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Building and environment 44건

  1. [해외논문]   Performance, acute health symptoms and physiological responses during exposure to high air temperature and carbon dioxide concentration   SCIE

    Liu, Weiwei (School of Energy Science & Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China ) , Zhong, Weidi (School of Energy Science & Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China ) , Wargocki, Pawel (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark Denmark)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 96 - 105 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Human subjects were exposed for 3 h in a climate chamber to the air temperature of 35 °C that is an action level, at which the working time needs to be diminished in China. The purpose was to put this action level to test by measuring physiological responses, subjective ratings and cognitive performance, and compare them with responses at temperature of 26 °C (reference exposure). Moreover, CO 2 was increased to 3000 ppm (CO 2 exposure) at 35 °C to further examine, whether this change will have any effect on the measured responses. Compared with the reference exposure, exposure to 35 °C caused subjects to report feeling uncomfortably warm, to rate the air quality as worse, to report increased sleepiness and higher intensity of several acute health symptoms. Eardrum temperature, skin temperature, heart rate and body weight loss all increased significantly at this exposure, arterial oxygen saturation decreased significantly, while the percentage of adjacent inter-beat cardiac intervals differing by > 50 m (pNN50) decreased significantly, indicating elevated stress. The performance of addition and subtraction tasks decreased significantly during this exposure, as well. Increasing CO 2 to 3000 ppm at 35 °C caused no significant changes in responses. Present results reaffirm the selection of 35 °C as an action level, and show that concurrently occurring high CO 2 levels should not exacerbate the hazards. Highlights Subjects were exposed in a chamber for 3 h at elevated temperature and CO 2 . Physiological and subjective responses and cognitive performance were examined. Exposure to 35 °C increased health symptoms and discomfort and reduced performance. 3000 ppm CO 2 at 35 °C did not exacerbate the negative effects of high temperature. The results provide useful basis for protection of workers at high temperatures.

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  2. [해외논문]   Understanding occupancy pattern and improving building energy efficiency through Wi-Fi based indoor positioning   SCIE

    Wang, Y. (Corresponding author.) , Shao, L.
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 106 - 117 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Detailed visualisation and data analysis of occupancy patterns including spatial distribution and temporal variations are of great importance to delivering energy efficient and productive buildings. An experimental study comprising 24-h monitoring over 30 full days was conducted in a university library building. Occupancy profiles have been monitored and analysis has been carried out. Central to this monitoring study is the Wi-Fi based indoor positioning system based on the measured Wi-Fi devices' number and locations and data mining methods. Distinct from traditional occupancy and energy studies, more detailed information related to the indoor positions and number of occupants has offered a better understanding of building user behaviour. The implication of the occupancy patterns for energy (e.g. lighting and other building services) efficiency is assessed, assisted with data from lighting sensors where needed. It is found occupancy patterns change dramatically with time. Also, the energy waste patterns have been identified through the method of data association rule mining. If the identified energy waste is removed, the total energy consumption can be reduced by 26.1%. The indoor positioning information also has implications for optimizing space use, opening hours as well as staff deployment. The work could be extended to more rooms with diverse functions, other seasons and other types of non-domestic buildings for a more comprehensive understanding of building user behaviour and energy efficiency. Highlights A novel way to detect and analyse occupancy has been tested in a real non-domestic building. Highly reliable, consistent and detailed occupancy data generation has been reported. Occupancy patterns obtained proved valuable for optimisation of building space use, energy efficiency and productivity.

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  3. [해외논문]   Within canopy temperature differences and cooling ability of Tilia cordata trees grown in urban conditions   SCIE

