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Molecules and cells 25건

  1. [국내논문]   Purification and characterization of an antifungal PR-5 protein from pumpkin leaves.  

    Cheong, N E , Choi, Y O , Kim, W Y , Bae, I S , Cho, M J , Hwang, I , Kim, J W , Lee, S Y
    Molecules and cells v.7 no.2 ,pp. 214 - 219 , 1997 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    A 28-kDa antifungal PR-5 protein (PLTP) was purified from pumpkin leaves to homogeneity by using ammonium sulfate fractionation, a regenerated chitin column, and reversed-phase column chromatographies on butyl-Toyopearl and HPLC C18 columns. Analysis of 14 N-terminal amino acid sequences of PLTP shows 100% sequence identity to those of two PR-5 proteins, NP24 from tomatoes and AP24 from tobacco. The identical sequence also exhibited high amino acid sequence homology to that of an osmotin-like protein (OLP; 71%) from tobacco cells and thaumatin (64%), a sweet-tasting protein of Thaumatococcus danielli Bench. When the PLTP was immuno-blotted with antiserum raised against the tobacco OLP, the OLP antibody specifically cross-reacted with the PLTP, suggesting that they share several common epitopes in their tertiary structure of the proteins. The purified PLTP rapidly lyzed hyphal tips of Neurospora crassa at a concentration greater than 200 nM and significantly inhibited the fungal growth of Fusarium oxysporum in an agar-disc plate at a concentration greater than 2 microM. It also shows a synergistic effect with nikkomycin, a chitin synthase inhibitor, for the growth inhibition of Candida albicans.

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  2. [국내논문]   Rapid analysis for the isolation of novel genes encoding putative effectors to the position-specific regulatory element of murine Hoxa-7.  

    Cho, M , Shin, C , Min, W , Kim, M H
    Molecules and cells v.7 no.2 ,pp. 220 - 225 , 1997 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    Hox genes are known to play a critical role in pattern formation during vertebrate development by being expressed at the specific time and in the specific position along the antero-posterior body axis. In order to understand the regulatory mechanism for the position-specific expression of murine Hoxa-7, yeast one-hybrid system was applied. DNA fragment conferring a position specificity to the Hoxa-7 gene was placed just upstream from the yeast CYC1 promoter and lacZ gene in a reporter. Selection of LacZ positive clones after cotransformation of the reporter and mouse embryonic cDNA library as an effector, which was designed to be expressed as fusion proteins to the GAL4 activation domain, allowed us to isolate putative factors interacting with the position-specific regulatory element of murine Hoxa-7. A total of 28 positive clones were screened from 5 x 10(5) yeast transformants. About 70% of the clones turned out to be novel and most of the candidate clones selected in this study showed a temporally restricted expression pattern during embryonic development, suggesting that this method could provide an efficient way for isolating novel genes whose expressions are temporally regulated during embryogenesis.

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  3. [국내논문]   Molecular characterization of a rab-related small GTP binding protein cDNA from rice (Oryza sativa L. IR-36).  

    Kim, H Y , Seo, H S , Jeong, J Y , Lee, S Y , Cho, M J , Bahk, J D
    Molecules and cells v.7 no.2 ,pp. 226 - 230 , 1997 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    To study physiological roles of plant small GTP binding proteins, we isolated a cDNA clone (ORrab2) encoding the rab-related small GTP binding protein from rice (Oryza sativa L. IR-36) by using human cDNA rab2 as a probe. The deduced amino acid sequence of the ORrab2 gene shared all the conserved regions, important for GTPase/GTP binding activities, with those of other small GTP binding proteins. ORrab2 is a 1028 bp long cDNA, encodes a 23.2 kDa protein which shows 85.2% similarity on the amino acid sequence level to the Hrab2 protein, and was used as a probe. Through Southern and Northern blot analyses, we found that ORrab2 is a single copy gene and actively expressed at the stages of cell division and elongation. We investigated GTP binding abilities by a filter assay procedure. Deletion of a binding motif, GDTGVGKS, within an ORrab2 protein showed a significant decrease of GTP binding affinity, suggesting its important role in nucleotide binding.

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  4. [국내논문]   Cloning, sequencing, and overexpression of SH2/SH3 adaptor protein Nck from mouse thymus.  

    Park, D
    Molecules and cells v.7 no.2 ,pp. 231 - 236 , 1997 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    Nck, an oncogenic protein containing one SH2 and three SH3 domains, is a common target for phosphorylation by a variety of cell surface receptors. The absence of a recognizable catalytic domain of Nck suggests that Nck serves as a linker molecule to couple cell surface receptors to downstream effector molecules that regulate cellular responses induced by receptor activation. In this study, we isolated Nck cDNA from mouse thymus by screening a phase expression library using monoclonal antibody (mAb) B16-5 which recognizes the SH3 domain of phospholipase C-gamma 1. Nck protein was purified from an extract of the Sf9 cell that had been infected with recombinant baculovirus containing mouse Nck cDNA. The purified protein exhibited an apparent molecular mass of 47 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Nck antibody was generated in rabbits using purified protein as an antigen. The distribution of Nck protein in rat tissues examined by immunoblots showed that Nck is expressed widely, and that brain, spleen, and tests contain more Nck than other tissues examined.

