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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of... 104건

  1. [해외논문]   Natural allelic variation at seed size loci in relation to other life history traits of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

    Alonso-Blanco, C , Blankestijn-de Vries, H , Hanhart, C J , Koornneef, M
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4710 - 4717 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    We have analyzed two Arabidopsis strains differing in the mean seed size and seed number they produced. The accession Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) yielded on average about 40% fewer seeds than the laboratory strain Landsberg erecta (Ler), but Cvi seeds were almost twice as heavy. Maternal and nonmaternal genetic factors were involved in the seed size variation, and interactions between both types of factors presumably occurred. The Ler/Cvi seed size difference increased through seed development from ovule maturation until seed desiccation, suggesting that multiple processes of seed development were affected. In addition, it involved changes in the final cell number and cell size of the seed coat and the embryo. Cell number variation was controlled mainly by maternal factors, whereas nonmaternal allelic variation mostly affected cell size. By using a recombinant inbred line population derived from Ler and Cvi, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting 12 life history traits related to seed size, fruit size, seed number, and plant resources. Five of the seed size QTLs colocated with QTLs for other traits, suggesting that they control seed size via maternal components affecting ovule number and/or carpel development, ovule development, or reproductive resource allocation in the mother plant. The six remaining putative seed size QTLs did not show a significant effect on any other trait, suggesting that this allelic variation may be involved specifically in seed development processes.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Genes for calcineurin B-like proteins in Arabidopsis are differentially regulated by stress signals.  

    Kudla, J , Xu, Q , Harter, K , Gruissem, W , Luan, S
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4718 - 4723 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    An important effector of Ca2+ signaling in animals and yeast is the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin. However, the biochemical identity of plant calcineurin remained elusive. Here we report the molecular characterization of AtCBL (Arabidopsis thaliana calcineurin B-like protein) from Arabidopsis. The protein is most similar to mammalian calcineurin B, the regulatory subunit of the phosphatase. AtCBL also shows significant similarity with another Ca2+-binding protein, the neuronal calcium sensor in animals. It contains typical EF-hand motifs with Ca2+-binding capability, as confirmed by in vitro Ca2+-binding assays, and it interacts in vivo with rat calcineurin A in the yeast two-hybrid system. Interaction of AtCBL1 and rat calcineurin A complemented the salt-sensitive phenotype in a yeast calcineurin B mutant. Cloning of cDNAs revealed that AtCBL proteins are encoded by a family of at least six genes in Arabidopsis. Genes for three isoforms were identified in this study. AtCBL1 mRNA was preferentially expressed in stems and roots and its mRNA levels strongly increased in response to specific stress signals such as drought, cold, and wounding. In contrast, AtCBL2 and AtCBL3 are constitutively expressed under all conditions investigated. Our data suggest that AtCBL1 may act as a regulatory subunit of a plant calcineurin-like activity mediating calcium signaling under certain stress conditions.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  3. [해외논문]   Psychophysical isolation of a motion-processing deficit in schizophrenics and their relatives and its association with impaired smooth pursuit.  

    Chen, Y , Nakayama, K , Levy, D L , Matthysse, S , Holzman, P S
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4724 - 4729 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Schizophrenia patients and many of their relatives show impaired smooth pursuit eye tracking. The brain mechanisms underlying this impairment are not yet known, but because reduced open-loop acceleration and closed-loop gain accompany it, compromised perceptual processing of motion signals is implicated. A previous study showed that motion discrimination is impaired in schizophrenia patients. Motion discrimination can make use of position and contrast as well as velocity cues. Here, we report that the motion discrimination deficit, which occurs in both schizophrenic patients and in their first-degree relatives, involves a failure of velocity detection, which appears when judging intermediate target velocities. At slower and faster velocities, judgments of velocity discrimination seemed normal until we experimentally disentangled velocity cues from nonmotion cues. We further report that compromised velocity discrimination is associated with sluggish initiation of smooth pursuit. These findings point to specific central nervous system correlates of schizophrenic pathophysiology.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Local instrumental variables and latent variable models for identifying and bounding treatment effects.  

    Heckman, J J , Vytlacil, E J
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4730 - 4734 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    This paper examines the relationship between various treatment parameters within a latent variable model when the effects of treatment depend on the recipient's observed and unobserved characteristics. We show how this relationship can be used to identify the treatment parameters when they are identified and to bound the parameters when they are not identified.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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