    Rahman, Mohammad A. (Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, School of Life Sciences, Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Emil-Ramann-Str. 6, 85354 Freising, Germany ) , Moser, Astrid (Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences, Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, 85354 Freising, Germany ) , Rö (Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences, Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, 85354 Freising, Germany ) , tzer, Thomas (Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, School of Life Sciences, Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Emil-Ramann-Str. 6, 85354 Freising, Germany) , Pauleit, Stephan
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 118 - 128 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Urban trees regulate their thermal environment mostly through the canopies. With multilayered complex canopies trees prevent solar radiation (reaching the ground) thus reduce the heat storage underneath. More importantly the intercepted energy rather increases the latent heat flux, hence reduces the air temperature during the daytime. However, there is little information on within canopy temperature of urban trees and inter-relationships between latent heat flux exchanges to identify thermal impact of vegetation. The present study continuously measured sapflow and within the canopy air temperature of Tilia cordata trees along with meteorological variables at two different street canyons in Munich, Germany over the summer, 2015. Within the canopy radius of 4.5 m, daytime temperature reduced up to 3.5 °C with energy loss of 75 W m −2 during warm and dry August when the soil moisture potential was below 1.5 MPa and vapour pressure deficit was 4 kPa, but the nighttime temperature went up to 0.5 °C. Deeper underneath the tree canopy, 1.5 m above the ground the average temperature fell by up to 0.85 °C on hot sunny days. The regression equation showed better agreement of this air temperature reduction with the sap flow of trees (R 2 = 0.61) rather than the differences between shaded and unshaded, paved and grass surface temperatures. Although the research is at an early stage, the results showed the potential of using canopy air temperature differences as a tool to better understand the transpiration response to within and below canopy temperature and also to be used in climate models. Highlights Tree shading reduces both the surface and air temperature underneath the canopy. Paving surface has significant impact on air temperature within the tree shade. Latent heat flux is the major driver of air temperature decline. Tilia cordata showed an air temperature reduction up to 3.5 °C during the day time. In absence of transpiration tree canopies showed heat retention up to 0.5 °C.

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  4. [해외논문]   Hygric characterization of wood fiber insulation under uncertainty with dynamic measurements and Markov Chain Monte-Carlo algorithm   SCIE

    Rouchier, Simon (LOCIE, CNRS-UMR5271, Université) , Busser, Thomas (de Savoie) , Pailha, Mickaë (Campus Scientifique, Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget-du-Lac Cedex, France ) , l (LOCIE, CNRS-UMR5271, Université) , Piot, Amandine (de Savoie) , Woloszyn, Monika (Campus Scientifique, Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget-du-Lac Cedex, France )
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 129 - 139 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract The present work is the hygric characterization of wood fibre insulation boards, using dynamic measurements of relative humidity and sample weight, analyzed in the frame of Bayesian inference for parameter identification under uncertainty. It is an attempt at identifying detailed profiles of moisture-dependent properties, and thus a relatively high number of parameters. Because of this ambition, some caution should be exercised once the outcome of the inversion algorithm is available: in addition to confidence intervals of parameters provided by the Bayesian framework, a simplified form of identifiability analysis is performed by analysing a posteriori parameter correlations and likelihood-based confidence intervals. The characterization methodology does not require for the model structure to have a differentiable analytical formulation, or for material samples to reach mass equilibrium between each RH step of the experimental process. Two separate experimental designs were used for material characterization and for validation, respectively. Results show a clear relation between available information (experimental data) and inference (confidence intervals of parameters). A single relative humidity step is not informative enough for a precise inference of moisture-dependent properties such as vapour permeability and moisture capacity. A two-step experiment however holds enough information to significantly reduce parameter uncertainty. Highlights Bayesian inference is applied to the hygric characterization of wood fibre under uncertainty. The use of dynamic measurements allows a fast and joint estimation of moisture permeability and sorption isotherm. The sorption isotherm matches with conventional characterization methods. A simplified identifiability study evaluates the reliability of results. A validation step confirms that results could be extrapolated to different conditions.

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  5. [해외논문]   Occupant perception of “green” buildings: Distinguishing physical and psychological factors   SCIE

    Holmgren, Mattias (Corresponding author. University of Gävle, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, SE-801 76 Gävle, Sweden.) , Kabanshi, Alan , Sö , rqvist, Patrik
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 140 - 147 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Studies have found a preference bias for “environmentally friendly” or “green” artifacts and buildings. For example, indoor environments are more favorably viewed when the building is labeled/certified “green”, in comparison with one that is not labeled/certified, even though the two environments are actually identical. The present study explored how physical properties of the indoor environment (high vs. low temperature) and labeling (“green” vs. “conventional”) interacts in their effect on environment perception. Participants performed a series of tasks in four indoor environments with different labels (low vs. high carbon footprint) and different temperatures (23 °C vs. 28 °C). Label and temperature were manipulated orthogonally. The participants' environmental concern was also measured. The environmentally concerned participants assigned higher thermal acceptance and satisfaction scores to the environment labeled “low carbon footprint” (i.e., “green” certified) compared to the environment labeled “high carbon footprint” (i.e., not “green” certified), but only in the cooler thermal environment. Environmentally indifferent participants' perception of the environment did not differ depending on label or room temperature. The results suggest that a “green” label positively influence the perception of the indoor environment for occupants, but only when the temperature is within the acceptable range as proposed in guidelines for “green” buildings. Highlights A “green” room is preferred even when it is identical to a non-green control room. The magnitude of the preference for “green” buildings depends on room temperature. Higher environmental concern was associated with a greater preference bias.

