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Materials & Design 51건

  1. [해외논문]   Microstructure and mechanical strength of near- and sub-micrometre grain size copper prepared by spark plasma sintering   SCIE

    Zhu, K.N. (Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China ) , Godfrey, A. (Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China ) , Hansen, N. (Section for Materials Science and Advanced Characterization, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark ) , Zhang, X.D. (Section for Materials Science and Advanced Characterization, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 95 - 103 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been used to prepare fully dense samples of copper in a fully recrystallized condition with grain sizes in the near- and sub-micrometre regime. Two synthesis routes have been investigated to achieve grain size control: (i) SPS at different temperatures from 800 to 1000°C, and (ii) SPS at 800°C followed by annealing at temperatures from 950 to 1050°C. By use of an initial spherical powder with an average particle diameter of ≈0.5μm, samples with average grain sizes in the range from 0.5 to 3μm have been prepared. Microstructural examination based on both transmission electron microscope, and on electron back-scatter diffraction studies, confirms the samples are in a nearly fully recrystallized condition, with grains that are dislocation-free, and have a random texture, with a high fraction of high angle boundaries. The mechanical strength of the samples has been probed using hardness measurements and tensile testing, revealing an enhanced strength for samples with grain sizes less than ≈1μm. Highlights Fully recrystallized Cu with near and sub-micrometre size grains have been synthesized using spark plasma sintering. A good control of grain size in the near micrometer regime is achieved by sintering and annealing. Samples of SPS Cu have a very high thermal stability and are resistant to coarsening. Transition in mechanical strength for grain sizes Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  2. [해외논문]   Highly-reactive Al/CuO nanoenergetic materials with a tubular structure   SCIE

    Yin, Yanjun (College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China ) , Li, Xueming (College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China ) , Shu, Yuanjie (Xi'an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi'an 71000, China ) , Guo, Xiaogang (College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China ) , Zhu, Yuhua (College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China ) , Huang, Xinyue (College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China ) , Bao, Hebin (College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China ) , Xu, Ke (College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 104 - 110 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract Al/CuO nanoenergetic materials with nanotube and nanorod morphologies were prepared and investigated in this study. The CuO nanotubes and nanorods synthesized by chemical etching are homogenous on a large scale, with an external diameter in the range of 100–200nm and typical lengths of 5–7μm. Each of these CuO nano-arrays was deposited on nano-Al by electrophoretic deposition. Using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, the Al/CuO nanotube composite is determined to have a larger specific surface area (43.20m 2 /g) than that of the Al/CuO nanorod composite (16.75m 2 /g). The energy released from the Al/CuO nanotubes is approximately to 3264J/g, which is higher than that released from the Al/CuO nanorods (2013J/g). The combustion flames for the Al/CuO nanotubes are also more rapid and violent. It is speculated that the excellent output of energy and outstanding combustion performance of the Al/CuO nanotubes could be ascribed to their tubular architecture, which has a larger specific surface area enhances the intimate contact and mass transmission between fuel and oxide. Highlights The CuO nanotubes and nanorods were synthesized successfully by chemical etching without using a template. The energy release and combustion performance of the Al/CuO nanotubes are enhanced due to its tubular architecture. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  3. [해외논문]   Zinc subjected to plastic deformation by complex loading and conventional extrusion: Comparison of the microstructure and mechanical properties   SCIE

    Pieła, K. (AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 Av. Mickiewicza, 30-059 Krakow, Poland ) , Wró (AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 Av. Mickiewicza, 30-059 Krakow, Poland ) , bel, M. (Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow, Poland ) , Sztwiertnia, K. (AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 Av. Mickiewicza, 30-059 Krakow, Poland ) , Jaskowski, M. (Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow, Poland ) , Kawałko, J. (Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow, Poland ) , Bieda, M. (AGH University of Science and Technology, 30 Av. Mickiewicza, 30-059 Krakow, Poland ) , Kiper, M. (Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow, Poland) , Jarzę , bska, A.
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 111 - 120 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract The microstructure and properties of cast and hot extruded zinc subjected to plastic deformation by conventional extrusion and by extrusion with a forward-backward rotating die (KoBo) were studied. KoBo significantly increased the mechanical properties of both initial materials compared with conventional extrusion. The improvement of the mechanical properties is related to the lower temperature at which the KoBo process can be carried out. Extrusion with a forward-backward rotating die leads to grain refinement and promotes the formation of a composite-like microstructure with a hard matrix, forming an interconnected network of boundaries filled with a softer phase. New areas of application for zinc obtained by the KoBo method are opened. Highlights KoBo extrusion significantly increases the strength of pure zinc. The improvement in the strength is related to a much lower deformation temperature. The increase in properties is higher for the ingot batch than the hot extruded batch. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  4. [해외논문]   Mechanisms and characteristics of spatter generation in SLM processing and its effect on the properties   SCIE

