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Acta tropica 32건

  1. [해외논문]   Culex (Melanoconion) panocossa from peninsular Florida, USA   SCI SCIE

    Blosser, Erik M. (Corresponding author.) , Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.
    Acta tropica v.167 ,pp. 59 - 63 , 2017 , 0001-706x ,

    초록

    Abstract Culex ( Melanoconion ) panocossa is a suspected vector of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in Central America. Prior to this report, Cx . panocossa was known from Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, southern Mexico, Panama), northern South America (Colombia, Venezuela) and the Greater Antilles (Cuba and Jamaica). Larvae (n=5) and adults (n=4286) of Cx . panocossa were collected at two locations near Homestead, FL, which indicates substantial established populations of this probable vector species in the continental US. Since larvae of Cx. panocossa are associated with Pistia spp. (water lettuce), the distribution of this mosquito is likely to expand in Florida, where water lettuce is a major invasive plant in freshwater ecosystems. The putative establishment of Cx . panocossa in Florida is of significant concern from a public health perspective, as its proliferation in developed areas could link historically sylvatic transmission foci of Everglades virus with populated centers such as the greater Miami Metropolitan area.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in a rural community of Venezuela: Advantages and disadvantages of using microscopy or RT-PCR   SCI SCIE

    Incani, Renzo Nino (Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Bilharzia, Departamento de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Carabobo, Campus Carabobo, Valencia, Venezuela ) , Ferrer, Elizabeth (Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas “Dr. Francisco J. Triana Alonso” (BIOMED) and Departamento de Parasitología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Carabobo, Sede Aragua, Maracay, Venezuela ) , Hoek, Denise (Center for Infectious Diseases Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands ) , Ramak, Robbert (Center for Infectious Diseases Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands ) , Roelfsema, Jeroen (Center for Infectious Diseases Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands ) , Mughini-Gras, Lapo (Center for Infectious Diseases Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands ) , Kortbeek, Titia (Center for Infectious Diseases Control, National Instit) , Pinelli, Elena
    Acta tropica v.167 ,pp. 64 - 70 , 2017 , 0001-706x ,

    초록

    Abstract A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular anthelminthic treatments. A total of 228 participants were included in this study. A multiplex RT-PCR was used for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis , Giardia intestinalis , Cryptosporidium sp. and a monoplex RT-PCR for Entamoeba histolytica . Furthermore, a multiplex PCR was performed for detection of Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Combined microscopy-PCR revealed prevalences of 49.3% for A. lumbricoides , 10.1% for N. americanus (no A. duodenale was detected), 2.0% for S. stercoralis , 40.4% for D. fragilis , 35.1% for G. intestinalis , and 7.9% for E. histolytica/dispar . Significant increases in prevalence at PCR vs . microscopy were found for A. lumbricoides, G. intestinalis and D. fragilis . Other parasites detected by microscopy alone were Trichuris trichiura (25.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (3.4%), Blastocystis sp. (65.8%), and the non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli (28.9%), Entamoeba hartmanni (12.3%), Endolimax nana (19.7%) and Iodamoeba bUtschlii (7.5%). Age- but no gender-related differences in prevalences were found for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, G. intestinalis, and E. histolytica/dispar . The persistently high prevalences of intestinal helminths are probably related to the high faecal pollution as also evidenced by the high prevalences of non-pathogenic intestinal protozoans. These results highlight the importance of using sensitive diagnostic techniques in combination with microscopy to better estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in the case of D. fragilis trophozoites, which deteriorate very rapidly and would be missed by microscopy. In addition, the differentiation between the pathogenic E. histolytica and the non-pathogenic E. dispar can be attained. However, microscopy remains an important diagnostic tool since it can detect other intestinal parasites for which no PCR is available. Highlights Helminths prevalence remains high in spite of deworming program in this community. PCR and microscopy are complementary in producing better results of prevalences. No Entamoeba histolytica was detected in this community. Increased prevalences by PCR for D. fragilis, G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides . Among hookworms, only Necator americanus was detected in this community. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Diagnosis of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis by detection of Leishmania-related antigen in urine and oral fluid samples   SCI SCIE

