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Restoration ecology : the journal of the Society f... 27건

  1. [해외논문]   Undertaking large‐scale forest restoration to generate ecosystem services   SCIE

    Lamb, David (School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia)
    Restoration ecology : the journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration v.26 no.4 ,pp. 657 - 666 , 2018 , 1061-2971 ,

    초록

    The global community is seeking to substantially restore the world's forest cover to improve the supply of ecosystem services. However, it is not clear what type of reforestation must be used and there is a risk that the techniques used in industrial timber plantations will become the default methodology. This is unlikely to be sufficient because of the well‐known relationship between biodiversity and ecological functioning. Restoration may be achieved through natural regeneration but this may not always occur at critical locations. Ecological restoration involving species‐rich plantings might also be used but can be difficult to implement at landscape scales. I review here the consequence of planting more limited numbers of species and the effects of this on the delivery of ecosystem services. Evidence suggests many commonly sought ecosystem services—though not all—may be generated by the modest levels of species richness provided these species have appropriate traits. The literature also shows that the alpha diversity of restored forests is not the only driver of functionality and that the location and extent of any reforestation are significant as well; beta and gamma diversity may also affect functionality but these relationships remain unclear. Encouraging the adoption of even moderately diverse plantings at landscape scales and at key locations will require policies and institutions to balance the type, location, and scale of restoration and make the necessary trade‐offs between national and local aspirations. New approaches and metrics will have to be developed to monitor and assess restoration success at these larger scales.

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  2. [해외논문]   Do seed transfer zones for ecological restoration reflect the spatial genetic variation of the common grassland species Lathyrus pratensis?   SCIE

    Listl, Daniela (Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Regensburg, 93040, Regensburg, Germany) , Poschlod, Peter (Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Regensburg, 93040, Regensburg, Germany) , Reisch, Christoph (Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Regensburg, 93040, Regensburg, Germany)
    Restoration ecology : the journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration v.26 no.4 ,pp. 667 - 676 , 2018 , 1061-2971 ,

    초록

    A common ecological restoration approach is the reestablishment of vegetation using seed mixtures. To preserve the natural genetic pattern of plant species local seed material should be used. Consequently, seed transfer zones (seed production areas and seed provenance regions) have been delineated for ecological restoration in Germany. Although it is assumed that these transfer zones represent genetic variation, there remains a lack of empirical data. In this study, we analyzed whether seed transfer zones reflect the genetic variation of the common grassland species Lathyrus pratensis . We sampled 706 individuals from 37 populations in Bavaria, Germany and analyzed genetic variation using amplified fragment length polymorphisms. In our study, we observed higher levels of genetic variation and fragment rarity in the southern Bavarian populations compared to northern populations. Our analyses revealed a strong genetic differentiation between southern and northern Bavarian populations delineated along the Danube River. However, seed production areas and seed provenance regions reflected genetic variation of L. pratensis only to a limited degree. Our study illustrates that the level of genetic variation within populations strongly depends on population history. Furthermore, the geomorphological and climatic attributes, which have been used to delineate seed provenance regions, do not reduce gene flow among populations. Seed collections for gene banks and seed production should comprise seeds from populations in southern and northern Bavaria representing the strong genetic variation between both regions, but prioritize southern populations due to higher levels of variation.

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  3. [해외논문]   Temporary grazing exclusion promotes rapid recovery of species richness and productivity in a long‐term overgrazed Campos grassland   SCIE

    Fedrigo, Jean K. (Department of Forage Science and Agrometeorology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 91540‐000, Porto Alegre, Brazil) , Ataide, Pablo F. (Department of Forage Science and Agrometeorology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 91540‐000, Porto Alegre, Brazil) , Filho, Julio Azambuja (Department of Forage Science and Agrometeorology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 91540‐000, Porto Alegre, Brazil) , Oliveira, Lucas V. (Department of Forage Science and Agrometeorology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 91540‐000, Porto Alegre, Brazil) , Jaurena, Martí (Department of Forage Science and Agrometeorology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 91540‐000, Porto Alegre, Brazil) , n (Department of Plant Science, University of California –) , Laca, Emilio A. (Davis, CA, 95616, U.S.A.) , Overbeck, Gerhard E. (Department of Botany,) , Nabinger, Carlos
    Restoration ecology : the journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration v.26 no.4 ,pp. 677 - 685 , 2018 , 1061-2971 ,

