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권호별목차 / 소장처보기

H : 소장처정보

T : 목차정보

Neuroscience 45건

  1. [해외논문]   The clinical significance of freezing while turning in Parkinson's disease  

    Mancini, M. ; Smulders, K. ; Cohen, R.G. ; Horak, F.B. ; Giladi, N. ; Nutt, J.G.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 222 - 228 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Freezing of gait (FoG) in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is an environmentally sensitive, intermittent problem that occurs most often during turning. FoG is difficult for clinicians to evaluate and treat because it can be difficult to elicit during a clinical visit. Here, we aimed to develop a clinically valid objective measure of freezing severity during a 2-min 360-degree turning-in-place. Twenty-eight subjects with PD (16 freezers, FoG+, and 12 nonfreezers, FoG-) in the ''off'' state and 14 healthy control subjects were tested. Subjects wore three inertial sensors (one on each shin and one on the waist) while (1) turning in place for 2 min (alternating 360 degrees to the right with 360 degrees to the left) and (2) performing an Instrumented 7-m Timed Up and Go test (ITUG). Performance was videotaped, and clinical severity of FoG was independently rated by two movement disorders specialists (co-authors). Turning in place consistently resulted in FoG (13 out of 16 subjects with PD) while FoG was clinically observed in only two subjects with PD during the ITUG test. The Freezing Ratio during the turning test was significantly correlated with the clinical ratings (ρ=0.7, p=0.003) and with score on the new FoG questionnaire (ρ=0.5, p=0.03). After correcting for symptom severity (UPDRS-III), out of the four objective measures of the turning test (total number of turns, average turn peak speed and average turn smoothness), only the Freezing Ratio was significantly different across groups (p=0.04). Freezing can be well quantified with body-worn inertial sensors during a 2-min turning-in-place protocol.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Associations of acute and chronic stress hormones with cognitive functions in autism spectrum disorder  

    Ogawa, S. ; Lee, Y.A. ; Yamaguchi, Y. ; Shibata, Y. ; Goto, Y.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 229 - 239 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Extensive studies have reported cognitive abnormalities in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Another line of evidence suggests that stress also affects cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated whether there were associations between stress hormones and cognitive functions in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. Cognitive functions in ASD and TD children were evaluated with a battery of psychological tests for working memory, behavioral flexibility, and social cognition for emotional assessments of others. ASD children exhibited higher hair and salivary cortisol, which reflects chronic and acute stress hormone levels of subjects, respectively, than TD children. Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) was positively correlated with hair cortisol and the scores of Spence Children's Anxiety Scale in ASD children. In addition, a negative correlation was present between spatial working memory performance and hair cortisol in ASD, but not in TD, children. These results suggest that chronic stress hormone elevation may have relationships with some aspects of cognitive dysfunction in ASD subjects.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Axial levodopa-induced dyskinesias and neuronal activity in the dorsal striatum  

    Alberico, S.L. ; Kim, Y.C. ; Lence, T. ; Narayanan, N.S.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 240 - 249 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are abnormal involuntary movements that limit the effectiveness of treatments for Parkinson's disease. Although dyskinesias involve the striatum, it is unclear how striatal neurons are involved in dyskinetic movements. Here we record from striatal neurons in mice during levodopa-induced axial dyskinesias. We developed an automated 3-dimensional motion tracking system to capture the development of axial dyskinesias at ~10ms resolution, and correlated these movements with neuronal activity of striatal medium spiny neurons and fast-spiking interneurons. The average firing rate of medium spiny neurons increased as axial dyskinesias developed, and both medium spiny neurons and fast-spiking interneurons were modulated around axial dyskinesias. We also found that delta field potential power increased in the striatum with dyskinesia, and that this increased delta power coupled with striatal neurons. Our findings provide insight into how striatal networks change as levodopa-induced dyskinesias develop, and suggest that increased medium spiny neuron firing, increased delta field potential power, and abnormal delta-coupling may be neurophysiological signatures of dyskinesias. These data could be helpful in understanding the role of the striatum in the pathogenesis of dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Systemic blood pressure alters cortical blood flow and neurovascular coupling during nociceptive processing in the primary somatosensory cortex of the rat  

    Uchida, S. ; Bois, S. ; Guillemot, J.P. ; Leblond, H. ; Piche, M.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 250 - 259 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Inference on nociceptive and pain-related processes from functional magnetic resonance imaging is made with the assumption that the coupling of neuronal activity and cerebral hemodynamic changes is stable. However, since nociceptive stimulation is associated with increases in systemic arterial pressure, it is essential to determine whether this coupling remains the same during different levels of nociception and pain. The main objective of the present study was to compare the amplitude of local field potentials (LFP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the primary somatosensory cortex during nociceptive electrical stimulation of the contralateral or ipsilateral forepaw in isoflurane-anesthetized rats, while manipulating mean arterial pressure (MAP). MAP changes induced by nociceptive stimulation were manipulated by transecting the spinal cord at the upper thoracic segments (T1-T2), which interrupts sympathetic pathways and prevents nociception-related MAP increases, while sensory pathways between the forepaws and the brain remain intact. Intensity-dependent increases in MAP and CBF were observed and these effects were abolished or significantly decreased after spinal transection (p

