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Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medic... 760건

  1. [해외논문]   Inhibitory and Acceleratory Effects of Inonotus obliquus on Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Formation in B16 Melanoma Cells  

    Yan, Zheng-Fei (College of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China ) , Yang, Yang (College of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China ) , Tian, Feng-Hua (Engineering Research Center of Edible and Medicinal Fungi, Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China ) , Mao, Xin-Xin (College of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China ) , Li, Yu (Engineering Research Center of Edible and Medicinal Fungi, Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China ) , Li, Chang-Tian (Engineering Research Center of Edible and Medicinal Fungi, Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 259836 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    The aim of the present study is to preliminarily investigate the antimelanogenesis effect of Inonotus obliquus extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay. It was found that petroleum ether and n-butanol extracts might contain unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors, while its ethyl acetate extract might contain some unknown accelerators. Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of NMR data and nicotinic acid was first discovered in Inonotus obliquus . In cells testing, betulin and trametenolic acid decreased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, while inotodiol and lanosterol significantly increased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, showing an AC⁡ 50 of 9.74 and 8.43 μ M, respectively. Nicotinie acid, 3 β ,22,25-trihydroxy-lanosta-8-ene, had a little or no effect on tyrosinase. Betulin exhibited a mode of noncompetitive inhibition with a K I = K IS of 0.4 μ M on tyrosinase activity showing an IC 50 of 5.13 μ M and being more effective than kojic acid (6.43 μ M), and trametenolic acid exhibited a mode of mixed inhibition with a K I of 0.9 μ M, K IS of 0.5 μ M, and an IC 50 of 7.25 μ M. We proposed betulin and trametenolic acid as a new candidate of potent tyrosinase inhibitors and inotodiol and lanosterol as accelerators that could be used as therapeutic agent.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Recent Advances towards Validating Efficacy and Safety of African Traditional Medicines  

    Tabuti, John R. S. (Makerere University College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda ) , Hassen, Imed Eddine (Laboratoire des Méthodes et Techniques d'Analyse (LMTA), Institut National de Recherche et d'Analyse Physico-Chimique (INRAP), Biotechpole de Sidi Thabet, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunisia ) , Pateh, Umar Usman (Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 1044, Nigeria ) , Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi (Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, 230 Réduit, Mauritius)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 260567 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    The aim of the present study is to preliminarily investigate the antimelanogenesis effect of Inonotus obliquus extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay. It was found that petroleum ether and n-butanol extracts might contain unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors, while its ethyl acetate extract might contain some unknown accelerators. Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of NMR data and nicotinic acid was first discovered in Inonotus obliquus . In cells testing, betulin and trametenolic acid decreased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, while inotodiol and lanosterol significantly increased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, showing an AC⁡ 50 of 9.74 and 8.43 μ M, respectively. Nicotinie acid, 3 β ,22,25-trihydroxy-lanosta-8-ene, had a little or no effect on tyrosinase. Betulin exhibited a mode of noncompetitive inhibition with a K I = K IS of 0.4 μ M on tyrosinase activity showing an IC 50 of 5.13 μ M and being more effective than kojic acid (6.43 μ M), and trametenolic acid exhibited a mode of mixed inhibition with a K I of 0.9 μ M, K IS of 0.5 μ M, and an IC 50 of 7.25 μ M. We proposed betulin and trametenolic acid as a new candidate of potent tyrosinase inhibitors and inotodiol and lanosterol as accelerators that could be used as therapeutic agent.

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    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  3. [해외논문]   Wrist-Ankle Acupuncture for the Treatment of Pain Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

    Zhu, Li Bing (School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 10 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong ) , Chan, Wai Chung (School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 10 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong ) , Lo, Kwai Ching (School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 10 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong ) , Yum, Tin Pui (Acupuncture and Tui-na Clinical Centre for Teaching and Research, School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ) , Li, Lei (School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 10 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 261709 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Routine acupuncture incorporates wrist-ankle acupuncture (WAA) for its analgesic effect, but WAA is not widely used in clinics due to incomplete knowledge of its effectiveness and concerns about less clinical research and because less people know it. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and possible adverse effects of WAA or WAA adjuvants in the treatment of pain symptoms. This study compared WAA or WAA adjuvant with the following therapies: western medication (WM), sham acupuncture (SA), or body acupuncture (BA). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched systematically in related electronic databases by two independent reviewers. 33 RCTs were finally included, in which 7 RCTs were selected for meta-analysis. It was found that WAA or WAA adjuvant was significantly more effective than WM, SA, or BA in pain relief. There was nothing different between WAA and SA in adverse events, but WAA was marginally significantly safer than WM. Although both WAA and WAA adjuvant appeared to be more effective than WM, SA, or BA in the treatment of pain symptoms with few side effects, further studies with better and more rigorously designed are still necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety issue of WAA due to the poor methodology and small sample size of previous studies.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  4. [해외논문]   Erratum to “Standardized Extract of Bacopa monniera Attenuates Okadaic Acid Induced Memory Dysfunction in Rats: Effect on Nrf2 Pathway”  