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  6. [해외논문]   On the accuracy of CFD simulations of cross-ventilation flows for a generic isolated building: Comparison of RANS, LES and experiments   SCIE

    van Hooff, T. (Department of Civil Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 40 –) , Blocken, B. (bus 2447, 3001 Leuven, Belgium ) , Tominaga, Y. (Department of Civil Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 40 –)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 148 - 165 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Accurate and reliable computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are essential for the assessment of cross-ventilation of buildings. To determine which CFD models are most suitable, validation studies are required. A detailed review of the literature indicates that most CFD validation studies only employed the 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach and/or focused on a limited set of flow parameters. Therefore, the objective of this paper is the validation of both 3D steady RANS simulations and large eddy simulation (LES) of cross-ventilation in a generic isolated enclosure with wind-tunnel measurements. The evaluation is based on five parameters: mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, ventilation flow rate, incoming jet angle and incoming jet spreading width. The RANS simulations are conducted with the standard k-ε (SKE), RNG k-ε, realizable k-ε (RLZ), SST k-ω and RSM turbulence models, whereas the LES is performed with the dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model. SST/RNG/RSM reproduce the experimentally observed direction of the incoming jet, but all RANS models fail in reproducing the turbulent kinetic energy, which is too low especially above and below the jet, because steady RANS does not capture the vertical flapping of the jet. This transient feature is reproduced by LES, resulting in a better reproduction of all three measured parameters (velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, volume flow rate). It is concluded that choice of the model (RANS vs. LES) actually depends on which parameter is the target parameter, noting that the use of LES entails an increase in computational demand with a factor of ≈80–100. Highlights Assessment of five steady RANS turbulence models and LES for cross-ventilation flow. SST/RNG/RSM reproduce the experimentally observed direction of the incoming jet. All RANS models underpredict turbulent kinetic energy inside the enclosure. LES reproduces the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy with higher accuracy. Better performance of LES due to the reproduction of transient flow features. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  7. [해외논문]   Effect of turbulence intensity and particle characteristics on the deposition of submicron particles enhanced by the ionic air purifier   SCIE

    Yu, Kuo-Pin (Corresponding author.) , Shih, Hui-Chi , Chen, Yen-Chi , Yang, Xuan-En
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 166 - 177 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract A negative air ionizer (NAI) is a common indoor air purifier for aerosol particles. The turbulence intensity can influence the performance of NAI. Besides, the dielectric constants ( p ) of particles can affect the electric mobility and deposition of particles in the electric field. Hence, this study aims to exam the difference between the deposition rate of NaCl ( p = 6.1) and sucrose ( p = 3.3) submicron particles when an NAI is operating under various turbulence intensities. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber under 50% relative humidity. Polydisperse submicron particles (PSPs) of 30–300 nm and monodisperse submicron particles (MSPs) of 30, 50, 100, 170 and 300 nm were used for testing. In the experiments of particle deposition, the aerosol particle number concentration and size distribution were monitored continuously by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The decay constant of particle concentration ( k ) and effective cleaning rate ( ECR ) were determined from the time profiles of particle concentration. When the NAI was off, k of NaCl and sucrose particles was similar. However, when the NAI was operating, the deposition rate of NaCl particles was higher than that of sucrose particles and the NAI performed better under lower turbulence intensity. Because the coagulation coefficient of PSP was larger than MSP, the decay constant of PSP was superior to that of MSP. The ECR was negatively correlated with particle size and was higher under lower turbulence intensity. Conclusively, the NAI is more efficient in charging particles with higher dielectric constants and performance better under lower turbulence intensity. Highlights Negative air ions from the ionizer are quenched notably by dynamic air movement. Turbulence reduces the air ionizer's efficacy on deposition of submicron particles. Particles with higher dielectric constant are deposited by air ionizer faster. Polydisperse coagulation of submicron particles enhances the number decay greatly.