    Ben-Abid, Meriem (Department of Clinical Parasitology, Laboratoire de Recherche LR 11-IPT-06, Parasitologie Médicale, Biotechnologies et Biomolécules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Université) , Galaï (Tunis El-Manar, Tunis, Tunisia ) , , Yousr (Department of Clinical Parasitology, Laboratoire de Recherche LR 11-IPT-06, Parasitologie Médicale, Biotechnologies et Biomolécules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Université) , Habboul, Zakia (Tunis El-Manar, Tunis, Tunisia ) , Ben-Abdelaziz, Rim (Pediatric Department of the Regional Hospital of Kairouan, Tunisia ) , Ben-Sghaier, Ines (Pediatric Department, Hospital la Rabta, Tunis, Tunisia ) , Aoun, Karim (Department of Clinical Parasitology, Laboratoire de Recherche LR 11-IPT-06, Parasitologie Médicale, Biotechnologies et Biomolécules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Université) , Bouratbine, Aï (Tunis El-Manar, Tunis, Tunisia ) , da (Department of Clinical Parasitology, Laboratoire de Recherche LR 11-IPT-06, Parasitologie Médicale, Biotechnologies et Biomolécules, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Université)
    Acta tropica v.167 ,pp. 71 - 72 , 2017 , 0001-706x ,

    초록

    Abstract Implementation of simple diagnostic tests using non-invasive collection of biological specimens is of great importance in the diagnosis of pediatric visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum . Latex agglutination kit (KAtex ? ) is widely used in the diagnosis mainly in L. donovani endemic areas. However its utilization in L. infantum endemic regions remains limited and its use on noninvasive biological specimen apart urine was not reported. In this study, KAtex ? kit was used to detect Leishmania -related antigen in urine and oral fluid of 35 L. infantum visceral leishmaniasis cases and 62 controls including non-infectious disease and infectious disease controls (34 and 28 respectively). Sensitivity and specificity of urine based KAtex ? were 51.4% and 98.3% respectively, whereas, sensitivity and specificity of oral-fluid based KAtex ? were 80% and 88.3% respectively. Although, sensitivity of oral-fluid KAtex ? was high, its specificity varied significantly according to the presence or the absence of an infectious disease (71.4% versus 97%, p=0.01). Highlights Sensitivity and specificity of KAtex? kit in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis were 51.4% and 98.3% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of KAtex? kit using oral-fluid were 80% and 88.3% respectively. Lack of specificity in oral fluid is probably due to cross-reaction with soluble bacteria related-antigen. Graphical abstract Sensitivity and specificity of KAtex? kit in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum varied according to biological sample used (urine or oral-fluid). [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   In vitro antileishmanial activity of novel azoles (3-imidazolylflavanones) against promastigote and amastigote stages of Leishmania major   SCI SCIE

    Shokri, Azar (Student Research Committee, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran ) , Emami, Saeed (Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran ) , Fakhar, Mahdi (Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran ) , Teshnizi, Saeed Hosseini (Clinical Research Development Center of Children Hospital, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran ) , Keighobadi, Masoud (Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran)
    Acta tropica v.167 ,pp. 73 - 78 , 2017 , 0001-706x ,

