set by adopters can increase the chances of an adopted cat returning to the shelter. The ASPCA ? 's Meet Your Match ? Feline-ality™ adoption program was designed to provide adopters with accurate information about an adult cat's future behavior in the home. This research explored the ability of the modified Feline-ality™ assessment when done one day after the cat entered the shelter. Our modified version was predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Abstract It is estimated that 2.5 million cats enter animal shelters in the United States every year and as few as 20% leave the shelter alive. Of those adopted, the greatest risk to post-adoption human animal bond is unrealistic expectations set by the adopter. The ASPCA ? 's Meet Your Match ? Feline-ality™ adoption program was developed to provide adopters with an accurate assessment of an adult cat's future behavior in the home. However, the original Feline-ality™ required a three-day hold time to collect cat behaviors on a data card, which was challenging for some shelters. This research involved creating a survey to determine in-home feline behavior post adoption and explored the predictive ability of the in-shelter assessment without the data card. Our results show that the original Feline-ality™ assessment and our modified version were predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Our modified version also decreased hold time for cats to one day. Shelters interested in increasing cat adoptions, decreasing length of stay and improving the adoption experience can now implement the modified version for future feline adoption success.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows   SCOPUS

    Fiems, Leo O. , De Boever, Johan L. , Vanacker, José , M. , De Campeneere, Sam
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.5 no.1 ,pp. 89 - 100 , 2015 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. This technique showed that maintenance energy requirements of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef cows were close to the mean requirements of cows of other beef genotypes. Abstract Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW 0.75 /d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level ( p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements ( p

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  9. [해외논문]   The Choice of Diet Affects the Oral Health of the Domestic Cat.  

    Mata, Fernando
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.5 no.1 ,pp. 101 - 109 , 2015 ,

    초록

    In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were "quadrant", "teeth type", "age", and "diet". Teeth type (p 0.05). Interactions were all significant: age x teeth (p

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  10. [해외논문]   The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability   SCOPUS

    Koppel, Kadri (Sensory Analysis Center, Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, 1310 Research Park Drive, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA) , Monti, Mariana (E-Mail: briziod@ksu.edu ) , Gibson, Michael (Department of Veterinary Clinic and Surgery, College of Agricultural and Veterinarian Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14.884-900, Brazil) , Alavi, Sajid (E-Mails: mariana_814@hotmail.com (M.M.)) , Donfrancesco, Brizio Di (aulus.carciofi@gmail.com (A.C.) ) , Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri (Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA)
    Animals an open access journal from MDPI v.5 no.1 ,pp. 110 - 125 , 2015 ,

    초록

    Simple Summary The results from this research indicate that fibers have an effect on extruded pet food texture and palatability. These results may help pet food companies select ingredients for successful product formulations. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers.

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