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Cells 70건

  1. [해외논문]   Cells - An Open Access Journal of Cell Biology  

    Lin, Shu-Kun
    Cells v.1 no.4 ,pp. 1 - 2 , 2012 ,

    초록

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   ELISPOT Refinement Using Spot Morphology for Assessing Host Responses to Tuberculosis  

    Sibley, Laura S. , White, Andrew D. , Marriott, Alice , Dennis, Michael J. , Williams, Ann , Marsh, Philip D. , Sharpe, Sally A.
    Cells v.1 no.4 ,pp. 5 - 14 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Tuberculosis is a global health problem. The Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine has variable efficacy (0-80%) so there is a drive to develop novel vaccines. The cytokine, interferon gamma (IFNγ), is an essential component of the protective response to M. tuberculosis ( M. tb ) infection and is also produced in response to BCG vaccination. Induction of an IFNγ response is used as a biomarker of successful vaccination in the assessment of new tuberculosis (TB) vaccines. The IFNγ ELISPOT assay provides an important tool for TB research. It is used for both the diagnosis of infection (T.Spot assay), and for the evaluation of the immunogenicity of new TB vaccine candidates in human clinical trials, in the non-human primate (NHP) model of TB infection studies. The ELISPOT assay captures IFNγ produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following specific stimulation, onto a membrane so individual cells can be enumerated and the frequency of responding cells determined. Hence spot forming units (SFU) per 10 6 cells provide the traditional measure for ELISPOT assays. The discriminatory power of SFU is limited. In some situations, the number of SFU in BCG vaccinated, and unvaccinated, subjects was found to be similar, although the spots were observed to be larger in vaccinated subjects. Spot size potentially provides a measure of the quantity of cytokine produced by individual cells. The AID ELISPOT plate reader software used to determine frequency of spots also has the capability to determine the size of each spot. Consideration of spot size in combination with spot forming units was investigated in our studies of BCG immunogenicity. This additional readout was found to enhance the discriminatory power of the ELISPOT assay, and provide more information on the immune response to BCG vaccination and infection with M.tb .

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  3. [해외논문]   Comparison of ELISpot and FluoroSpot in the Analysis of Swine Flu-Specific IgG and IgA Secretion by in Vivo Activated Human B Cells  

    Kesa, Gun , Larsson, Per H. , Ahlborg, Niklas , Axelsson, Bernt
    Cells v.1 no.4 ,pp. 27 - 34 , 2012 ,

    초록

    We have evaluated a novel B-cell FluoroSpot assay for the analysis of antibody responses in healthy individuals vaccinated intramuscularly with Influenza A (H1N1) antigen (Pandemrix ? , GlaxoSmithKline). Using the FluoroSpot assay and an ELISpot assay run in parallel for comparison, we measured the frequency of cells secreting antigen-specific as well as total IgG or IgA antibodies seven days post vaccination. The assays were based on high affinity monoclonal antibodies for capture and detection of human IgG and IgA. Whereas conventional ELISpot analyzes IgG- and IgA-secreting B cells separately, fluorescent detection enabled simultaneous enumeration of B cells secreting IgG or IgA in the same well. The FluoroSpot protocol was also simpler as the assay could be performed without the need for an amplifying detection step. While having all the advantages of a conventional ELISpot assay, including high sensitivity, robustness and ease of performance, the FluoroSpot assay adds further value in reducing costs, time and material.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  4. [해외논문]   Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-Specific Perforin and Granzyme B ELISPOT Assays Detect Reactivation of CMV Infection in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

    Nowacki, Tobias M. (Department of Medicine B, University of Münster, Münster 48149, Germany) , Bettenworth, Dominik (E-Mails: tobias.nowacki@ukmuenster.de (T.M.N.)) , Ross, Matthias (dominik.bettenworth@ukmuenster.de (D.B.)) , Heidemann, Jan (matthias.ross@ukmuenster.de (M.R.)) , Lehmann, Paul V. (jan.heidemann@ukmuenster.de (J.H.) ) , Lü (Department of Medicine B, University of Münster, Münster 48149, Germany) , gering, Andreas (E-Mails: tobias.nowacki@ukmuenster.de (T.M.N.))
    Cells v.1 no.4 ,pp. 35 - 50 , 2012 ,