    초록

    Abstract Leishmaniasis is a protozoan infectious disease widely distributed all around the world. First line drugs including antimoniales are insufficient due to resistance in endemic areas and high toxicity. Azole antifungals like ketoconazole (KCZ) are also used as antileishmanial agents for several decades. In the present study, we evaluated in vitro antileishmanial effects of new azole antifungals namely 3-imidazolylflavanones (IFs) and their oximes (IFOs) against Leishmania major (L. major) parasites. The obtained results showed remarkable effect of our compounds on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. major . In particular, the 4-chloro analog of flavanone (IF-2) and 3-chloro substituted flavanone oxime (IFO-3) with IC 50 values ≤8.9μg/mL were 8-fold more potent than KCZ (IC 50 =7 72μg/mL) against promastigote form of L. major . In amastigote stage, the compounds IF-2 and IFO-2 decreased the mean number of infected macrophages (MIR) more than KCZ (p 50 value (115.4μg/mL) and SI (383.3). We concluded that our new synthetic azoles displaying potent activity against L. major could be considered as new hits for drug development in the field of antileishmanial therapy. Highlights In vitro anti-leishmanial activity of new synthesized azoles on promastigote and amastigotes of Leishmania major was evaluated. In vitro cytotoxicity of new synthesized azoles on J774 A.1 macrophage cells was evaluated. Reliable anti-leishmanial activity in decreasing both infected macrophages percentage and amastigotes was achieved. Prototype compound IF-2 showed better profile of activity respect to the standard azole ketoconazole. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   Bovine trypanosomosis and vector density in Omo-Ghibe tsetse belt, South Ethiopia   SCI SCIE

    Abebe, Rahmeto (Corresponding author.) , Gute, Solomon , Simon, Ijigu
    Acta tropica v.167 ,pp. 79 - 85 , 2017 , 0001-706x ,

    초록

    Abstract African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is a parasitic disease that causes serious economic losses in livestock from anemia, loss of condition, emaciation and death in untreated cases. It is one of the major constraints to improved livestock production and productivity in Ethiopia. Entomological and parasitological surveys were conducted in the Omo-Ghibe tsetse belt of south Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and the apparent tsetse density (AD), and identify the potential risk factors. For the parasitological study, blood samples were collected from 1508 cattle sampled from 11 districts and assayed using the buffy coat technique and Giemsa-stained thin smears. For the entomological survey, a total of 216 biconical and NGU traps were deployed in all districts. The overall animal-level prevalence of trypanosomosis was 7.8% (95% CI: 6.5, 9.3). The trypanosome species identified were Trypanosoma congolense (75.4%), T. vivax (20.3%), T. brucei brucei (1.7%) and mixed T. congolense/T. vivax (2.6%). Regarding the entomological survey result, a total of 2243 tsetse flies were captured which identified to be Glossina pallidipes (85.1%) and G. f. fuscipes (14.9%). Besides, other biting flies of the genus Stomoxys (n=146) and Tabanus (n=17) were also trapped. The AD noted in the present study was 3.5 flies/trap/day. Both the prevalence of trypanosomosis and AD of tsetse flies were significantly ( p p T. congolense and transmission is predominantly by tsetse flies, particularly G. pallidipes . The study warrants the need for strengthening the vector and parasite control interventions in the area. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  6. [해외논문]   Infestation of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) in the human dwelling environments: A systematic review and meta-analysis   SCI SCIE

    Nasirian, Hassan
    Acta tropica v.167 ,pp. 86 - 98 , 2017 , 0001-706x ,

    초록

    Abstract Periplaneta americana , Blatta orientalis , Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa are the most common worldwide cockroaches that mentioned in the “22 common pest” or “22 dirty” species named as “group I”. They are able to infest any type of buildings. A meta-analysis review was conducted between January 2015 and July 2016 on any literature published about infestation of cockroaches. Scientific reports and papers about infestation of cockroaches and relevant topics were collected from various specific scientific websites such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Springer, Elsevier, Scopus, and Google Scholar. About 271 scientific reports and papers were collected and after a preliminary review, 63 were selected to become part of the detailed synthesis review and meta-analysis. Results showed that the global world mean infestation trend of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species ranged 49.0-55.0, 40.0-70.0 and 60.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species were 52.3, 55.2 and 65.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the global world mean infestation of cockroaches and P. americana cockroach species (P=0.019). The global mean infestation trend of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world ranged 55.0-65.0 and 50.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world were 60.4 and 57.7%, respectively. Although some factors affect the infestation of cockroaches and the sanitation and quality structure of the buildings are also being improved. While as present study reveal that the globally the world infestation trend of cockroaches are being increased and recent studies also indicate that the prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the decades suggest that infestation of cockroaches can directly affect the development of asthma.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   A cysteine protease from Spirometra erinaceieuropaei plerocercoid is a critical factor for host tissue invasion and migration   SCI SCIE