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  5. [국내논문]   Reassembly and reconstitution of separate alpha and beta chains of human leukocyte antigen DR4 molecule isolated from Escherichia coli.  

    Kang, J H , Maeng, C Y , Park, J H , Hahm, K S , Han, B D , Kim, K L
    Molecules and cells v.7 no.2 ,pp. 237 - 243 , 1997 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    The class II major histocompatibility complex molecules play a major role in presentation of exogenous antigenic peptides to the CD4 positive helper T cell. These are heterodimeric cell surface glycoproteins consisting of alpha- and beta-chains. In the present study, we cloned and expressed the alpha- and beta-chain of HLA-DR4 lacking the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain separately in Escherichia coli using the pET-5a expression vector system. The expressed alpha- and beta-chains were purified in a denaturing condition by an ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and a gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, respectively. The recombinant proteins were refolded and reassembled by removing the denaturing agent and concomitant reoxidation of the disulfide bond. The refolded heterodimeric rDR4 molecule was resolved by 12.5% SDS-PAGE in a nonreducing condition and confirmed by Western blot using polyclonal antibody against DR-alpha and the monoclonal antibody (L243) for the conformationally correct DR molecule. The rDR4 molecules were reconstituted with a 50-fold molar excess biot-HA (307-319), and the bound peptides to the heterodimer complex were determined by a microplate assay coated with L243 antibody using Extravidin-HRP conjugate.

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  6. [국내논문]   Primers determine the sensitivity of PCR-mediated hepatitis B virus DNA detection and pretreatment of PCR mixture with 8-methoxypsoralen eliminates false-positive results.  

    Keum, W K , Park, C E , Lee, J H , Khil, L Y , Kang, I , Kim, S S , Jung, J C , Oh, S M , Woo, H J , Lee, J H , Kim, Y C , Yoon, Y , Choi, J W , Ha, J
    Molecules and cells v.7 no.2 ,pp. 244 - 250 , 1997 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    Most methods for the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection largely depend on viral DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or radioimmunological assay of viral antigens or antibodies. The quality assurance program recently established in Europe reported that PCR-mediated HBV DNA detection methods used in many laboratories produced a high rate of false-positive and false-negative results. Thus, we attempted to improve the conditions of current PCR methods for detection of HBV DNA. In the present study, we applied a recently developed method of releasing HBV DNA from virion by NaOH treatment of patient serum. Using four different primer sets specific to the HBV core region, we found that the sensitivity of first-round PCR can be improved by more than two orders of magnitude depending on the primers. The second round of PCR using nested primers was sensitive enough to detect up to 10(-6) pg of the HBV DNA, which is equivalent to approximately 3 copies of the HBV genome. Among the approximately 800 HBV-infected patient sera investigated in our laboratory, more than 60% of the tested samples gave positive results in the first-round PCR. The rate of positive results obtained using our experimental conditions is very high in comparison with other reports. The reamplification of the first-round PCR reaction mixture with the nested primers produced practically 100% positive results. For diagnosis of HBV infection, we routinely used 1 microliter of patient serum, which was found to be optimum in our laboratory. Surprisingly, from 20% of our positive results, even serum diluted to 1/100 (0.01 microliter) produced a stronger signal than 1 microliter. This observation suggests that direct PCR amplification of HBV DNA released from serum by NaOH treatment has to be compensated by other DNA detection methods for correct quantitation. In order to eliminate the false positive signal resulting from the carry-over due to massive screening of a large number of samples, PCR reaction mixture containing 8-methoxypsoralen was exposed to ultraviolet light prior to thermal cycle amplification. This exercise did not decrease the sensitivity of the detection method, but almost completely removed the false positive results caused by contaminated templates. We are in the process of improving PCR-mediated HBV DNA detection methods to attain more reliable and easily applicable methods.

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  7. [국내논문]   Crystal structure of thermostable alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis refined at 1.7 A resolution.  