    초록

    The role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has been unresolved. Typically, the CMV genome remains dormant in infected cells, but a breakdown of immune surveillance can lead to re-activation of viral replication in the gut mucosa, which is not necessarily associated with viremia or changes in antibody titers. We hypothesized that the detection of CMV-specific CD8 effector T cells should permit the distinction between dormant and active CMV infection. As CD8 effector T cells, unlike memory CD8 T cells, have perforin (PFN) and granzyme B (GzB) preformed in their cytoplasmic granules, we employed single cell resolution ELISPOT assays to measure the CMV antigen-triggered release of these molecules by CD8 T cells isolated from subjects with IBD, and age-matched healthy controls. The frequencies of CMV-specific (GzB) and PFN-producing CD8 T cells were increased in IBD patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the increased CMV reactivity was associated with active IBD disease and with longer disease duration. Notably, PCR on serum frequently failed to detect CMV DNA during flares. The data show that during active IBD there is a flare of CD8 T cell activity against CMV in a substantial proportion of IBD patients, suggesting CMV reactivation that serum PCR does not detect. While it remains open whether CMV reactivation is a cause or consequence of IBD, our data suggest that monitoring CMV antigen-specific effector CD8 T cells with GzB and PFN ELISPOT analysis can provide novel insights into the role of CMV infection in IBD. Additionally, our data have implications for the fields of transplantation, HIV, cancer, and autoimmune diseases, in all of which patient care critically depends on sensitive and reliable detection of a reactivation of CMV infection.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  5. [해외논문]   Characterization of Spontaneous Immune Responses against Long Peptides Derived from Bcl-X(L) in Cancer Patients Using Elispot  

    Larsen, Stine Kiaer , Hansen, Morten , Svane, Inge Marie , Straten, Per Thor , Andersen, Mads Hald
    Cells v.1 no.4 ,pp. 51 - 60 , 2012 ,

    초록

    In recent years we and others have used the ELISPOT assay successfully to identify novel tumor antigens by the characterization of spontaneous HLA class I restricted immune responses against a number of minimal 9–10 amino acid long peptide epitopes. In the present study, we examined the capability of using longer peptides when scrutinizing Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PMBC) from melanoma patients for spontaneous immunity by means of ELISPOT IFN-γ secretion assay. To this end, we examined PBMC for the presence of specific T-cell responses against long peptides derived from the tumor associated antigen BCL-X(L). The protein product of the larger BCL-X(L) differs from Bcl-X(S) protein by an inserted region (amino acids 126–188). Thus, we scrutinized eight long peptides covering this inserted region for spontaneous immunity. The peptides were overlapping and consisted of 20–23 amino acids. PBMC were pre-stimulated with peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DC) and subjected to the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Four of the BCL-X(L) derived peptides elicited very frequent responses in several patients. Additionally, in all patients responses against more than one of the peptides could be detected. In conclusion several long BCL-X(L) derived peptide epitopes exist, which may be used in anti-cancer immunity. Furthermore, the ELISPOT assay offers an attractive and sensitive method for the characterization of spontaneous immune reactivity against long peptides.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [해외논문]   Increased Level of IFN-γ and IL-4 Spot-Forming Cells on ELISPOT Assay as Biomarkers for Acute Graft- Versus -Host Disease and Concurrent Infections  

    Hirayama, Masahiro , Azuma, Eiichi , Komada, Yoshihiro
    Cells v.1 no.4 ,pp. 61 - 73 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Acute graft- versus -host disease (aGVHD) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Infections may coexist and in certain circumstances aggravate aGVHD. It was described that type 1 as well as type 2 cytokines are important mediators of aGVHD. We measured spot-forming cells (SFCs) for interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-17 in unstimulated peripheral blood from 80 patients with hematological disorders who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by using the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay that reflects the ongoing in vivo immune status. A serial monitoring showed that both type 1 and type 2 cytokine SFCs were correlated with aGVHD activity. The numbers of IFN-γ and IL-4 SFCs in patients with grade II-IV aGVHD were significantly higher than those in patients with grade 0 and/or I aGVHD. Elevation of IFN-γ and IL-4 SFCs was significantly correlated with the severity of aGVHD, but not with infection itself, e.g., cytomegalovirus infection. Cytokine SFCs are clinically relevant biomarkers for the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation of aGVHD and concurrent infection.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  7. [해외논문]   Immunohistochemistry of Programmed Cell Death in Archival Human Pathology Specimens  

    Hasui, Kazuhisa (Division of Immunology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Institute Research Center (Health Research Course), Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Sakuragaoka 8-35-1, Kagoshima 890-8544, Japan) , Nagai, Taku (Email: tanaga@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp (T.N.)) , Wang, Jia (wangjia0829jp@yahoo.co.jp (J.W.)) , Jia, Xinshan (matuyama@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp (T.M.) ) , Aozasa, Katsuyuki (Division of Immunology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Institute Research Center (Health Research Course), Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Sakuragaoka 8-35-1, Kagoshima 890-8544, Japan) , Izumo, Shuji (Email: tanaga@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp (T.N.)) , Kawano, Yoshifumi (wangjia0829jp@yahoo.co.jp (J.W.)) , Kanekura, Takuro (matuyama@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp (T.M.) ) , Eizuru, Yoshito (Division of Immunology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Institute Research Center (Health Research Course), Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Sakuragaoka 8-35-1, Kagoshima 890-8544, Japan) , Matsuyama, Takami (Email: tanaga@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp (T.N.))
    Cells v.1 no.4 ,pp. 74 - 88 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detecting key signal molecules involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in archival human pathology specimens is fairly well established. Detection of cleaved caspase-3 in lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gastric surface foveolar glandular epithelia but not in synoviocytes in RA, gastric fundic glandular epithelia, or nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) cells suggests anti-apoptotic mechanisms in cell differentiation and in oncogenesis such as the induction of survivin. Enzymatically pretreated and ultra-super sensitive detection of beclin-1 in synoviocytes in RA and gastric fundic glandular epithelia suggests enhanced autophagy. The deposition of beclin-1 in fibrinoid necrosis in RA and expression of beclin-1 in detached gastric fundic glandular cells suggest that enhanced autophagy undergoes autophagic cell death (ACD). NKTCL exhibited enhanced autophagy through LC3 labeling and showed densely LC3 labeled cell-debris in regions of peculiar necrosis without deposition of beclin-1, indicating massive ACD in NKTCL and the alternative pathway enhancing autophagy following autophagic vesicle nucleation. Autophagy progression was monitored by labeling aggregated mitochondria and cathepsin D. The cell-debris in massive ACD in NKTCL were positive for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, suggesting DNA oxidation occurred in ACD. Immunohistochemical autophagy and PCD analysis in archival human pathology specimens may offer new insights into autophagy in humans.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  8. [해외논문]   Distinguishing Latent from Active Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Using Elispot Assays: Looking Beyond Interferon-gamma  