    Dwivedi, Subhash (Divisions of Pharmacology and Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, India ) , Nagarajan, Rajasekar (Divisions of Pharmacology and Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, India ) , Hanif, Kashif (Divisions of Pharmacology and Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, India ) , Siddiqui, Hefazat Husain (Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow 226026, India ) , Nath, Chandishwar (Divisions of Pharmacology and Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, India ) , Shukla, Rakesh (Divisions of Pharmacology and Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, India)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 262639 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Routine acupuncture incorporates wrist-ankle acupuncture (WAA) for its analgesic effect, but WAA is not widely used in clinics due to incomplete knowledge of its effectiveness and concerns about less clinical research and because less people know it. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and possible adverse effects of WAA or WAA adjuvants in the treatment of pain symptoms. This study compared WAA or WAA adjuvant with the following therapies: western medication (WM), sham acupuncture (SA), or body acupuncture (BA). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched systematically in related electronic databases by two independent reviewers. 33 RCTs were finally included, in which 7 RCTs were selected for meta-analysis. It was found that WAA or WAA adjuvant was significantly more effective than WM, SA, or BA in pain relief. There was nothing different between WAA and SA in adverse events, but WAA was marginally significantly safer than WM. Although both WAA and WAA adjuvant appeared to be more effective than WM, SA, or BA in the treatment of pain symptoms with few side effects, further studies with better and more rigorously designed are still necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety issue of WAA due to the poor methodology and small sample size of previous studies.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  5. [해외논문]   Electroacupuncture at PC6 or ST36 Influences the Effect of Tacrine on the Motility of Esophagus  

    Wang, Chi (Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University First Hospital, 8 Xishiku Street, Beijing 100034, China ) , Chen, Xin (Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University First Hospital, 8 Xishiku Street, Beijing 100034, China ) , Xie, Peng-Yan (Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University First Hospital, 8 Xishiku Street, Beijing 100034, China)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 263489 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Aim. To investigate the mechanisms of gastrointestinal side effects of tacrine, and find treatment methods with electroacupuncture (EA). Methods . Twenty-five healthy cats were randomly divided into 5 groups: gastric-distention group (model group), tacrine group (cholinesterase inhibitor), tacrine + sham acupoint group (control group), tacrine + PC6 (neiguan) group, and tacrine + ST36 (zusanli) group, with 5 cats in each group. Saline 2 mL i.p. was given 30 min before gastric distention in model group. Tacrine 5.6 mg/kg i.p. was given 30 minutes before gastric distention in the other groups. Tacrine + sham acupoint group (control group), tacrine + PC6 group, and tacrine + ST36 group received EA at corresponding acupoints during gastric distention. The frequency of TLESRs and LESP were recorded by using a perfused sleeve assembly. Results . Compared with the model group, tacrine significantly increased the frequency of gastric distention-induced TLESR (P Conclusion . Tacrine can significantly increase the gastric distention-induced transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs). Electroacupuncture (EA) at PC6 may reverse the above side effect.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  6. [해외논문]   Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Mechanism of Tanshinone IIA for Atherosclerosis  

    Chen, Zhuo (Graduate School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China ) , Xu, Hao (Cardiovascular Diseases Center, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 267976 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan II A) is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. It has been demonstrated to have pleiotropic effects for atherosclerosis. From the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanism perspective, this paper reviewed major progresses of Tan IIA in antiatherosclerosis research, including immune cells, antigens, cytokines, and cell signaling pathways.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  7. [해외논문]   Spiritual Healing in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Exploratory Single Centre, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Three-Arm, Randomised, Sham-Controlled Trial  