    초록

    Moderate grazing intensity is considered the basic requirement to enhance ecosystem function in grasslands. Yet, deterioration by overgrazing is common in many biomes, including Campos grasslands in South America. Understanding how grazing management can lead to recovery of ecosystem function is essential to design and implement effective strategies for sustainable use of this resource. In a long‐term field experiment carried out in Southern Brazil, we studied the effects of temporal grazing exclusions (spring or fall) at moderate and severe livestock grazing intensities (maintained by adjusting contrasting forage allowances) on the species richness, botanical composition, forage mass, sward height, and photosynthetic active radiation intercepted. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications of grazing exclusions, applied simultaneously at moderate and severe grazing intensities. Moderate grazing intensity showed a bimodal structure of shorter and taller canopies, and high species richness. Severe grazing created a shorter and homogeneous sward structure characterized by less standing biomass and species loss. In response to grazing exclusions, sward height, standing biomass, and light interception recovered almost to the levels of moderate grazing. Further, within 2 years grass species richness increased and botanical composition changed toward grasses with erect habit prevailing in moderate grazing intensity. Our study confirms that (1) moderate grazing intensities allow the coexistence of high number of species and (2) spring grazing exclusions of long‐term overgrazed grasslands can lead to a quick start to recover the grass species richness, primary productivity, and species composition like that prevailing in well‐managed grasslands.

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  4. [해외논문]   Short‐term efficacy and nontarget effects of aerial glyphosate applications for controlling Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) in oak‐hickory forests of Eastern Missouri, U.S.A.   SCIE

    Leahy, Michael J. (Missouri Department of Conservation, PO Box 180, Jefferson City, MO, 65102, U.S.A.) , Vining, Ivan W. (Missouri Department of Conservation, PO Box 180, Jefferson City, MO, 65102, U.S.A.) , Villwock, Jason L. (Forester, USACE Rivers Project Office, 301 Riverlands Way, West Alton, MO, 63386, U.S.A.) , Wesselschmidt III, Raenhard O. (Missouri Department of Conservation, PO Box 180, Jefferson City, MO, 65102, U.S.A.) , Schuhmann, Andrea N. (Missouri Department of Conservation, PO Box 180, Jefferson City, MO, 65102, U.S.A.) , Vogel, John A. (Missouri Department of Conservation, PO Box 180, Jefferson City, MO, 65102, U.S.A.) , Shieh, David Y. (Missouri Department of Conservation, PO Box 180, Jefferson City, MO, 65102, U.S.A.) , Maginel III, Calvin J. (Missouri Department of Conservation, PO Box 180, Jefferson City, MO, 65102, U.S.A.)
    Restoration ecology : the journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration v.26 no.4 ,pp. 686 - 693 , 2018 , 1061-2971 ,

    초록

    Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) is a non‐native species that has invaded forest stands throughout the eastern United States. This research examined using aerially applied glyphosate in autumn 2013 to control L. maackii in oak‐hickory forest stands in Missouri, U.S.A. We targeted the spraying time period when L. maackii was still green and most native plants were dormant. Across treatment units, the mean difference in L. maackii stem density significantly declined ( p = 0.004) by 5.4 stems per plot from spring 2013 to summer 2014 when compared to control units which increased by 1.8 stems per plot. Treated units with a high initial infestation level of L. maackii (>50% cover) had a significant ( p = 0.004) decline in the mean difference in L. maackii cover of −50.0% per plot between spring 2013 and summer 2014 compared to an average increase of 9.2% in the controls. Similar results were found for treated units with a low initial infestation level of L. maackii (10–50% cover). Mortality of native overstory and understory trees post‐treatment was negligible. In the ground layer of forest stands with a low initial L. maackii infestation level, native non‐spray‐sensitive forb cover per plot significantly increased ( p = 0.023) relative to controls between summer 2013 and summer 2014 while native spray‐sensitive species cover significantly decreased ( p = 0.021) during the same period. These results suggest that an aerial application of glyphosate can provide an L. maackii control option, but with trade‐offs in compositional shifts in the native ground‐layer vegetation.