    Tsubokawa, Daigo (Department of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Kitasato University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373, Japan ) , Hatta, Takeshi (Department of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Kitasato University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373, Japan ) , Maeda, Hiroki (Department of Parasitology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan ) , Mikami, Fusako (Department of Parasitology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan ) , Goso, Yukinobu (Department of Biochemistry, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan ) , Nakamura, Takeshi (Department of Parasitology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan ) , Alim, M. Abdul (Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh ) , Tsuji, Naotoshi (Dep)
    Acta tropica v.167 ,pp. 99 - 107 , 2017 , 0001-706x ,

    초록

    Abstract Sparganosis in humans caused by the plerocercoid larvae of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei is found worldwide, especially in Eastern Asia and the Far East. Previous studies have suggested that dissolution of plerocercoid body, plerocercoid invasion of host tissue, and migration are important processes for sparganosis progression. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes have yet to be determined. Here, we demonstrated the enzymatic property and involvement of a native 23kDa cysteine protease (Se23kCP), purified from plerocercoids, in sparganosis pathogenesis. Se23kCP is mature protease consisting of 216 amino acids and has a high sequence similarity with cathepsin L in various organisms. Se23kCP conjugated with N -glycans, which have a core fucose residue. Both cysteine and serine protease-specific activities were determined in Se23kCP and their optimal pHs were found to be different, indicating that Se23kCP has a wide range of substrate specificity. Se23kCP was secreted from tegumental vacuoles of the plerocercoid to host subcutaneous tissues and degraded human structural proteins, such as collagen and fibronectin. In addition, the plerocercoid body was lysed by Se23kCP, which facilitated larval invasion of host tissue. Our findings suggest that Se23kCP induces host tissue invasion and migration, and might be an essential molecule for sparganosis onset and progression. Highlights A cysteine protease (Se23kCP) is purified from S. erinaceieuropaei plerocercoids. Se23kCP has both cysteine and serine protease-specific activities. Se23kCP is secreted from tegumental vacuoles and degrades host structural proteins. The body region of plerocercoid is lysed by Se23kCP, allowing host tissue invasion. Se23kCP acts for host tissue invasion and migration of plerocercoid. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   TcI, TcII and TcVI Trypanosoma cruzi samples from Chagas disease patients with distinct clinical forms and critical analysis of in vitro and in vivo behavior, response to treatment and infection evolution in murine model   SCI SCIE

    Oliveira, Maykon Tavares de (Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas (NUPEB), Campus Universitário Morro do Cruzeiro, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, CEP: 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil ) , Branquinho, Renata Tupinambá (Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas (NUPEB), Campus Universitário Morro do Cruzeiro, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, CEP: 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil ) , (Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas (NUPEB), Campus Universitário Morro do Cruzeiro, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, CEP: 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil ) , Alessio, Glá (Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas (CIPHARMA), Escola de Farmácia, Campus Universitário Morro do Cruzeiro, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, CEP: 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil ) , ucia Diniz (Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas (NUPEB), Campus Universitário Morro do Cruzeiro, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, CEP: 35400-00) , Mello, Carlos Geraldo Campos , Nogueira-de-Paiva, Ní , via Carolina , Carneiro, Clá , udia Martins , Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas , Reis, Alexandre Barbosa , Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis Martins , Lana, Marta de
    Acta tropica v.167 ,pp. 108 - 120 , 2017 , 0001-706x ,

