본문 바로가기
HOME> 저널/프로시딩 > 저널/프로시딩 검색상세

저널/프로시딩 상세정보

권호별목차 / 소장처보기

H : 소장처정보

T : 목차정보

Atherosclerosis 25건

  1. [해외논문]   Altered leukocyte distribution under hypercholesterolemia: A cross-sectional study in children with familial hypercholesterolemia   SCI SCIE

    Christensen, J.J. ; Osnes, L.T. ; Halvorsen, B. ; Retterstol, K. ; Bogsrud, M.P. ; Wium, C. ; Svilaas, A. ; Narverud, I. ; Ulven, S.M. ; Aukrust, P. ; Holven, K.B.
    Atherosclerosis v.256 ,pp. 67 - 74 , 2017 , 0021-9150 ,

    초록

    Background and aims: Children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) have elevated LDL cholesterol from the first year of life, and represent a model of early-stage atherosclerosis. Data suggest that adults with FH have alterations in circulating monocyte subpopulations towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype, but it is not known whether FH children have similar perturbations. In addition, there are no data on the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in FH children. The objective of the present study was to characterize the distributions of circulating monocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations in children with FH and healthy, normocholesterolemic children. Methods: Using flow cytometry analysis, we analyzed whole blood B- and T-cell subpopulations and monocyte subpopulations in FH (n = 23) and healthy (n = 20) children. Moreover, we measured serum markers of leukocyte and endothelial cell activation using EIA. Results: We found that FH children had monocytosis as well as a shift in the monocyte subpopulations. This shift was characterized by higher circulating pro-inflammatory and non-classical monocytes, and lower levels of classical monocytes, and seemed to be present only in FH children with low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, below 1.3 mmol/L). Additionally, monocytes expressing CD18 and serum E-selectin were higher in FH children, in particular FH children with low HDL-C. Conclusions: FH children with low HDL-C had monocytosis as well as a shift in monocyte subpopulations towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype. Our results suggest activation of monocytes at a very early stage of atherosclerosis in humans.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  2. [해외논문]   Apelin concentrations are associated with altered atherosclerotic plaque stability mediator levels and atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis   SCI SCIE

    Gunter, S. ; Solomon, A. ; Tsang, L. ; Woodiwiss, A.J. ; Robinson, C. ; Millen, A.M.E. ; Norton, G.R. ; Dessein, P.H.
    Atherosclerosis v.256 ,pp. 75 - 81 , 2017 , 0021-9150 ,

    초록

    Background and aims: Apelin-APJ signaling reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the atherosclerosis burden and plaque vulnerability to rupture are increased. We explored relationships between apelin concentrations and subclinical CVD in RA. Methods: Apelin levels were measured in 235 (114 black, 121 white) RA patients. Associations between apelin concentrations and ultrasound determined carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque, and levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 that mediate plaque stability and vulnerability respectively, were identified in confounder adjusted multivariate regression analysis. Results: In all patients, apelin concentrations were directly associated with those of MMP-2 (β (SE) = 0.324 (0.112), p = 0.004) and inversely with those of MMP-9 (β (SE) = -0.239 (0.060), p = 0.000). Apelin concentration-subclinical CVD relations were influenced by population origin, RA disease activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations (interaction p = 0.001 to 0.04). Accordingly, the apelin-MMP-2 concentration relationship was reproduced in white (β (SE) = 0.367 (0.146), p = 0.01) but not black RA patients (β (SE) = 0.197 (0.220), p = 0.4), and only in those without (but not with) large erythrocyte sedimentation rates (β (SE) = 0.428 (0.143), p = 0.003) or interleukin-6 levels (β (SE) = 0.485 (0.288), p = 0.04). By contrast, the apelin-MMP-9 concentration relation was reproduced more consistently. Apelin levels were inversely related to cIMT in patients with RA remission or mild (β (SE) = -0.068 (0.033), p = 0.04) but not moderate or high disease activity (β (SE) = 0.015 (0.112), p = 0.7). Conclusions: Apelin concentrations are associated with altered plaque stability mediator levels and atherosclerosis in patients with RA. These relations are partially dependent on population origin and systemic inflammatory status.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  3. [해외논문]   Screening of circulating microRNA biomarkers for prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and aneurysm growth   SCI SCIE

    Wanhainen, A. ; Mani, K. ; Vorkapic, E. ; De Basso, R. ; Bjorck, M. ; Lanne, T. ; Wagsater, D.
    Atherosclerosis v.256 ,pp. 82 - 88 , 2017 , 0021-9150 ,