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  5. [해외논문]   Genetic diversity of reintroduced tree populations in restoration plantations of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest   SCIE

    Zucchi, Maria I. (Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Polo Regional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico do Centro Sul, Rodovia SP 127, km 30, 13400‐970, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil) , Sujii, Patricia S. (Department of Genetics, Evolution and Bioagents, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Av. Cândido Rondon 400, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, 13083‐875, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil) , Mori, Gustavo M. (Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Polo Regional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico do Centro Sul, Rodovia SP 127, km 30, 13400‐970, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil) , Viana, Joã (Department of Genetics, Evolution and Bioagents, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Av. Cândido Rondon 400, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, 13083‐875, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil) , o P. G. , Grando, Carolina , Silvestre, Ellida de Aguiar , Schwarcz, Kaiser D. , Macrini, Camila M. , Bajay, Miklos M. , Araú , jo, Fabiano L. , Siqueira, Marcos V. B. M. , Alves‐ , Pereira, Alessandro , de Souza, Anete P. , Pinheiro, José , B. , Rodrigues, Ricardo R. , Brancalion, Pedro H. S.
    Restoration ecology : the journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration v.26 no.4 ,pp. 694 - 701 , 2018 , 1061-2971 ,

    초록

    Long‐term ecological success of large‐scale restoration programs planned for the next decades will rely on genetic diversity (GD) of reintroduced or colonizing species, a limiting factor in highly fragmented landscapes. In small and isolated natural remnants or restoration areas, substantial reduction in population's size or connectivity may lead to local extinctions due to the accumulation of deleterious recessive alleles and ongoing reduction of fecundity, plant vigor, recruitment success, and adaptive potential. Despite the paramount role of GD for species persistence, its levels in restoration programs are poorly known. We assessed the GD of four model tree species (different succession stages, dispersal, and pollination syndromes) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, comparing two high‐diversity restoration plantations, one forest fragment and one conserved remnant. Contrary to the expectation that the plantation strategies adopted in the restoration programs could result in genetic composition homogenization, we found that restoration areas established heterogeneous genetic groups with similar levels of neutral GD and inbreeding to those observed in natural forest remnants. This pattern was consistent across the four functionally different tree species, despite some species idiosyncrasies. For instance, we observed lower allelic richness in early successional species in restoration sites, suggesting that some species may be more prone to reintroduction with lower GD. Thus, we advocate the use of high GD levels in restoration to support biodiversity conservation in human‐modified landscapes, thus reinforcing the role of ecological restoration for recovering the diversity of genes—the basic constituent of biodiversity.

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  6. [해외논문]   Seasonal physiology and growth of bottomland oaks of differing planting stocks in afforestation sites on the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain   SCIE

    Renninger, Heidi J. (Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University, PO Box 9681, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, U.S.A.) , Hall, Andrew T. (Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University, PO Box 9681, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, U.S.A.) , Hornslein, Nicole (Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University, PO Box 9681, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, U.S.A.) , Ezell, Andrew W. (Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University, PO Box 9681, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, U.S.A.)
    Restoration ecology : the journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration v.26 no.4 ,pp. 702 - 711 , 2018 , 1061-2971 ,