    Hwang, K Y , Song, H K , Chang, C , Lee, J , Lee, S Y , Kim, K K , Choe, S , Sweet, R M , Suh, S W
    Molecules and cells v.7 no.2 ,pp. 251 - 258 , 1997 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    alpha-Amylases (alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, E.C.3.2.1.1) catalyze the cleavage of alpha-1, 4-glucosidic linkages of starch components, glycogen, and various oligosaccharides. Thermostable alpha-amylases from Bacillus species are of great industrial importance in the production of corn syrup or dextrose. Thermostable alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis, a monomeric enzyme with molecular mass of 55,200 Da (483 amino acid residues), shows a remarkable heat stability. This enzyme provides an attractive model for investigating the structural basis for thermostability of proteins. The three-dimensional structure of thermostable alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis has been determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement method of X-ray crystallography. The structure has been refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 19.9% for 58,601 independent reflections with F0 > 2 sigma F0 between 8.0 and 1.7 A resolution, with root mean square deviations of 0.013 A from ideal bond lengths and 1.72 degrees from ideal bond angles. The final model consists of 469 amino acid residues and 294 water molecules. Missing from the model are the N- and C-termini and the segment between Trp182 and Asn192. Like other alpha-amylases, the polypeptide chain folds into three distinct domains. The first domain (domain A), consisting of 291 residues (from residue 3 to 103 and 207 to 396), forms a (beta/alpha)8-barrel structure. The second domain (domain B), consisting of residues 104 to 206, is inserted between the third beta-strand and the third alpha-helix of domain A. The third C-terminal domain (domain C), consisting of residues 397 to 482, folds into an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel. Neither calcium ion nor chloride ion is located near the active site. This study reveals the architecture of the thermostable alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis. By homology with other alpha-amylases, important active site residues can be identified as Asp231, Glu261, and Asp328, which are all located at the C-terminal end of the central (beta/alpha)8-barrel. Since many of the stabilizing and destabilizing mutations obtained so far fall in domain B or at its border, this region of the enzyme appears to be important for thermostability. The factors responsible for the remarkable thermostability of this enzyme may be increased ionic interactions, reduced surface area, and increased packing interactions in the interior.

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  8. [국내논문]   DNA methylation patterns and sequence transitions of the CpG island of mouse Hprt during early embryogenesis.  

    Park, J G , Chapman, V M
    Molecules and cells v.7 no.2 ,pp. 259 - 263 , 1997 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    The timing and pattern of methylation of the CpG island in the X-chromosome gene, Hprt, was examined using bisulfite methods to assess the occurrence of DNA cytosine methylation at the onset of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). The Hprt sequences were extensively methylated in 4.5 dpc blastocysts, and the levels of methylation progressively decreased to 7.5 dpc. Adult patterns of methylation were established in the embryonic tissues after 7.5 dpc. By contrast, methylation continued to decrease in extraembryonic lineages and at 13.5 days was not detectable on the paternal Hprt sequences in the yolk sac endoderm. In the bisulfite-treated coding strand, numerous G to A transitions and CpTpG methylations were observed that were unique to the methylated or nonmethylated Hprt sequences, respectively, in early development.

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  9. [국내논문]   Cloning and analysis of the DNA polymerase-encoding gene from Thermus caldophilus GK24.  

    Kwon, S T , Kim, J S , Park, J H , Kim, H K , Lee, D S
    Molecules and cells v.7 no.2 ,pp. 264 - 271 , 1997 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    The gene encoding Thermus caldophilus GK24 (Tca) DNA polymerase was cloned into Escherichia coli using the structural gene coding for Thermus aquaticus YT-1 (Taq) DNA polymerase as a hybridization probe. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA was determined. The primary structure of the Tca DNA polymerase was deduced from the nucleotide sequence. The Tca DNA polymerase comprised 834 amino acid residues and its molecular mass was determined to be 93,810. On alignment of the whole amino acid sequence, Tca DNA polymerase showed a high sequence homology with the E. coli DNA polymerase I-like DNA polymerases, and 86% identity with Taq DNA polymerase, 38% with E. coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) DNA polymerase I. An extremely high sequence identity was observed in the region containing the polymerase activity. The codon usage in the Tca DNA polymerase gene was in fact similar to the characteristic usages in the genes for proteins from bacteria of genus Thermus: the G+C content in the third position of the codons was as high as 93%. The Tca DNA polymerase gene was expressed under the control of tac promoter on a high copy plasmid, pTCA in E. coli.

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  10. [국내논문]   Heparin binding of laminin: contribution of the triple helix in the rod domain to the formation of cryptic and active sites in the globular domain.  

    Sung, U
    Molecules and cells v.7 no.2 ,pp. 272 - 277 , 1997 , 1016-8478 ,

    초록

    Laminin, a multidomain glycoprotein in basement membranes, interacts with heparin through the terminal globular domain (G domain) of its long arm. The interaction with heparin is thought to be important for modulation of basement membrane assembly and adhesion to cells. The G domain contains two different heparin binding activities: a strong one in the proximal portion and a moderate one in the distal portion of globule. The proximal activity was found to be weak in fragment E8 and in the intact laminin long arm, whose three-chain moieties are joined together in a triple-helical coiled-coil. Dissociation of the A chain of E8 from its B chain moieties by denaturation and chain separation resulted in the exposure of heparin binding activity the in the globular domain. Furthermore, when a recombinant G domain with a distal alpha-helical domain was intercalated into the B chains of E8, the triple alpha-helix was reconstituted and heparin binding was considerably reduced. This data provides evidence for the influence of non-heparin binding rod domain on the binding activity in the G domain.

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