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  8. [해외논문]   The impact of working in a green certified building on cognitive function and health   SCIE

    MacNaughton, Piers (Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA ) , Satish, Usha (Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY-Upstate Medical School, Syracuse, NY, USA ) , Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno (Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA ) , Flanigan, Skye (Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA ) , Vallarino, Jose (Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA ) , Coull, Brent (Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA ) , Spengler, John D. (Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA ) , Allen, Joseph G. (Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 178 - 186 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Thirty years of public health research have demonstrated that improved indoor environmental quality is associated with better health outcomes. Recent research has demonstrated an impact of the indoor environment on cognitive function. We recruited 109 participants from 10 high-performing buildings (i.e. buildings surpassing the ASHRAE Standard 62.1–2010 ventilation requirement and with low total volatile organic compound concentrations) in five U.S. cities. In each city, buildings were matched by week of assessment, tenant, type of worker and work functions. A key distinction between the matched buildings was whether they had achieved green certification. Workers were administered a cognitive function test of higher order decision-making performance twice during the same week while indoor environmental quality parameters were monitored. Workers in green certified buildings scored 26.4% (95% CI: [12.8%, 39.7%]) higher on cognitive function tests, controlling for annual earnings, job category and level of schooling, and had 30% fewer sick building symptoms than those in non-certified buildings. These outcomes may be partially explained by IEQ factors, including thermal conditions and lighting, but the findings suggest that the benefits of green certification standards go beyond measureable IEQ factors. We describe a holistic “buildingomics” approach for examining the complexity of factors in a building that influence human health. Highlights 26.4% higher cognitive test scores in high-performing, green certified buildings. 6.4% higher Sleep Quality scores in high-performing, green certified buildings. 30% fewer symptoms in high-performing, green certified buildings. Thermal comfort and sleep quality associated with higher cognitive scores. “Buildingomics”: the totality of factors in buildings that influence health.

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  9. [해외논문]   Quantifying and mapping embodied environmental requirements of urban building stocks   SCIE

    Stephan, André (Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia ) , (Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia) , Athanassiadis, Aristide
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 187 - 202 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Cities and their building stocks result in huge environmental impacts which are critical to reduce. However, the majority of existing studies focus on operational requirements or on material stocks. To date, very few studies have quantified embodied environmental requirements of building stocks and spatialised them. This study describes a bottom-up approach to spatially model building stocks and quantify their embodied environmental requirements. It uses a highly disaggregated approach where each building's geometry is modelled and used to derive a bill of quantities. Construction assemblies relevant to each building archetype (derived based on land-use, age and height) are defined using expert knowledge in construction. The initial and recurrent embodied energy, water and greenhouse gas emissions associated with each material within each assembly are calculated using a comprehensive hybrid analysis technique. This model is applied to all buildings of the City of Melbourne, Australia. Results show that rebuilding the City of Melbourne's building stock today would require 904 kt of materials/km 2 (total: 32 725 kt), 10 PJ/km 2 (total: 362 PJ), 17.7 Million m 3 of embodied water/km 2 (total: 640.74 Million m 3 ) and would emit 605 ktCO 2 e/km 2 (total: 23 530 ktCO 2 e). This study demonstrates the breadth of the model outputs, including material stocks maps and breakdowns of life cycle embodied requirements by material, construction assembly, building and building typology at the city level. Using such model, city councils can better manage building stocks in terms of waste processing, urban mining and circular economy, as well as reducing embodied environmental requirements over time. Highlights A bottom-up method to quantify and map embodied resources of cities is presented. Material stocks, embodied energy, water and greenhouse gas emissions are quantified. Bills of quantities are derived for each building using its geometry, type and age. The method is applied to the City of Melbourne, Australia and its 13 075 buildings. The method supports decision-making for more environmentally effective cities.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   Potential energy savings from deployment of Dynamic Insulation Materials for US residential buildings   SCIE

    Menyhart, Kathleen (Corresponding author.) , Krarti, Moncef
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 203 - 218 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract This paper presents a summary of the results obtained from a comprehensive analysis to evaluate the potential energy savings associated with replacing traditional, static insulation with Dynamic Insulation Materials (DIMs) for US residential buildings. In order to determine the effectiveness of DIMs to reduce heating and cooling energy use, two different control schemes are investigated: 1) using temperature sensors and the measured temperature profile to trigger the switching mechanism, 2) seasonal control based on climate and weather trends. The performance of DIMs varied significantly by climate, with total energy savings ranging from 7% to 42%. Highlights Dynamic Insulation Materials (DIMs) are applied and evaluated for US residential buildings. In all US climates, DIMs outperform static insulation systems. DIMs can achieve heating and cooling energy savings ranging from 7% to 42%.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지

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