    초록

    Hurricane Katrina caused large losses of bottomland hardwood forests on the Gulf Coastal Plain. Heavy‐seeded species such as oaks ( Quercus ) generally require direct planting for restoration after such losses. However, evaluating the performance of various oak planting stocks using biometric data alone can be challenging due to their slow juvenile growth and belowground carbon allocation. Our study goals were to evaluate physiological parameters including photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and water‐use efficiency (WUE) and their correlation with annual height growth to determine differences in functional performance and drought tolerance between seedling types and whether physiology can predict height growth. Monthly growing season gas exchange measurements were made on two oak species ( Quercus texana and Quercus shumardii ) and three planting stocks (bare root, conventional containerized, large containerized [LC]) planted on two sites in coastal Mississippi. We found that photosynthesis decreased throughout the growing season while stomatal conductances increased leading to decreasing WUEs in all seedling types. Physiological parameters differed across planting stocks but not species. Particularly, LC seedlings exhibited greater WUEs and sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) suggesting increased moisture stress compared with other planting stocks. Across seedling types, photosynthesis, stomatal sensitivity to VPD, and seasonal changes in intrinsic WUE measured in year one of the study were significantly correlated with year two, but not year one height growth, suggesting belowground allocation of carbon during the first growing season. In total, these results highlight the use of physiological measurements in selecting successful planting stocks for various site conditions.

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  7. [해외논문]   Growth traits of juvenile American chestnut and red oak as adaptations to disturbance   SCIE

    Belair, Ethan P. (Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 715 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, U.S.A.) , Saunders, Mike R. (Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 715 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, U.S.A.) , Landhä (Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 4‐44A Earth Sciences Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E3, Canada) , usser, Simon M.
    Restoration ecology : the journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration v.26 no.4 ,pp. 712 - 719 , 2018 , 1061-2971 ,

    초록

    American chestnut ( Castanea dentata ) was a dominant species in eastern North America prior to the importation of chestnut blight. In light of recent efforts to restore viable populations of chestnut in eastern forests, an increased understanding of its association with other co‐occurring, disturbance‐adapted oak species is necessary. We evaluated crown architecture and leaf morphology in juvenile chestnut and red oak ( Quercus rubra ) to assess potential differences in establishment strategies of both species. We also investigated differences in nonstructural carbohydrate reserves and whole tree biomass partitioning between species. Seedlings of both species were planted in forest stands treated either with midstory removal or small patch cuts, simulating potential restoration plantings. After 5–7 years, chestnut's allocation to its root system was lower than red oak's, with chestnut saplings instead diverting resources to branches and foliage. Chestnut had lower leaf area index, greater crown projection area, and higher specific leaf area than red oak, indicating the species may have an advantage in shaded understories. There were only minor differences in nonstructural root carbohydrate reserves, between red oak and American chestnut, indicating that chestnut may respond similarly to oak by resprouting after disturbances topkill young saplings. We suggest that American chestnut has morphological and physiological attributes that allow it to function as an opportunistic and plastic species that can utilize gaps to facilitate its canopy recruitment, yet still persist after occasional surface fire. This knowledge can guide restoration strategies for this iconic species of the eastern temperate forest region.

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  8. [해외논문]   Comparing seed removal rates in actively and passively restored tropical moist forests   SCIE

    Ssekuubwa, Enock (Department of Forestry, Biodiversity and Tourism, Makerere University, PO Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda) , Loe, Leif E. (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway) , Sheil, Douglas (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway) , Tweheyo, Mnason (Department of Forestry, Biodiversity and Tourism, Makerere University, PO Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda) , Moe, Stein R. (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway)
    Restoration ecology : the journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration v.26 no.4 ,pp. 720 - 728 , 2018 , 1061-2971 ,

    초록

    High rates of seed removal can impede forest recovery, but tropical seed removal studies are few and mainly from the neotropics. Little is known about the comparative influences of active restoration (i.e. planting) and passive restoration (i.e. protection of natural regrowth) on seed removal. We conducted an evaluation of seed removal in grasslands, natural forests (tropical moist semideciduous forest), and actively (21‐, 17‐, 16‐, 11‐, 8‐, and 6‐year‐old) and passively (21‐year‐old) restored forests in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We wanted to compare the effect of vegetation type, time since restoration and restoration actions (i.e. active vs. passive) on removal of seeds of five animal‐dispersed tree species during wet and dry seasons. Seeds were either fully exposed or placed in closed mesh cages or under a mesh roof. We used differential removal rates between these treatments to attribute seed removal to different animal taxa. Seed removal rate (percentage of seed removed over a 4‐day period) was highest in passively restored forests, compared with actively restored forests, grasslands, and natural forests. We detected no significant relationship between time since restoration and seed removal rates within actively restored sites. Seed removal rate from roofed treatments was not significantly different from removal from open treatments but was significantly higher than removal from closed treatments, which we interpret as reflecting the greater effect of small mammals versus insects. Smaller seeds tended to be removed at a greater rate than larger seeds. We discuss the implications of these findings for forest regeneration.