    초록

    Abstract The clonal evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi sustains scientifically the hypothesis of association between parasite’s genetic, biological behavior and possibly the clinical aspects of Chagas disease in patients from whom they were isolated. This study intended to characterize a range of biological properties of TcI, TcII and TcVI T. cruzi samples in order to verify the existence of these associations. Several biological features were evaluated, including in vitro epimastigote-growth, “Vero”cells infectivity and growth, along with in vivo studies of parasitemia, polymorphism of trypomastigotes, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and response to treatment by nifurtimox during the acute and chronic murine infection. The global results showed that the in vitro essays (acellular and cellular cultures) TcII parasites showed higher values for all parameters (growth and infectivity) than TcVI, followed by TcI. In vivo TcII parasites were more virulent and originated from patients with severe disease. Two TcII isolates from patients with severe pathology were virulent in mice, while the isolate from a patient with the indeterminate form of the disease caused mild infection. The only TcVI sample, which displayed low values in all parameters evaluated, was also originated of an indeterminate case of Chagas disease. Response to nifurtimox was not associated to parasite genetic and biology, as well as to clinical aspects of human disease. Although few number of T. cruzi samples have been analyzed, a discreet correlation between parasite genetics, biological behavior in vitro and in vivo (murine model) and the clinical form of human disease from whom the samples were isolated was verified. Highlights TcII samples performed better in vitro essays. TcVI samples performed worst in vitro essays. Response to nifurtimox was not associated to parasite genetic and biology. T. cruzi genetics, in vitro , in vivo biology and human disease are correlated. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  9. [해외논문]   Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in response to thermal stress   SCI SCIE

    Sivan, Arun (Corresponding author at: Regional Medical Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Post Bag No.13, Port Blair, 744 101, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India.) , Shriram, Ananganallur Nagarajan , Muruganandam, Nagarajan , Thamizhmani, Ramanathan
    Acta tropica v.167 ,pp. 121 - 127 , 2017 , 0001-706x ,

    초록

    Abstract Climatic changes are responsible, to a certain extent for the occurrence and spread of arboviral pathogens world over. Temperature is one of the important abiotic factors influencing the physiological processes of mosquitoes. Several genes of heat shock protein (HSP) families are known to be expressed in mosquitoes, which aid in overcoming stress induced by elevated temperature. In order to understand expression of HSP family genes in the Andaman population of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus , we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to examine expression levels of HSPs in response to thermal stress under laboratory and in actual field conditions. HSP genes AeaHsp26 , AeaHsp83 and AeaHsc70 were examined by comparing relative transcript expression levels at 31°C, 33°C, 34°C, 37°C and 39°C respectively. Enhanced up-regulation of HSPs was evident in third instar larvae of Ae . aegypti with rise in water temperatures (31°C, 33°C, 34°C) in the containers in the nature and thermally stressed (37°C and 39°C) in laboratory conditions. In A e. albopictus up-regulation of HSPs was observed in field conditions at 34°C only and when thermally treated at 37°C, while down regulation was evident in larvae subjected to thermal stress in laboratory at 39°C. Data on expression levels revealed that larvae of Ae . aegypti was tolerant to thermal stress, while Ae . albopictus larvae was sensitive to heat shock treatment. Statistical analysis indicated that AeaHsp83 genes were significantly up-regulated in Ae . aegypti larvae after 360min exposure to high temperature (39°C). The difference in expression levels of AeaHsp26 , AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 genes in Ae . albopictus larvae was statistically significant between different exposure temperatures. All of these genes were significantly up-regulated at 37°C. These results indicate that AeaHsp26 , AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 are important markers of stress and perhaps function as proteins conferring protection and enhance survival of the Andaman population of both the Aedine species. Biological implications of these findings could impact the vector competencies. Highlights Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess expression levels of HSPs in response to thermal stress in the Andaman population of Ae . aegypti and Ae . albopictus under laboratory and in actual field conditions. Enhanced up-regulation of HSPs was evident in third instar larvae of Ae . aegypti with rise in water temperatures (31°C, 33°C, 34°C) in the containers in the nature and thermally stressed (37°C and 39°C) in laboratory conditions. In Ae . albopictus up-regulation of HSPs was observed in field conditions at 34°C only and when thermally treated at 37°C, while down regulation was evident in larvae subjected to thermal stress in laboratory at 39°C. The difference in expression levels of AeaHsp26 , AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 genes in Ae . albopictus larvae was statistically significant between different exposure temperatures. All of these genes were significantly up-regulated at 37°C. AeaHsp26 , AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 are important markers of stress and perhaps function as proteins conferring protection and enhance survival in both the Aedes species. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  10. [해외논문]   Interruption of the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Kashoya-Kitomi focus, western Uganda by long-term ivermectin treatment and elimination of the vector Simulium neavei by larviciding   SCI SCIE