    Bliddal, Henning (The Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Copenhagen, Denmark ) , Christensen, Robin (The Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Copenhagen, Denmark ) , Højgaard, Lars (Danish Healing Research Center, Stationsvej 16, 3210 Vejby, Denmark ) , Bartels, Else Marie (The Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Copenhagen, Denmark ) , Ellegaard, Karen (The Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Copenhagen, Denmark ) , Zachariae, Robert (Unit for Psychooncology and Health Psychology, Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital and Department of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Bartholins Allé) , Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente (9, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark )
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 269431 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of “energy/spiritual healing” in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Eligible patients were women with RA on stable medication. The design was a randomised, blinded, sham-controlled trial; the third group included an external unblinded control of the natural course of RA. Participants in both groups received 8 sessions with “perceived healing” over 21 weeks with 8 weeks of follow-up. Active healing (AH) treatment comprised healing with no physical contact, and sham healing (SH) included exactly the same healing with a sham healer. During intervention, participants wore hearing protectors and were blindfolded. No healing (NH) only had their outcomes assessed. Coprimary outcomes were disease activity score (DAS) for 28 joints and Doppler ultrasound. All 96 patients randomised were handled as the intention-to-treat population, using a baseline-carried forward approach to replace the missing data. Eighty-two (85%) participants completed the 29-week trial. At end point (week 29), mean difference in DAS28 between AH versus SH was statistically but not clinically significant in favour of AH (0.62 DAS28 points; 95% CI: 0.13 to 1.11; P = 0.014), while no differences between groups occurred in Doppler ultrasound. There are no clear physiological or psychological explanations for the findings in this tightly controlled study. The trial data indicates a need for independent replication.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   Curcumin Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Inhibition of Inflammatory Response and ERK Signaling Pathways  

    Hao, QingQing (Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China ) , Chen, Xu (Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China ) , Wang, XiaoYu (Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China ) , Dong, Bo (Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China ) , Yang, ChuanHua (Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250011, China)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 270930 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Background and Objectives . Curcumin has long been used to treat age-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In this study, we explored the effects of curcumin on the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods . ApoE −/− mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: AngII group, AngII + curcumin (AngII + Cur) group (100 mg/kg/d), and the control group. Miniosmotic pumps were implanted subcutaneously in ApoE −/− mice to deliver AngII for 28 days. After 4-week treatment, abdominal aortas with AAA were obtained for H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Results . The results showed that curcumin treatment significantly decreased the occurrence of AAA. The levels of macrophage infiltration, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factors- α (TNF- α ) were significantly lower in AngII + Cur group than those in AngII group (all P P P Conclusions . These results suggested that curcumin can inhibit the AngII-induced AAA in ApoE −/− mice, whose mechanisms include the curcumin anti-inflammation, antioxidative stress, and downregulation of ERK signaling pathway.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   Effects of an Astragalus Polysaccharide and Rhein Combination on Apoptosis in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure  

    Lian, Yonghong (Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China ) , Xie, Linlin (Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China ) , Chen, Minghao (Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China ) , Chen, Liguo (Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 271862 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Objective. To investigate the effects and to analyze the mechanism of the combination of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and Rhein on apoptosis in rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). Methods. Thirty-seven male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a low-dose APS and Rhein combination group, and a high-dose APS and Rhein combination group. CRF was induced by orogastric gavage with adenine. Rats were observed for renal function, electrolyte, and pathological changes for 7 weeks after administration. Renal tubular cell apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL and protein expressions of IRE1 and CHOP were detected by Western-blotting. Results. The combination of APS and Rhein decreased the kidney weight and index, improved renal pathological injury, maintained the stability of serum electrolytes, and reduced SCr and BUN levels in rat models. Moreover, APS and Rhein combination could effectively inhibit the apoptosis and reduce the protein expressions of IRE1and CHOP of renal tubular cells. Conclusions. The combination of APS and Rhein could improve renal function and reduce renal cell apoptosis to protect against further progression of CRF, whose mechanism may be related to alleviate endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in the renal cells.

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    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  10. [해외논문]   Efficacy of Herbal Drugs in Human Diseases and Disorders  

    Luqman, Suaib (Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Molecular Bioprospection Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226015, India ) , Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh 211002, India ) , Beer, André (True Naturopathy Department, Blankenstein Clinic, Ruhr University, Im Vogelsang 5-11, D-45527 Hattingen, Bochum, Germany ) , -Michael (Enzyme and Microbial Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016, India ) , Khare, Sunil Kumar (Department of Medical Biochemistry, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul 34303, Turkey) , Atukeren, Pinar
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 273676 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Objective. To investigate the effects and to analyze the mechanism of the combination of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and Rhein on apoptosis in rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). Methods. Thirty-seven male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a low-dose APS and Rhein combination group, and a high-dose APS and Rhein combination group. CRF was induced by orogastric gavage with adenine. Rats were observed for renal function, electrolyte, and pathological changes for 7 weeks after administration. Renal tubular cell apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL and protein expressions of IRE1 and CHOP were detected by Western-blotting. Results. The combination of APS and Rhein decreased the kidney weight and index, improved renal pathological injury, maintained the stability of serum electrolytes, and reduced SCr and BUN levels in rat models. Moreover, APS and Rhein combination could effectively inhibit the apoptosis and reduce the protein expressions of IRE1and CHOP of renal tubular cells. Conclusions. The combination of APS and Rhein could improve renal function and reduce renal cell apoptosis to protect against further progression of CRF, whose mechanism may be related to alleviate endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in the renal cells.

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