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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of... 104건

  1. [해외논문]   New insights into tumor suppression: PTEN suppresses tumor formation by restraining the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway.  

    Cantley, L C , Neel, B G
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4240 - 4245 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    The most recently discovered PTEN tumor suppressor gene has been found to be defective in a large number of human cancers. In addition, germ-line mutations in PTEN result in the dominantly inherited disease Cowden syndrome, which is characterized by multiple hamartomas and a high proclivity for developing cancer. A series of publications over the past year now suggest a mechanism by which PTEN loss of function results in tumors. PTEN appears to negatively control the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway for regulation of cell growth and survival by dephosphorylating the 3 position of phosphoinositides.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   V-Amylose at atomic resolution: X-ray structure of a cycloamylose with 26 glucose residues (cyclomaltohexaicosaose).  

    Gessler, K , Us?n, I , Takaha, T , Krauss, N , Smith, S M , Okada, S , Sheldrick, G M , Saenger, W
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4246 - 4251 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    The amylose fraction of starch occurs in double-helical A- and B-amyloses and the single-helical V-amylose. The latter contains a channel-like central cavity that is able to include molecules, "iodine's blue" being the best-known representative. Molecular models of these amylose forms have been deduced by solid state 13C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning NMR and by x-ray fiber and electron diffraction combined with computer-aided modeling. They remain uncertain, however, as no structure at atomic resolution is available. We report here the crystal structure of a hydrated cycloamylose containing 26 glucose residues (cyclomaltohexaicosaose, CA26), which has been determined by real/reciprocal space recycling starting from randomly positioned atoms or from an oriented diglucose fragment. This structure provides conclusive evidence for the structure of V-amylose, as the macrocycle of CA26 is folded into two short left-handed V-amylose helices in antiparallel arrangement and related by twofold rotational pseudosymmetry. In the V-helices, all glucose residues are in syn orientation, forming systematic interglucose O(3)n...O(2)(n+l) and O(6)n...O(2)(n+6)/O(3)(n+6) hydrogen bonds; the central cavities of the V-helices are filled by disordered water molecules. The folding of the CA26 macrocycle is characterized by typical "band-flips" in which diametrically opposed glucose residues are in anti rather than in the common syn orientation, this conformation being stabilized by interglucose three-center hydrogen bonds with O(3)n as donor and O(5)(n+l), O(6)(n+l) as acceptors. The structure of CA26 permitted construction of an idealized V-amylose helix, and the band-flip motif explains why V-amylose crystallizes readily and may be packed tightly in seeds.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Demonstration of the parity-violating energy difference between enantiomers  

    Szabo-Nagy, A. , Keszthelyi, L.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4252 - 4255 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Racemic mixtures of (+) and (-) sodium potassium tartrate, tris(1, 2-ethanediamine)cobalt(III), and tris(1,2-ethanediamine)iridium(III) molecules were crystallized, and the optical activities of the resulting crystalline materials, dissolved in water, were carefully measured to study the influence of the parity-violating energy difference in the crystallization process. Although no effect was found in the case of tartrate, enantiomeric excess appeared in the crystallization of the cobalt and iridium complexes. These investigations, performed in our laboratory, demonstrated the contribution of the parity-violating neutral weak current to the forces acting in molecules.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   A common pharmacophore for cytotoxic natural products that stabilize microtubules.  

    Ojima, I , Chakravarty, S , Inoue, T , Lin, S , He, L , Horwitz, S B , Kuduk, S D , Danishefsky, S J
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4256 - 4261 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Taxol (paclitaxel), a complex diterpene obtained from the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, is arguably the most important new drug in cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism of cytotoxic action for paclitaxel-i.e., the stabilization of microtubules leading to mitotic arrest-is now shared by four recently identified natural products, eleutherobin, epothilones A and B, and discodermolide. Their ability to competitively inhibit [3H]paclitaxel binding to microtubules strongly suggests the existence of a common binding site. Recently, we have developed nonaromatic analogues of paclitaxel that maintain high cytotoxicity and tubulin binding (e.g., nonataxel). We now propose a common pharmacophore that unites paclitaxel, nonataxel, the epothilones, eleutherobin, and discodermolide, and rationalizes the extensive structure-activity relationship data pertinent to these compounds. Insights from the common pharmacophore have enabled the development of a hybrid construct with demonstrated cytotoxic and tubulin-binding activity.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   High-efficiency gene transfer into skeletal muscle mediated by electric pulses.  