    초록

    Background and aims: MicroRNA (miR) are important regulators of gene expression and biological processes and have recently been suggested as possible biomarkers for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of miR as biomarkers for initiation and progression of AAA disease, through evaluation of a wide range of miRs in a large population-based cohort, with AAA patients with linked clinical data regarding risk factors, AAA size and growth, as well as controls. Methods: The expression of the 172 most commonly expressed miRs in plasma was analyzed by real-time PCR in samples from 169 screening-detected AAA patients and 48 age-matched controls. Results: For 103 miRs, there was a significant difference in expression between AAA and controls. Of these, 20 miRs were differently expressed between fast and slow growing aneurysms. These miRs target genes known to be involved in AAA disease as well as novel genes and pathways. By combining the top altered miRs together with clinical variables, strong predictive values, determining growth of AAA, were obtained (area under curve = 0.86, p

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  4. [해외논문]   Decreased muscle mass in Korean subjects with intracranial arterial stenosis: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study   SCI SCIE

    Jung, H.J. ; Jung, H. ; Lee, T. ; Kim, J. ; Park, J. ; Kim, H. ; Cho, J. ; Lee, W.Y. ; Park, S.W. ; Rhee, E.J. ; Oh, H.G.
    Atherosclerosis v.256 ,pp. 89 - 93 , 2017 , 0021-9150 ,

    초록

    Backgrounds and aims: Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asians. Decreased muscle mass is one of the major causes of chronic disease in adults. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between muscle mass and ICAS in Korean adults. Methods: For this study, we selected a total of 10,530 participants (mean age, 43.3 years; 8558 men) in a health screening program, for whom transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound was used to detect >50% ICAS based on criteria modified from the stroke outcomes and neuroimaging of intracranial atherosclerosis trial. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated with muscle mass/weight (kg) * 100. Results: Among the total patient population, 322 (3.1%) subjects had ICAS. Subjects with ICAS were older, and had higher mean values for fasting glucose, body mass index and blood pressure compared with those without ICAS. Subjects with ICAS had significantly lower muscle mass, SMI and higher percent body fat compared with those without ICAS. In logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the highest tertile of muscle mass had the lowest odds ratio for ICAS with the lowest tertile group of muscle mass as the reference group even after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, sex, smoking and exercise (OR 0.650, 95% CI 0.442-0.955). Conclusions: Subjects with ICAS had significantly decreased muscle mass compared with those without ICAS in Korean adults. The risk for ICAS was lower in subjects with higher muscle mass.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  5. [해외논문]   Endothelial function and arterial stiffness indexes in subjects with acute ischemic stroke: Relationship with TOAST subtype   SCI SCIE

    Tuttolomondo, A. ; Casuccio, A. ; Della Corte, V. ; Maida, C. ; Pecoraro, R. ; Di Raimondo, D. ; Vassallo, V. ; Simonetta, I. ; Arnao, V. ; Pinto, A.
    Atherosclerosis v.256 ,pp. 94 - 99 , 2017 , 0021-9150 ,

    초록

    Background and aims: Only one study has examined endothelial function in subjects with acute ischemic stroke and no study has yet assessed arterial stiffness and reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) in ischemic stroke and its clinical subtypes. Our study aimed to evaluate arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction indexes in patients with acute ischemic stroke and the relationship between endothelial dysfunction indexes and arterial stiffness markers and stroke subtypes according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) Classification. Methods: We enrolled 98 patients with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke and 105 hospitalized patients without a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Arterial stiffness analysis was conducted by applanation tonometry to record radial artery pressure waveform continuously; augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were calculated. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI) was assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry. Results: In comparison to controls, ischemic stroke subjects had higher mean levels of PWV, Aix, and significantly lower mean RHI values. Compared to subjects with lacunar and cardioembolic stroke, those with Large Artery AtheroSclerosis (LAAS) subtype of stroke had higher median levels of PWV and significantly lower median levels of RHI. On multinomial logistic regression analysis of predictive variables of stroke subtype (lacunar vs. LAAS and lacunar vs. cardioembolic), we observed a negative association between RHI value and LAAS subtype and a negative association of PWV with cardioembolic subtype. Conclusions: Our findings underline the relationship between endothelial and arterial stiffness index correlations in patients with acute ischemic stroke, also suggesting the use of a combination of PAT and arterial stiffness indexes to better categorize patients with ischemic stroke.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [해외논문]   Low vitamin D does not predict statin associated muscle symptoms but is associated with transient increases in muscle damage and pain   SCI SCIE