    Wang, Di (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, PR China ) , Wu, Shibiao (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, PR China ) , Fu, Fan (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, PR China ) , Mai, Shuzhen (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, PR China ) , Yang, Yongqiang (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, PR China ) , Liu, Yang (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering & Mechanics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, PR China ) , Song, Changhui (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, PR China)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 121 - 130 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a powder bed based technology to fabricate metal parts through laser melting, it provides excellent mechanical properties and freedom. The authors study the influence of laser energy on spattering, the investigation analyzed the formation principle, appearance and compositions of spattering. Results indicate that as the laser energy input increases from 0.32×10 5 W/cm 3 to 1.30×10 5 W/cm 3 , the intensity and the quantity of spattering increases, the metal liquid jetted out even reach to the height of 11cm. Major sources of spattering included three types, which were mainly caused by recoil pressure, Marangoni effect and heat effect in molten pool, these three different sources of spattering leading to three types of spattering morphology correspondingly. The solidified spattering particles have an average size of approximately 162μm, much larger than the original powder size of 32μm, and these spatter particles present various appearances. The compositions of spattering powers are almost the same as the original powders, but the contents of O, Si and C increase dramatically. The spattering particles are embedded into the surface and interior of the SLM-fabricated parts. These results are helpful in controlling the intensity of spattering, improving stability and repeatability of the SLM fabrication process. Highlights As the laser energy input increases from 0.32×10 5 W/cm 3 to 1.30×10 5 W/cm 3 , the intensity and the quantity of spattering increases, the metal liquid jetted out and reached to the height of 11cm. Spattering included three types mainly caused by recoil pressure, Marangoni effect and heat effect in molten pool, these three different sources of spattering leading to three types of spattering morphology correspondingly. The compositions of spattering powers are almost the same as the original powders, but the contents of O, Si and C increase dramatically. Spattering particles have an average size of approximately 162μm compared with the original powder size of 32μm. The spattering particles are embedded into the surface and interior of the SLM-fabricated parts to deteriorate the finial fabricated parts. Graphical abstract Formation mechanisms of different types of spatter: (a) morphology of spherical splashing (type-I splashing); (c) morphology of coarse spherical morphology (type-II splashing); (d) morphology of irregular splashing (type-III splashing). [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  5. [해외논문]   Multi-objective optimization of tungsten CMP slurry for advanced semiconductor manufacturing using a response surface methodology   SCIE

    Seo, Jihoon (Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea ) , Kim, Joo Hyun (Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea ) , Lee, Myoungjae (Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea ) , You, Keungtae (Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea ) , Moon, Jinok (Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea ) , Lee, Dong-Hee (College of Interdisciplinary Industrial Studies, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea ) , Paik, Ungyu (Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 131 - 138 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract In this study, a response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with a face center cube design (FCD) was used to optimize the three principal components (i.e., Fe(NO 3 ) 3 , H 2 O 2 , and SiO 2 abrasives) in polishing slurries for a W barrier chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. The experimental ranges of the three components were 10–50ppm of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 , 0.3–0.9wt% of H 2 O 2 , and 1–5wt% of SiO 2 abrasives. Based on the experimental data from the FCD, the second-order models for the material removal rate (MRR) of the W and Oxide films were fitted; these were determined to be statistically valid and reliable. We have achieved the optimal conditions for the three components where the MRR is maximized and the selectivity between the W and Oxide MRRs is ~1. The predicted MRR and selectivity at the optimal conditions were well correlated with the results of a confirmation run, which was conducted by using the W barrier CMP process with W-patterned wafers. In addition, we employed a particular RSM called dual-response optimization in order to investigate the tradeoff between the MRR and selectivity. Based on the tradeoff information, process engineers can conduct the optimization of the three components more flexibly. Highlights The three principal components (i.e., Fe(NO 3 ) 3 , H 2 O 2 , and SiO 2 abrasives) in polishing slurries for the W barrier CMP process were optimized using RSM. The optimal components were obtained as follows: 17.6ppm of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 , 0.3wt% of H 2 O 2 , and 5.0wt% of SiO 2 abrasives. We have achieved ultra-smooth surfaces of W-patterned wafers using the optimal W CMP slurry. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  6. [해외논문]   Hybrid-fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composite under tensile and impact loading   SCIE