    Mir, L M , Bureau, M F , Gehl, J , Rangara, R , Rouy, D , Caillaud, J M , Delaere, P , Branellec, D , Schwartz, B , Scherman, D
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4262 - 4267 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Gene delivery to skeletal muscle is a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle disorders and for the systemic secretion of therapeutic proteins. However, present DNA delivery technologies have to be improved with regard to both the level of expression and interindividual variability. We report very efficient plasmid DNA transfer in muscle fibers by using square-wave electric pulses of low field strength (less than 300 V/cm) and of long duration (more than 1 ms). Contrary to the electropermeabilization-induced uptake of small molecules into muscle fibers, plasmid DNA has to be present in the tissue during the electric pulses, suggesting a direct effect of the electric field on DNA during electrotransfer. This i.m. electrotransfer method increases reporter and therapeutic gene expression by several orders of magnitude in various muscles in mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey. Moreover, i.m. electrotransfer strongly decreases variability. Stability of expression was observed for at least 9 months. With a pCMV-FGF1 plasmid coding for fibroblast growth factor 1, this protein was immunodetected in the majority of muscle fibers subjected to the electric pulses. DNA electrotransfer in muscle may have broad applications in gene therapy and in physiological, pharmacological, and developmental studies.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [해외논문]   A mutation in the heterotrimeric stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein -subunit with impaired receptor-mediated activation because of elevated GTPase activity  

    Warner, D. R. , Weinstein, L. S.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4268 - 4272 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Gene delivery to skeletal muscle is a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle disorders and for the systemic secretion of therapeutic proteins. However, present DNA delivery technologies have to be improved with regard to both the level of expression and interindividual variability. We report very efficient plasmid DNA transfer in muscle fibers by using square-wave electric pulses of low field strength (less than 300 V/cm) and of long duration (more than 1 ms). Contrary to the electropermeabilization-induced uptake of small molecules into muscle fibers, plasmid DNA has to be present in the tissue during the electric pulses, suggesting a direct effect of the electric field on DNA during electrotransfer. This i.m. electrotransfer method increases reporter and therapeutic gene expression by several orders of magnitude in various muscles in mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey. Moreover, i.m. electrotransfer strongly decreases variability. Stability of expression was observed for at least 9 months. With a pCMV-FGF1 plasmid coding for fibroblast growth factor 1, this protein was immunodetected in the majority of muscle fibers subjected to the electric pulses. DNA electrotransfer in muscle may have broad applications in gene therapy and in physiological, pharmacological, and developmental studies.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  7. [해외논문]   A mutation in the heterotrimeric stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha-subunit with impaired receptor-mediated activation because of elevated GTPase activity.  

    Warner, D R , Weinstein, L S
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4268 - 4272 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    It has been reported that substitution of Arg258, a residue within the GTPase domain of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) alpha-subunit (alphas), to alanine (alphas-R258A) results in decreased activation by receptor or aluminum fluoride (AlF4-) and increased basal GDP release. Arg258 interacts with Gln170 in the helical domain, and, presumably, loss of this interaction between the GTPase and helical domain leads to more rapid GDP release, resulting in decreased activation by AlF4- and increased thermolability. In this study, we mutate Gln170 to alanine (alphas-Q170A) and demonstrate that this mutant, like alphas-R258A, has decreased activation by AlF4-, increased thermolability (both reversed in the presence of excess guanine nucleotide), and an increased rate of GDP release. However, unlike alphas-R258A, alphas-Q170A does not have impaired receptor-mediated activation. Therefore, this interdomain interaction is critical to maintain normal guanine nucleotide binding (and hence normal activation by AlF4-) but is not important for receptor-mediated activation. In single turnover GTPase assays, the catalytic rate for GTP hydrolysis of alphas-R258A was 14-fold higher than normal whereas that of alphas-Q170A was unaffected. Examination of the alphas crystal structure suggests that Arg258, through interactions with Glu50, might constrain the position of Arg201, a residue critical for catalyzing the GTPase reaction. This is an example of a mutation in a heterotrimeric G protein that results in an increased intrinsic GTPase activity and provides another mechanism by which G protein mutations can impair signal transduction.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   Structure-based design of submicromolar, biologically active inhibitors of trypanosomatid glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.  