    Taylor, B.A. ; Lorson, L. ; White, C.M. ; Thompson, P.D.
    Atherosclerosis v.256 ,pp. 100 - 104 , 2017 , 0021-9150 ,

    초록

    Background and aims: Low vitamin D (VITD) may contribute to statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). We examined the influence of baseline and change in VITD in patients with verified SAMS. Methods: SAMS was verified in 120 patients with prior statin muscle complaints using 8-week randomized, double-blind crossover trials of simvastatin (SIMVA) 20 mg/d and placebo. 25 (OH)vitamin D was measured at each phase of the trial. Results: Forty-three patients (35.8%) experienced muscle pain on SIMVA but not placebo, exhibiting confirmed SAMS. VITD (mean +/- standard deviation) prior to SIMVA treatment was not different between patients who did (31.7 +/- 12.1 ng/mL, n = 43) or did not (31.6 +/- 10.3 ng/mL, n = 77) develop SAMS and did not predict SAMS (p = 0.96). The change in VITD with SIMVA treatment was not different between patients with and without SAMS (0.3 +/- 5.9 vs. 0.2 +/- 8.3 ng/mL, respectively) and did not predict SAMS (p = 0.96). The proportion of patients classified as VITD deficient ( 2 = 1.45; p = 0.23), nor did the proportion of patients classified as VITD insufficient ( 2

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  7. [해외논문]   CD98 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in atherosclerosis   SCI SCIE

    Baumer, Y. ; McCurdy, S. ; Alcala, M. ; Mehta, N. ; Lee, B.H. ; Ginsberg, M.H. ; Boisvert, W.A.
    Atherosclerosis v.256 ,pp. 105 - 114 , 2017 , 0021-9150 ,

    초록

    Background and aims: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) migrate and proliferate to form a stabilizing fibrous cap that encapsulates atherosclerotic plaques. CD98 is a transmembrane protein made of two subunits, CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) and one of six light chains, and is known to be involved in cell proliferation and survival. Because the influence of CD98hc on atherosclerosis development is unknown, our aim was to determine if CD98hc expressed on VSMC plays a role in shaping the morphology of atherosclerotic plaques by regulating VSMC function. Methods: In addition to determining the role of CD98hc in VSMC proliferation and apoptosis, we utilized mice with SMC-specific deletion of CD98hc (CD98hc fl/fl SM22αCre + ) to determine the effects of CD98hc deficiency on VSMC function in atherosclerotic plaque. Results: After culturing for 5 days in vitro, CD98hc -/- VSMC displayed dramatically reduced cell counts, reduced proliferation, as well as reduced migration compared to control VSMC. Analysis of aortic VSCM after 8 weeks of HFD showed a reduction in CD98hc -/- VSMC proliferation as well as increased apoptosis compared to controls. A long-term atherosclerosis study using SMC-CD98hc -/- /ldlr -/- mice was performed. Although total plaque area was unchanged, CD98hc -/- mice showed reduced presence of VSMC within the plaque (2.1 +/- 0.4% vs. 4.3 +/- 0.4% SM22α-positive area per plaque area, p -/- mice. Conclusions: We conclude that CD98hc is required for VSMC proliferation, and that its deficiency leads to significantly reduced presence of VSMC in the neointima. Thus, CD98hc expression in VSMC contributes to the formation of plaques that are morphologically more stable, and thereby protects against atherothrombosis.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  8. [해외논문]   Oscillatory shear stress, flow-mediated dilatation, and circulating microparticles at sea level and high altitude   SCI SCIE

    Tremblay, J.C. ; Thom, S.R. ; Yang, M. ; Ainslie, P.N.
    Atherosclerosis v.256 ,pp. 115 - 122 , 2017 , 0021-9150 ,