    Ali, M.A.E.M. (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9, Canada ) , Soliman, A.M. (Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8, Canada ) , Nehdi, M.L. (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9, Canada)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 139 - 149 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract The behavior under impact loading of an innovative hybrid fiber-reinforced engineered cementitious composite incorporating short randomly dispersed shape memory alloy (HECC-SMAF) and PVA fibers was explored using a drop weight impact test. Test specimens were also heat-treated to investigate possible pre-stressing effects of SMA fibers on the impact resistance of the ECC. Uniaxial tensile testing on ECC coupon specimens was also conducted. A two-parameter Weibull distribution was used to analyze variations in experimental results in terms of reliability function. Results indicate that SMA fibers significantly enhanced the tensile and impact performance of the ECC. Adding fibers beyond a certain dosage led to fiber clustering, thus, no further gain in tensile and impact performance was measured. The impact resistance of HECC-SMAF specimens was further improved after exposure to heat treatment. This highlights the significant contribution imparted by the local pre-stressing effect of SMA fibers to the impact resistance of the composite. The Weibull distribution was adequate to predict the impact failure strength of ECC, allowing to avert additional costly experiments. This research underscores the potential to engineer new cementitious composites with superior tensile properties and impact resistance for the protection of critical infrastructure in the event of explosive or impact loading. Highlights New SMA-PVA engineered cementitious composite was developed. SMA fibers offer local pre-stress effect in the novel composite. Novel SMA-PVA hybrid composite offers superior performance under impact. Composite has potential in design of critical infrastructure for homeland security. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  7. [해외논문]   Overall improvement in dielectric and mechanical properties of porous graphene fluoroxide/polyimide nanocomposite films via bubble-stretching approach   SCIE

    Chen, Zhigeng (School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China ) , Liu, Shumei (School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China ) , Yan, Shijing (School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China ) , Shu, Xia (School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China ) , Yuan, Yanchao (School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China ) , Huang, Haohao (School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China ) , Zhao, Jianqing (School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 150 - 156 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract Low dielectric constant is desired for polyimide to be used in microelectronic industry. In the present study, a series of porous graphene fluoroxide/polyimide (GFO/pPI) nanocomposite films with improved dielectric and mechanical properties were fabricated. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was introduced into the system to play the roles of an intercalator in exfoliation of graphite fluoroxide and a blowing agent in preparation of porous structure. The in-situ bubble-stretching, resulting from PEG decomposition during the thermal imidization, not only hindered the agglomeration of GFO nanosheets, but also generated micro-pores in PI matrix. Both the porous structure and the GFO nanosheets significantly decreased the dielectric constant of composite films, and the load transfer between GFO and PI matrix efficiently improved the mechanical properties of composite films. A very low dielectric constant of 2.29 as well as high tensile modulus of 4.43GPa and tensile strength of 159MPa was obtained for the composite film with the GFO loading of only 0.30wt%. In addition, the glass transition temperature of GFO/pPI films was increased from 355°C to 388°C, and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of GFO/pPI films was decreased from 48.7ppm/K to 24.9ppm/K. Highlights Porous graphene fluoroxide/polyimide films are prepared with low dielectric constant and enhanced mechanical properties. PEG serves as an intercalator to exfoliate graphite fluoroxide and a blowing agent to introduce porous structure. Graphene fluoroxide are well dispersed in polyimide via in-situ bubble-stretching approach. Low loading of graphene fluoroxide in matrix could yield high performances of polyimide. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  8. [해외논문]   Numerical and physical simulation of rapid microstructural evolution of gas atomised Ni superalloy powders   SCIE