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  9. [해외논문]   Restoration of a Danube floodplain forest: what happens to species richness of terrestrial beetles?   SCIE

    Gruppe, Axel (Chair of Animal Ecology, Technische Universität München, Hans Carl‐von‐Carlowitz‐Platz 2, 85354, Freising, Germany) , Kilg, Markus (Chair of Animal Ecology, Technische Universität München, Hans Carl‐von‐Carlowitz‐Platz 2, 85354, Freising, Germany) , Schopf, Reinhard (Chair of Animal Ecology, Technische Universität München, Hans Carl‐von‐Carlowitz‐Platz 2, 85354, Freising, Germany)
    Restoration ecology : the journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration v.26 no.4 ,pp. 729 - 739 , 2018 , 1061-2971 ,

    초록

    Along the upper Danube, between river kilometer 2,472 and 2,464 (Bavaria, Germany), a managed hardwood forest was reconnected to the river via a newly carved floodplain channel. We report the stepwise alteration of the diversity of terrestrial beetles for six successive years from 2007 to 2012. In a 2‐year preliminary period (2007–2008), we recorded the baseline stage before the technical measures were implemented (2009–2010) and the onset of restoration occurred (2011–2012) with a continuous water flow in the new channel and seven flooding events. Each sample plot was equipped with a pitfall trap, an emergence photo‐eclector, an arboreal photo‐eclector, and a flight interception trap in breast height and in the canopy, respectively. The beetle communities act as an indicator to detect possible disturbance events when a riparian hardwood forest is stepwise transformed to become a new floodplain ecosystem. Within the 6‐year study period, we trapped 62,107 individual beetles, representing 85 families, 544 genera, and 1,191 species. Compared to the baseline stage, the abundance and the number of species decreased, including rare and red list species. On functional level, the species decline was particularly pronounced for zoophagous and mycetophagous species. Finally, we suppose that the 2‐year period since the launch of the new channel is too short for the establishment of a beetle community adjusted to the terrestrial part of the developing new floodplain forest.

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  10. [해외논문]   Are we restoring enough? Simulating impacts of restoration efforts on the suitability of forest landscapes for a locally critically endangered umbrella species   SCIE

    Hof, Anouschka R. (Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå) , Hjä (90183, Sweden) , lté (Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå) , n, Joakim (90183, Sweden)
    Restoration ecology : the journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration v.26 no.4 ,pp. 740 - 750 , 2018 , 1061-2971 ,

    초록

    Habitat restoration is often implemented to mitigate the negative effects of intensive forestry on biodiversity. It may be increasingly adopted in future to alleviate additional negative effects of climate change. Ascertaining the restoration effort needed to fulfill project goals is difficult. Insights may be gained through simulating the effects of restoration efforts on landscape dynamics through time. Here we used a spatially explicit landscape simulation model to simulate the effects of different restoration efforts on forest landscapes in Sweden to assess the level of mitigation that is needed to allow viable populations of the locally critically endangered White‐backed Woodpecker ( Dendrocopos leucotos ); an umbrella species whose protection may serve the protection of a range of other species. Based on the goals of the protection plan for the species, which reflect its habitat requirements, we evaluated which of several restoration scenarios could fulfill goals with respect to (1) the amount of deciduous forest; (2) the amount of dead wood; and (3) the age of the forest. We found that whereas it may be relatively easy and quick to acquire high levels of dead wood, increasing the proportions of deciduous forest and of old forests require considerably more time and effort. Also, current management actions would not be sufficient to create the required amount of habitat to conserve the White‐backed Woodpecker in our study region. Simulations like ours can provide valuable information about the levels of restoration needed through time to fulfill project goals and may prevent wasting valuable resources, time, effort, and money.

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