    Tincati, Camilla (Department of Medicine, Surgery, and Dentistry, Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, 20142 Milan, Italy) , Cappione III, Amedeo J. (Email: camilla.tincati@unimi.it ) , Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer E. (EMD Millipore Corporation, 17 Cherry Hill Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA)
    Cells v.1 no.4 ,pp. 89 - 99 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a global heath epidemic, its threat amplified by HIV infection and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Interferon (IFN)-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have improved the accuracy of detection of MTB exposure in some subject groups as compared to the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST). However, as IFN-gamma is produced by both fully rested and more recently activated populations of memory T cells, it is not surprising that the measurement of this cytokine alone cannot accurately distinguish Latent TB Infected (LTBI) subjects from those with active (infectious) disease. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of infectious individuals would allow medication to be properly allocated and other actions taken to more effectively curtail MTB spread. Analysis of multi-cytokine profiles ex vivo after stimulation of PBMCs from LTBI and active MTB subjects indicate the real possibility of successfully discerning these two disease states within 24 hours of a subject's blood draw. Due to the unparalleled sensitivity, low cost, and ease of use of Elispot assays, we propose that via a multiplex Elispot platform the accurate distinction of LTBI from active MTB-infected individuals is within reach.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  9. [해외논문]   Role of ELISPOT Assays in Risk Assessment Pre- and Post-Kidney Transplantation  

    Zitzner, Jennifer R. , Tambur, Anat R.
    Cells v.1 no.4 ,pp. 100 - 110 , 2012 ,

    초록

    Immunologic risk in kidney transplantation is typically minimized by avoiding, or at least limiting, the potential of donor specific humoral responses by testing for the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA). Additionally, selecting donor and recipient pairs with the least number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches has been shown to play a role in transplant outcome. However, numerous other factors may play a role in the success of transplant outcome and patient health. Specifically, the use of T-cell allospecific ELISPOT assays have helped elucidate the role of pre-formed cellular responses as additional factors in post-transplant outcome. In this review, we will evaluate numerous uses of ELISPOT assays to assess the pre- and post-transplant immunologic risk of rejection episodes, graft survival and even viral susceptibility as well as the utility of ELISPOT assays in monitoring tolerance and withdrawal of immunosuppressive medications following kidney transplantation.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  10. [해외논문]   ELISPOT Assay for Monitoring Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) Activity in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials  

    Malyguine, Anatoli M. (Applied and Developmental Research Support Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702, USA) , Strobl, Susan (E-Mails: stroblsl@mail.nih.gov (S.S.)) , Dunham, Kimberly (dunhamk@mail.nih.gov (K.D.) ) , Shurin, Michael R. (Applied and Developmental Research Support Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702, USA) , Sayers, Thomas J. (E-Mails: stroblsl@mail.nih.gov (S.S.))
    Cells v.1 no.4 ,pp. 111 - 126 , 2012 ,

    초록

    The profiling and monitoring of immune responses are key elements in the evaluation of the efficacy and development of new biotherapies, and a number of assays have been introduced for analyzing various immune parameters before, during, and after immunotherapy. The choice of immune assays for a given clinical trial depends on the known or suggested immunomodulating mechanisms associated with the tested therapeutic modality. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity represents a key mechanism in the immune response to various pathogens and tumors. Therefore, the selection of monitoring methods for the appropriate assessment of cell-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be crucial. Assays that can detect both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) frequency and function, such as the IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) have gained increasing popularity for monitoring clinical trials and in basic research. Results from various clinical trials, including peptide and whole tumor cell vaccination and cytokine treatment, have shown the suitability of the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay for monitoring T cell responses. However, the Granzyme B ELISPOT assay and Perforin ELISPOT assay may represent a more direct analysis of cell-mediated cytotoxicity as compared to the IFN-γ ELISPOT, since Granzyme B and perforin are the key mediators of target cell death via the granule-mediated pathway. In this review we analyze our own data and the data reported by others with regard to the application of various modifications of ELISPOT assays for monitoring CTL activity in clinical vaccine trials.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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