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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of... 104건

  1. [해외논문]   An apamin-sensitive Ca2+-activated K+ current in hippocampal pyramidal neurons.  

    Stocker, M , Krause, M , Pedarzani, P
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4662 - 4667 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    In hippocampal and other cortical neurons, action potentials are followed by afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) generated by the activation of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels). By shaping the neuronal firing pattern, these AHPs contribute to the regulation of excitability and to the encoding function of neurons. Here we report that CA1 pyramidal neurons express an AHP current that is suppressed by apamin and is involved in the control of repetitive firing. This current presents distinct kinetic and pharmacological features, and it is modulated differently than the apamin-insensitive slow AHP current. Furthermore, our in situ hybridizations show that the apamin-sensitive SK subunits are expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, providing a potential molecular correlate to the apamin-sensitive AHP current. Altogether, these results clarify the discrepancy between the reported high density of apamin-binding sites in the CA1 region and the apparent lack of an apamin-sensitive current in CA1 pyramidal neurons, and they may explain the effects of this toxin on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Cyclopentenone prostaglandins suppress activation of microglia: down-regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2.  

    Petrova, T V , Akama, K T , Van Eldik, L J
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4668 - 4673 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Mechanisms leading to down-regulation of activated microglia and astrocytes are poorly understood, in spite of the potentially detrimental role of activated glia in neurodegeneration. Prostaglandins, produced both by neurons and glia, may serve as mediators of glial and neuronal functions. We examined the influence of cyclopentenone prostaglandins and their precursors on activated glia. As models of glial activation, production of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) was studied in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat microglia, a murine microglial cell line BV-2, and IL-1beta-stimulated rat astrocytes. Cyclopentenone prostaglandins were potent inhibitors of iNOS induction and were more effective than their precursors, prostaglandins E2 and D2. 15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) was the most potent prostaglandin among those tested. In activated microglia, 15d-PGJ2 suppressed iNOS promoter activity, iNOS mRNA, and protein levels. The action of 15d-PGJ2 does not appear to involve its nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) because troglitazone, a specific ligand of PPARgamma, was unable to inhibit iNOS induction, and neither troglitazone nor 15d-PGJ2 could stimulate the activity of a PPAR-dependent promoter in the absence of cotransfected PPARgamma. 15d-PGJ2 did not block nuclear translocation or DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor NFkappaB, but it did inhibit the activity of an NFkappaB reporter construct, suggesting that the mechanism of suppression of microglial iNOS by 15d-PGJ2 may involve interference with NFkappaB transcriptional activity in the nucleus. Thus, our data suggest the existence of a novel pathway mediated by cyclopentenone prostaglandins, which may represent part of a feedback mechanism leading to the cessation of inflammatory glial responses in the brain.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Cyclopentenone prostaglandins suppress activation of microglia: Down-regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase by 15-deoxy- 12,14-prostaglandin J2  

    Petrova, T. V. , Akama, K. T. , Van Eldik, L. J.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4668 - 4673 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Mechanisms leading to down-regulation of activated microglia and astrocytes are poorly understood, in spite of the potentially detrimental role of activated glia in neurodegeneration. Prostaglandins, produced both by neurons and glia, may serve as mediators of glial and neuronal functions. We examined the influence of cyclopentenone prostaglandins and their precursors on activated glia. As models of glial activation, production of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) was studied in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat microglia, a murine microglial cell line BV-2, and IL-1beta-stimulated rat astrocytes. Cyclopentenone prostaglandins were potent inhibitors of iNOS induction and were more effective than their precursors, prostaglandins E2 and D2. 15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) was the most potent prostaglandin among those tested. In activated microglia, 15d-PGJ2 suppressed iNOS promoter activity, iNOS mRNA, and protein levels. The action of 15d-PGJ2 does not appear to involve its nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) because troglitazone, a specific ligand of PPARgamma, was unable to inhibit iNOS induction, and neither troglitazone nor 15d-PGJ2 could stimulate the activity of a PPAR-dependent promoter in the absence of cotransfected PPARgamma. 15d-PGJ2 did not block nuclear translocation or DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor NFkappaB, but it did inhibit the activity of an NFkappaB reporter construct, suggesting that the mechanism of suppression of microglial iNOS by 15d-PGJ2 may involve interference with NFkappaB transcriptional activity in the nucleus. Thus, our data suggest the existence of a novel pathway mediated by cyclopentenone prostaglandins, which may represent part of a feedback mechanism leading to the cessation of inflammatory glial responses in the brain.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Seasonal neuroplasticity in the songbird telencephalon: a role for melatonin.  