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   Different proactive and reactive action control in fencers' and boxers' brain  

    Bianco, V. ; Di Russo, F. ; Perri, R.L. ; Berchicci, M.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 260 - 268 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Practicing sport at top level requires excellent physical and cognitive skills. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether specific sport practice may affect the preparation-perception-action stages of processing during a visuo-motor task requiring perceptual discrimination and fast response. We recruited 39 participants (two groups of professional fencers and boxers, and a control group; N=13 for each group) and measured behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) while performing a go/no-go task. Results revealed that athletes were faster than controls, while fencers were more accurate than boxers. ERP analysis revealed that motor preparation, indexed by the Bereitschaftspotential (BP), was increased in athletes than controls, whereas the top-down attentional control, reflected by the prefrontal negativity (pN) component, was enhanced only in fencers when compared to controls. Most of the post-stimulus ERPs i.e. the N1, the N2, the P3, and the pP2, were enhanced in fencers. Combat sports require fast action execution, but the preparatory brain activity might differ according to the specific practice required by each discipline. Boxers might afford to commit more errors (as reflected by high commission error (CE) rate and by a small pN amplitude), while fencers have to be as much fast and accurate as possible (thanks to an enhanced pN amplitude). Although the possible influence of repetitive head blows on cerebral activity cannot be excluded in boxers, our results suggest that cognitive benefits of high-level sport practice might also be transferred to the daily (i.e., no sport-related) activities.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  6. [해외논문]   Both anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation improves semantic processing  

    Bruckner, S. ; Kammer, T.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 269 - 275 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a common method to modulate cortical activity. Anodal tDCS is usually associated with an enhancement of the stimulated brain area, whereas cathodal tDCS is often described as inhibitory brain stimulation method. Our aim was to investigate whether this canonical assumption derived from the motor system could be transferred to the semantic system. Three groups with 20 healthy subjects each were stimulated at Wernicke's area with either anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS. Subsequently, they performed a simple lexical decision task for a duration of about 25min. Subjects receiving anodal tDCS revealed faster reaction times (RTs) compared to the sham group, although not reaching statistical significance. Surprisingly, in the cathodal group RTs were decreased significantly. All subjects were faster in the second half of the task, but the tDCS-induced improvement lasted for the entire duration of the task. Error rates were not influenced by tDCS, neither were RTs in a choice reaction time task. Thus, both anodal and cathodal tDCS applied to Wernicke's area improved semantic processing. Recently, a meta-analysis revealed that the canonical anodal excitation and cathodal inhibition assumption is observed rarely in cognitive studies. In particular, an inhibitory effect of cathodal tDCS on cognition is rare. Our findings thus support the speculation, that especially language functions could be somewhat 'immune' to cathodal inhibition.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   Involvement of superior temporal areas in audiovisual and audiomotor speech integration  

    Komeilipoor, N. ; Cesari, P. ; Daffertshofer, A.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 276 - 283 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Perception of speech sounds is affected by observing facial motion. Incongruence between speech sounds and watching somebody articulating may influence the perception of auditory syllable, referred to as the McGurk effect. We tested the degree to which silent articulation of a syllable also affects speech perception and searched for its neural correlates. Listeners were instructed to identify the auditory syllables /pa/ and /ta/ while silently articulating congruent/incongruent syllables or observing videos of a speaker's face articulating them. As a baseline, we included an auditory-only condition without competing visual or sensorimotor input. As expected, perception of sounds degraded when incongruent syllables were observed, and also when they were silently articulated, albeit to a lesser extent. This degrading was accompanied by significant amplitude modulations in the beta frequency band in right superior temporal areas. In these areas, the event-related beta activity during congruent conditions was phase-locked to responses evoked during the auditory-only condition. We conclude that proper temporal alignment of different input streams in right superior temporal areas is mandatory for both audiovisual and audiomotor speech integration.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   Paternal deprivation affects social behaviors and neurochemical systems in the offspring of socially monogamous prairie voles  