    Zheng, Liang (Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, P.O. Box 81-1, Beijing 100095, China ) , Lee, T.L. (ISIS Neutron Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX, UK ) , Liu, Na (Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, P.O. Box 81-1, Beijing 100095, China ) , Li, Zhou (Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, P.O. Box 81-1, Beijing 100095, China ) , Zhang, Guoqing (Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, P.O. Box 81-1, Beijing 100095, China ) , Mi, J. (School of Engineering & Computer Science, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX, UK ) , Grant, P.S. (Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH, UK)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 157 - 167 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract The rapid microstructural evolution of gas atomised Ni superalloy powder compacts over timescales of a few seconds was studied using a Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator, finite element based numerical model and electron microscopy. The study found that the microstructural changes were governed by the characteristic temperatures of the alloy. At a temperature below the γ' solvus, the powders maintained dendritic structures. Above the γ' solvus temperature but in the solid-state, rapid grain spheroidisation and coarsening occurred, although the fine-scale microstructures were largely retained. Once the incipient melting temperature of the alloy was exceeded, microstructural change was rapid, and when the temperature was increased into the solid+liquid state, the powder compact partially melted and then re-solidified with no trace of the original structures, despite the fast timescales. The study reveals the relationship between short, severe thermal excursions and microstructural evolution in powder processed components, and gives guidance on the upper limit of temperature and time for powder-based processes if desirable fine-scale features of powders are to be preserved. Highlights Rapid microstructural changes of Ni powders were studied by physical and numerical simulations, and electron microscopy. γ' solvus temperature and incipient melting temperature were critical in controlling the microstructures of the Ni powders. Dendritic structures retained near γ' solvus temperature, but coarsened dramatically near incipient melting temperature. Powders melted and agglomerated near 50% liquid, re-solidified with coarser dendritic structures and micro-segregation. The findings provide general guidance for the temperature limits and time for retaining the fine microstructure of powders. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  9. [해외논문]   Effect of cenosphere particle size and relative density on the compressive deformation behavior of aluminum-cenosphere hybrid foam   SCIE

    Birla, Shyam (Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), India ) , Mondal, D.P. (Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), India ) , Das, S. (Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), India ) , Khare, Anup (CSIR-Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Bhopal 462026, India ) , Singh, Jai Prakash (University Institute of Technology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026, India)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 168 - 177 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract AlSi12Cu1Mg1-cenosphere hybrid foams (HFs) of varying relative densities were made through stir casting technique using CaH 2 as a foaming agent. Cenospheres of different size ranges were used as a thickening agent, as well as to create micropores in the cell wall. The foaming temperature was varied to vary the relative density, which has not been studied earlier. The combine effect of cenosphere size and relative density on the compressive deformation behavior of HFs was investigated. The plastic collapse stress, plateau stress, and energy absorption of hybrid foam increase with decrease in cenosphere size and increase in relative density. On the other hand, the densification strain is almost invariant to the cenosphere size. All the above responses are correlated with relative density and materials parameters of HFs. This study demonstrates that cenosphere a thermal power plant waste can be used to get good quality of hybrid foam. Highlights Cenosphere reinforced hybrid foams of varying densities were made by varying foaming temperature. Deformation responses of hybrid foam are strong function of cenosphere size and relative density. Empirical relation has been established among deformation response, relative density and other materials parameters. Cenosphere a bi-product of thermal power plant can be used for making hybrid foam. Graphical abstract Cenospheres (spherical microballoons) of different size ranges are used to make aluminum alloy – cenospheres hybrid foam with varying relative densities. The cells are quite uniform in size and the cenospheres are uniformly distributed in cell walls. The relative density varied by varying foaming temperature and it varies between 0.11 and 0.32. The plateau stress, energy absorption increases with increase in relative density and decrease in cenosphere size. The densification strain is almost invariant to the cenosphere size. [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  10. [해외논문]   Template-directed flower-like lactose with micro-meso-macroporous structure   SCIE

    Tan, Songwen (Corresponding author.) , Ebrahimi, Amirali , Langrish, Timothy
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 178 - 184 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract The fabrication of porous materials with multiple physical, chemical and biological properties has been an emerging topic in recent years. In this work, we propose a method using a spray drying and templating technique to fabricate a micro-meso-macroporous lactose material with a flower-like shape. The flower-like lactose has a large surface area of 25m 2 /g and a high pore volume of 0.31cm 3 /g. BJH analysis from the N 2 adsorption isotherm shows significant pore distributions with peaks at 1.4, 2.2, 6.5 and 17.5nm (diameter). The mechanism of pore-structure formation has been probed by two analysis techniques, including confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and focused ion beam (FIB) etching. As the porous flower-like lactose is a food-grade material, this work may offer new applications in food and pharmaceutical fields where the micropores and macropores are both beneficial. Highlights The template-directed lactose microparticles have a flower-like shape. Nitrogen sorption analysis shows a micro-meso-macroporous structure. Interior structures are studied using confocal Raman microscopy and focused ion beam techniques. Formation mechanism of the porous flower-like material is studied. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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