    Bentley, G E , Van't Hof, T J , Ball, G F
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4674 - 4679 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Neuroplasticity in the vocal control system of songbirds is strongly influenced by seasonal fluctuations in circulating testosterone. These seasonally plastic telencephalic structures are implicated in the learning and production of song in songbirds. The role of the indoleamine melatonin in seasonal adaptations in birds has remained unclear. In this experiment, European starlings were castrated to remove the neuromodulating activity of gonadal steroids and were exposed to different photoperiods to induce reproductive states characteristic of different seasonal conditions. Long days increased the volume of the song-control nucleus high vocal center compared with its volume on short days. Exogenous melatonin attenuated the long-day-induced volumetric increase in high vocal center and also decreased the volume of another song-control nucleus, area X. This effect was observed regardless of reproductive state. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence of a role for melatonin in functional plasticity within the central nervous system of vertebrates.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   The neutral cysteine protease bleomycin hydrolase is essential for epidermal integrity and bleomycin resistance.  

    Schwartz, D R , Homanics, G E , Hoyt, D G , Klein, E , Abernethy, J , Lazo, J S
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4680 - 4685 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    The papain superfamily member bleomycin hydrolase (Blmh) is a neutral cysteine protease with structural similarity to a 20S proteasome. Bleomycin (BLM), a clinically used glycopeptide anticancer agent, is deaminated in vitro by Blmh. We used gene targeting to generate mice that lack Blmh and demonstrated that Blmh is the sole enzyme required for BLM deamination. Although some Blmh null mice were viable and reproduced, only about 65% of the expected number survived the neonatal period, revealing an important role for Blmh in neonatal survival. Mice lacking Blmh exhibited variably penetrant tail dermatitis that resembled rodent ringtail. The histopathology of the tail dermatitis was similar to skin lesions in humans with pellagra, necrolytic migratory erythema, and acrodermatitis enteropathica. Compared with controls, Blmh null mice were more sensitive to acute BLM lethality and developed pulmonary fibrosis more readily following BLM treatment. Thus, we have established that Blmh is an essential protectant against BLM-induced death and has an important role in neonatal survival and in maintaining epidermal integrity.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [해외논문]   Estrogen-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase requires mobilization of intracellular calcium.  

    Improta-Brears, T , Whorton, A R , Codazzi, F , York, J D , Meyer, T , McDonnell, D P
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4686 - 4691 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Estrogens and growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) act as mitogens promoting cellular proliferation in the breast and in the reproductive tract. Although it was considered originally that these agents manifested their mitogenic actions through separate pathways, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the EGF and estrogen-mediated signaling pathways are intertwined. Indeed, it has been demonstrated recently that 17beta-estradiol (E2) can induce a rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in mammalian cells, an event that is independent of both transcription and protein synthesis. In this study, we have used a pharmacological approach to dissect this novel pathway in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and have determined that in the presence of endogenous estrogen receptor, activation of MAPK by E2 is preceded by a rapid increase in cytosolic calcium. The involvement of intracellular calcium in this process was supported by the finding that the presence of EGTA and Ca2+-free medium did not affect the activation of MAPK by E2 and, additionally, that this response was blocked by the addition of the intracellular calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate. Cumulatively, these data indicate that the estrogen receptor, in addition to functioning as a transcription factor, is also involved, through a nongenomic mechanism, in the regulation of both intracellular calcium homeostasis and MAPK-signaling pathways. Although nongenomic actions of estrogens have been suggested by numerous studies in the past, the ability to link estradiol and the estrogen receptor to a well defined signaling pathway strongly supports a physiological role for this activity.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   Stable expression of human beta1,4-galactosyltransferase in plant cells modifies N-linked glycosylation patterns.  

    Palacpac, N Q , Yoshida, S , Sakai, H , Kimura, Y , Fujiyama, K , Yoshida, T , Seki, T
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4692 - 4697 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    beta1,4-Galactosyltransferase (UDP galactose: beta-N-acetylglucosaminide: beta1,4-galactosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1. 22) catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-Gal to N-acetylglucosamine in the penultimate stages of the terminal glycosylation of N-linked complex oligosaccharides in mammalian cells. Tobacco BY2 cells lack this Golgi enzyme. To determine to what extent the production of a mammalian glycosyltransferase can alter the glycosylation pathway of plant cells, tobacco BY2 suspension-cultured cells were stably transformed with the full-length human galactosyltransferase gene placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The expression was confirmed by assaying enzymatic activity as well as by Southern and Western blotting. The transformant with the highest level of enzymatic activity has glycans with galactose residues at the terminal nonreducing ends, indicating the successful modification of the plant cell N-glycosylation pathway. Analysis of the oligosaccharide structures shows that the galactosylated N-glycans account for 47.3% of the total sugar chains. In addition, the absence of the dominant xylosidated- and fucosylated-type sugar chains confirms that the transformed cells can be used to produce glycoproteins without the highly immunogenic glycans typically found in plants. These results demonstrate the synthesis in plants of N-linked glycans with modified and defined sugar chain structures similar to mammalian glycoproteins.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  8. [해외논문]   Stable expression of human 1,4-galactosyltransferase in plant cells modifies N-linked glycosylation patterns  