    Tabbaa, M. ; Lei, K. ; Liu, Y. ; Wang, Z.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 284 - 297 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Early life experiences, particularly the experience with parents, are crucial to phenotypic outcomes in both humans and animals. Although the effects of maternal deprivation on offspring well-being have been studied, paternal deprivation (PD) has received little attention despite documented associations between father absence and children health problems in humans. In the present study, we utilized the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which displays male-female pair bonding and bi-parental care, to examine the effects of PD on adult behaviors and neurochemical expression in the hippocampus. Male and female subjects were randomly assigned into one of two experimental groups that grew up with both the mother and father (MF) or with the mother-only (MO, to generate PD experience). Our data show that MO subjects received less parental licking/grooming and carrying and were left alone in the nest more frequently than MF subjects. At adulthood (~75days of age), MO subjects displayed increased social affiliation (SOA) toward a conspecific compared to MF subjects, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition (SOR) and anxiety-like behavior. Interestingly, MO subjects showed consistent increases in both gene and protein expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) as well as the levels of total histone 3 and histone 3 acetylation in the hippocampus compared to MF subjects. Further, PD experience increased glucocorticoid receptor beta (GRβ) protein expression in the hippocampus of females as well as increased corticotrophin receptor 2 (CRHR2) protein expression in the hippocampus of males, but decreased CRHR2 mRNA in both sexes. Together, our data suggest that PD has a long-lasting, behavior-specific effect on SOA and alters hippocampal neurochemical systems in the vole brain. The functional role of such altered neurochemical systems in social behaviors and the potential involvement of epigenetic events should be further studied.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   New developments in Neuroscience for 2017  

    Lerma, J.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 298 - 299 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Early life experiences, particularly the experience with parents, are crucial to phenotypic outcomes in both humans and animals. Although the effects of maternal deprivation on offspring well-being have been studied, paternal deprivation (PD) has received little attention despite documented associations between father absence and children health problems in humans. In the present study, we utilized the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which displays male-female pair bonding and bi-parental care, to examine the effects of PD on adult behaviors and neurochemical expression in the hippocampus. Male and female subjects were randomly assigned into one of two experimental groups that grew up with both the mother and father (MF) or with the mother-only (MO, to generate PD experience). Our data show that MO subjects received less parental licking/grooming and carrying and were left alone in the nest more frequently than MF subjects. At adulthood (~75days of age), MO subjects displayed increased social affiliation (SOA) toward a conspecific compared to MF subjects, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition (SOR) and anxiety-like behavior. Interestingly, MO subjects showed consistent increases in both gene and protein expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) as well as the levels of total histone 3 and histone 3 acetylation in the hippocampus compared to MF subjects. Further, PD experience increased glucocorticoid receptor beta (GRβ) protein expression in the hippocampus of females as well as increased corticotrophin receptor 2 (CRHR2) protein expression in the hippocampus of males, but decreased CRHR2 mRNA in both sexes. Together, our data suggest that PD has a long-lasting, behavior-specific effect on SOA and alters hippocampal neurochemical systems in the vole brain. The functional role of such altered neurochemical systems in social behaviors and the potential involvement of epigenetic events should be further studied.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   Characterization of the γ-aminobutyric acid signaling system in the zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton) central nervous system by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction  

    Cocco, A. ; Ronnberg, A.M.C. ; Jin, Z. ; Andre, G.I. ; Vossen, L.E. ; Bhandage, A.K. ; Thornqvist, P.O. ; Birnir, B. ; Winberg, S.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 300 - 321 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    In the vertebrate brain, inhibition is largely mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This neurotransmitter comprises a signaling machinery of GABA A , GABA B receptors, transporters, glutamate decarboxylases (gads) and 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (abat), and associated proteins. Chloride is intimately related to GABA A receptor conductance, GABA uptake, and GADs activity. The response of target neurons to GABA stimuli is shaped by chloride-cation co-transporters (CCCs), which strictly control Cl - gradient across plasma membranes. This research profiled the expression of forty genes involved in GABA signaling in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain, grouped brain regions and retinas. Primer pairs were developed for reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The mRNA levels of the zebrafish GABA system share similarities with that of mammals, and confirm previous studies in non-mammalian species. Proposed GABA A receptors are α 1 β 2 γ 2 , α 1 β 2 δ, α 2b β 3 γ 2 , α 2b β 3 δ, α 4 β 2 γ 2 , α 4 β 2 δ, α 6b β 2 γ 2 and α 6b β 2 δ. Regional brain differences were documented. Retinal hetero- or homomeric ρ-composed GABA A receptors could exist, accompanying α 1 β y γ 2 , α 1 β y δ, α 6a β y γ 2 , α 6a β y δ. Expression patterns of α 6a and α 6b were opposite, with the former being more abundant in retinas, the latter in brains. Given the stoichiometry α 6w β y γ z , α 6a - or α 6b -containing receptors likely have different regulatory mechanisms. Different gene isoforms could originate after the rounds of genome duplication during teleost evolution. This research depicts that one isoform is generally more abundantly expressed than the other. Such observations also apply to GABA B receptors, GABA transporters, GABA-related enzymes, CCCs and GABA A receptor-associated proteins, whose presence further strengthens the proof of a GABA system in zebrafish.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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