    Aronov, A M , Suresh, S , Buckner, F S , Van Voorhis, W C , Verlinde, C L , Opperdoes, F R , Hol, W G , Gelb, M H
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4273 - 4278 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    The bloodstream stage of Trypanosoma brucei and probably the intracellular (amastigote) stage of Trypanosoma cruzi derive all of their energy from glycolysis. Inhibiting glycolytic enzymes may be a novel approach for the development of antitrypanosomatid drugs provided that sufficient parasite versus host selectivity can be obtained. Guided by the crystal structures of human, T. brucei, and Leishmania mexicana glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, we designed adenosine analogs as tight binding inhibitors that occupy the pocket on the enzyme that accommodates the adenosyl moiety of the NAD+ cosubstrate. Although adenosine is a very poor inhibitor, IC50 approximately 50 mM, addition of substituents to the 2' position of ribose and the N6-position of adenosine led to disubstituted nucleosides with micromolar to submicromolar potency in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase assays, an improvement of 5 orders of magnitude over the lead. The designed compounds do not inhibit the human glycolytic enzyme when tested up to their solubility limit (approximately 40 microM). When tested against cultured bloodstream T. brucei and intracellular T. cruzi, N6-(1-naphthalenemethyl)-2'-(3-chlorobenzamido)adenosine inhibited growth in the low micromolar range. Within minutes after adding this compound to bloodstream T. brucei, production of glucose-derived pyruvate ceased, parasite motility was lost, and a mixture of grossly deformed and lysed parasites was observed. These studies underscore the feasibility of using structure-based drug design to transform a mediocre lead compound into a potent enzyme inhibitor. They also suggest that energy production can be blocked in trypanosomatids with a tight binding competitive inhibitor of an enzyme in the glycolytic pathway.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  9. [해외논문]   Rings and filaments of protein from bacteriophage suggest a superfamily of recombination proteins  

    Passy, S. I. , Yu, X. , Li, Z. , Radding, C. M. , Egelman, E. H.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4279 - 4284 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    The bloodstream stage of Trypanosoma brucei and probably the intracellular (amastigote) stage of Trypanosoma cruzi derive all of their energy from glycolysis. Inhibiting glycolytic enzymes may be a novel approach for the development of antitrypanosomatid drugs provided that sufficient parasite versus host selectivity can be obtained. Guided by the crystal structures of human, T. brucei, and Leishmania mexicana glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, we designed adenosine analogs as tight binding inhibitors that occupy the pocket on the enzyme that accommodates the adenosyl moiety of the NAD+ cosubstrate. Although adenosine is a very poor inhibitor, IC50 approximately 50 mM, addition of substituents to the 2' position of ribose and the N6-position of adenosine led to disubstituted nucleosides with micromolar to submicromolar potency in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase assays, an improvement of 5 orders of magnitude over the lead. The designed compounds do not inhibit the human glycolytic enzyme when tested up to their solubility limit (approximately 40 microM). When tested against cultured bloodstream T. brucei and intracellular T. cruzi, N6-(1-naphthalenemethyl)-2'-(3-chlorobenzamido)adenosine inhibited growth in the low micromolar range. Within minutes after adding this compound to bloodstream T. brucei, production of glucose-derived pyruvate ceased, parasite motility was lost, and a mixture of grossly deformed and lysed parasites was observed. These studies underscore the feasibility of using structure-based drug design to transform a mediocre lead compound into a potent enzyme inhibitor. They also suggest that energy production can be blocked in trypanosomatids with a tight binding competitive inhibitor of an enzyme in the glycolytic pathway.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

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  10. [해외논문]   Rings and filaments of beta protein from bacteriophage lambda suggest a superfamily of recombination proteins.  

    Passy, S I , Yu, X , Li, Z , Radding, C M , Egelman, E H
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4279 - 4284 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    The beta protein of bacteriophage lambda acts in homologous genetic recombination by catalyzing the annealing of complementary single-stranded DNA produced by the lambda exonuclease. It has been shown that the beta protein binds to the products of the annealing reaction more tightly than to the initial substrates. We find that beta protein exists in three structural states. In the absence of DNA, beta protein forms inactive rings with approximately 12 subunits. The active form of the beta protein in the presence of oligonucleotides or single-stranded DNA is a ring, composed of approximately 15-18 subunits. The double-stranded products of the annealing reaction catalyzed by the rings are bound by beta protein in a left-handed helical structure, which protects the products from nucleolytic degradation. These observations suggest structural homology for a family of proteins, including the phage P22 erf, the bacterial RecT, and the eukaryotic Rad52 proteins, all of which are involved in homologous recombination.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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