    Lakwo, T. (Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 1661, Kampala, Uganda ) , Garms, R. (Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, P.O. Box 304120, D-20324 Hamburg, Germany ) , Wamani, J. (Kamwenge District Local Government, P.O. Box 1408, Kamwenge, Uganda ) , Tukahebwa, E.M. (Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 1661, Kampala, Uganda ) , Byamukama, E. (Buhweju District Local Government, P.O. Box 10, Kabwohe, Uganda ) , Onapa, A.W. (Envision/RTI- Neglected Tropical Diseases Control Programme, Kampala, Uganda ) , Tukesiga, E. (Kabarole District Local Government, P.O. Box 38, Fort Portal, Uganda ) , Katamanywa, J. (Kyenjojo District Local Government, Medical Department, P.O. Box 1002, Kyenjojo, Uganda ) , Begumisa, S. (Rubirizi District Local Government, P.O. Box 239, Bushenyi, Uganda ) , Habomugisha, P. (The Carter Center, Uganda office, P.O. Box 12027, Kampala, Uganda ) , Oguttu, D. (Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 1661, Kampala, Uganda ) , Byamukama, E. (The Carter Center, Uganda office, P.O. Box 12027, Kampala, Uganda ) , Richards, F. (The Carter Center, One Copenhill, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA ) , Unnasch, T.R. (University of) , Katabarwa, M.
    Acta tropica v.167 ,pp. 128 - 136 , 2017 , 0001-706x ,

    초록

    Abstract Uganda is the only country in sub-Saharan Africa whose onchocerciasis elimination programme extensively uses vector control and biannual treatment with ivermectin. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of combined strategies on interrupting onchocerciasis transmission in the Kashoya-Kitomi focus. Mass Drug Administration annually (13 years) followed by biannual treatments (6 years) and ground larviciding (36 cycles in 3 years) with temephos (Abate ? , EC500) against Simulium neavei were conducted. Routine fly catches were conducted for over seven years in six catching sites and freshwater crabs Potamonautes aloysiisabaudiae were examined for immature stages of Simulium neavei . Epidemiological assessments by skin snip were performed in 2004 and 2013. Collection of dry blood spots (DBS) from children Treatment coverage with ivermectin improved with introduction of biannual treatment strategy. Microfilaria prevalence reduced from 85% in 1991 to 62% in 2004; and to only 0.5% in 2013. Crab infestation reduced from 59% in 2007 to 0% in 2013 following ground larviciding. Comparison of total fly catches before and after ground larviciding revealed a drop from 5334 flies in 2007 to 0 flies in 2009. Serological assays conducted among 1,362 children in 2010 revealed 11 positive cases (0.8%; 95% CI: 0.4%–1.2%). However, assessment conducted on 3246 children in 2013 revealed five positives, giving point prevalence of 0.15%; 95% CI: 0.02%-0.28%. Four of the five children subjected to O-150 PCR proved negative. The data show that transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted based on national and WHO Guidelines of 2012 and 2016, respectively. Highlights We describe the effect of combining annual and bi-annual ivermectin treatment with ground larviciding using temephos (Abate ? EC500) against S. neavei in the interruption of onchocerciasis transmission. Epidemiological, entomological and serological assessments were performed. Significant reductions in mf prevalence, crab infestations and S. neavei adult catches were observed in the focus. Four IgG4 positive children subjected to O-150 PCR skin snip analysis were all negative. The data suggest that interruption of transmission of onchocerciasis has been achieved in the focus. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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