    Palacpac, N. Q. , Yoshida, S. , Sakai, H. , Kimura, Y. , Fujiyama, K. , Yoshida, T. , Seki, T.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4692 - 4697 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    beta1,4-Galactosyltransferase (UDP galactose: beta-N-acetylglucosaminide: beta1,4-galactosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1. 22) catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-Gal to N-acetylglucosamine in the penultimate stages of the terminal glycosylation of N-linked complex oligosaccharides in mammalian cells. Tobacco BY2 cells lack this Golgi enzyme. To determine to what extent the production of a mammalian glycosyltransferase can alter the glycosylation pathway of plant cells, tobacco BY2 suspension-cultured cells were stably transformed with the full-length human galactosyltransferase gene placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The expression was confirmed by assaying enzymatic activity as well as by Southern and Western blotting. The transformant with the highest level of enzymatic activity has glycans with galactose residues at the terminal nonreducing ends, indicating the successful modification of the plant cell N-glycosylation pathway. Analysis of the oligosaccharide structures shows that the galactosylated N-glycans account for 47.3% of the total sugar chains. In addition, the absence of the dominant xylosidated- and fucosylated-type sugar chains confirms that the transformed cells can be used to produce glycoproteins without the highly immunogenic glycans typically found in plants. These results demonstrate the synthesis in plants of N-linked glycans with modified and defined sugar chain structures similar to mammalian glycoproteins.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   Molecular cloning and functional expression of gibberellin 2- oxidases, multifunctional enzymes involved in gibberellin deactivation.  

    Thomas, S G , Phillips, A L , Hedden, P
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4698 - 4703 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    A major catabolic pathway for the gibberellins (GAs) is initiated by 2beta-hydroxylation, a reaction catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. To isolate a GA 2beta-hydroxylase cDNA clone we used functional screening of a cDNA library from developing cotyledons of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.) with a highly sensitive tritium-release assay for enzyme activity. The encoded protein, obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, converted GA9 to GA51 (2beta-hydroxyGA9) and GA51-catabolite, the latter produced from GA51 by further oxidation at C-2. The enzyme thus is multifunctional and is best described as a GA 2-oxidase. The recombinant enzyme also 2beta-hydroxylated other C19-GAs, although only GA9 and GA4 were converted to the corresponding catabolites. Three related cDNAs, corresponding to gene sequences present in Arabidopsis thaliana databases, also encoded functional GA 2-oxidases. Transcripts for two of the Arabidopsis genes were abundant in upper stems, flowers, and siliques, but the third transcript was not detected by Northern analysis. Transcript abundance for the two most highly expressed genes was lower in apices of the GA-deficient ga1-2 mutant of Arabidopsis than in wild-type plants and increased after treatment of the mutant with GA3. This up-regulation of GA 2-oxidase gene expression by GA contrasts GA-induced down-regulation of genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes GA 20-oxidase and GA 3beta-hydroxylase. These mechanisms would serve to maintain the concentrations of biologically active GAs in plant tissues.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   Ligand specificity of a high-affinity binding site for lipo-chitooligosaccharidic nod factors in medicago cell suspension cultures  

    Gressent, F , Drouillard, S , Mantegazza, N , Samain, E , Geremia, RA , Canut, H , Niebel, A , Driguez, H , Ranjeva, R , Cullimore, J , Bono, JJ
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4704 - 4709 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Rhizobial lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are signaling molecules involved in host-range recognition for the establishment of the symbiosis with leguminous plants. The major LCO of Rhizobium meliloti, the symbiont of Medicago plants contains four or five N-acetylglucosamines, O-acetylated and N-acylated with a C16:2 fatty acid on the terminal nonreducing sugar and O-sulfated on the reducing sugar. In this paper, the ligand specificity of a high-affinity binding site (Nod factor binding site 2 or NFBS2), enriched in a plasma membrane-enriched fraction of Medicago cell suspension cultures, is reported. By using chemically synthesized LCOs, the role of structural elements, important for symbiotic activities, as recognition motifs for NFBS2 was determined. The results show that the substitutions on the nonreducing sugar of the LCOs (the O-acetate group, the fatty acid, and the hydroxyl group on the C4 of the sugar) are determinants for high-affinity binding to NFBS2. In contrast, the sulfate group, which is necessary for all biological activities on Medicago, is not discriminated by NFBS2. However, the reducing sugar of the LCO seems to interact with NFBS2, because ligand binding is affected by the reduction of the free anomeric carbon and depends on the number of N-acetyl glucosamine residues. These results suggest that the recognition of the LCOs by NFBS2 is mediated by structural elements in both the lipid and oligosaccharidic moities, but not by the sulfate group.

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    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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