    초록

    Background and aims: Exposing the endothelium to acute periods of imposed oscillatory shear stress reduces endothelial function and elevates circulating microparticles (MPs). Oscillatory shear stress may be especially pathogenic when superimposed on hypoxia, an environmental stimulus that disrupts the endothelial milieu. We examined the effects of acute manipulation of oscillatory shear stress on endothelial function and circulating MPs at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA). Methods: Healthy adults (n = 12) participated, once at SL and once on the second or third day at HA (3800 m). Oscillatory shear stress was provoked using a 30-min distal cuff occlusion intervention (75 mmHg). Endothelial function was assessed before and immediately after the intervention in the brachial artery by reactive hyperaemia flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Venous blood samples of MPs (flow cytometry) were obtained before and during the last five minutes of the shear intervention. Results: At baseline, circulating MPs were two-fold higher at HA (p = 0.011) and brachial artery diameter was constricted (p = 0.015). Although the intervention at SL increased endothelial-derived MPs by 83 +/- 39% (mean +/- SEM; p = 0.021), FMD was unaltered. Conversely, at HA, the intervention elicited a 26 +/- 11% reduction in FMD (p = 0.020); this reduction was inversely correlated with the change in total circulating MPs (r = -0.737, p = 0.006) and the change in endothelial-derived MPs (r = -0.614, p = 0.034). Conclusions: The vascular endothelium appears to be susceptible to periods of oscillatory shear stress at HA, where impairments in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation may be amplified by endothelial injury. These findings have important implications for understanding the early impact of clinical situations of hypoxaemia on the vascular endothelium.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  9. [해외논문]   Understanding cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: Still a long way to go   SCI SCIE

    Gualtierotti, R.
    Atherosclerosis v.256 ,pp. 123 - 124 , 2017 , 0021-9150 ,

    초록

    Background and aims: Exposing the endothelium to acute periods of imposed oscillatory shear stress reduces endothelial function and elevates circulating microparticles (MPs). Oscillatory shear stress may be especially pathogenic when superimposed on hypoxia, an environmental stimulus that disrupts the endothelial milieu. We examined the effects of acute manipulation of oscillatory shear stress on endothelial function and circulating MPs at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA). Methods: Healthy adults (n = 12) participated, once at SL and once on the second or third day at HA (3800 m). Oscillatory shear stress was provoked using a 30-min distal cuff occlusion intervention (75 mmHg). Endothelial function was assessed before and immediately after the intervention in the brachial artery by reactive hyperaemia flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Venous blood samples of MPs (flow cytometry) were obtained before and during the last five minutes of the shear intervention. Results: At baseline, circulating MPs were two-fold higher at HA (p = 0.011) and brachial artery diameter was constricted (p = 0.015). Although the intervention at SL increased endothelial-derived MPs by 83 +/- 39% (mean +/- SEM; p = 0.021), FMD was unaltered. Conversely, at HA, the intervention elicited a 26 +/- 11% reduction in FMD (p = 0.020); this reduction was inversely correlated with the change in total circulating MPs (r = -0.737, p = 0.006) and the change in endothelial-derived MPs (r = -0.614, p = 0.034). Conclusions: The vascular endothelium appears to be susceptible to periods of oscillatory shear stress at HA, where impairments in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation may be amplified by endothelial injury. These findings have important implications for understanding the early impact of clinical situations of hypoxaemia on the vascular endothelium.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  10. [해외논문]   Low serum vitamin D, statin associated muscle symptoms, vitamin D supplementation   SCI SCIE

    Glueck, C.J. ; Lee, K. ; Prince, M. ; Milgrom, A. ; Makadia, F. ; Wang, P.
    Atherosclerosis v.256 ,pp. 125 - 127 , 2017 , 0021-9150 ,

    초록

    Background and aims: Exposing the endothelium to acute periods of imposed oscillatory shear stress reduces endothelial function and elevates circulating microparticles (MPs). Oscillatory shear stress may be especially pathogenic when superimposed on hypoxia, an environmental stimulus that disrupts the endothelial milieu. We examined the effects of acute manipulation of oscillatory shear stress on endothelial function and circulating MPs at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA). Methods: Healthy adults (n = 12) participated, once at SL and once on the second or third day at HA (3800 m). Oscillatory shear stress was provoked using a 30-min distal cuff occlusion intervention (75 mmHg). Endothelial function was assessed before and immediately after the intervention in the brachial artery by reactive hyperaemia flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Venous blood samples of MPs (flow cytometry) were obtained before and during the last five minutes of the shear intervention. Results: At baseline, circulating MPs were two-fold higher at HA (p = 0.011) and brachial artery diameter was constricted (p = 0.015). Although the intervention at SL increased endothelial-derived MPs by 83 +/- 39% (mean +/- SEM; p = 0.021), FMD was unaltered. Conversely, at HA, the intervention elicited a 26 +/- 11% reduction in FMD (p = 0.020); this reduction was inversely correlated with the change in total circulating MPs (r = -0.737, p = 0.006) and the change in endothelial-derived MPs (r = -0.614, p = 0.034). Conclusions: The vascular endothelium appears to be susceptible to periods of oscillatory shear stress at HA, where impairments in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation may be amplified by endothelial injury. These findings have important implications for understanding the early impact of clinical situations of hypoxaemia on the vascular endothelium.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지

논문관련 이미지