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Building and environment 44건

  1. [해외논문]   The state of the art of living walls: Lessons learned   SCIE

    Riley, Benjamin (MAP-ARIA Laboratory UMP CNRS, ENSAL (National Architecture School of Lyon), University of Lyon, 3 Rue Maurice Audin, 69120 Vaulx-en-Velin, France)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 219 - 232 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Marching toward legitimacy, living walls are slowly being vetted. Establishing living walls as a viable constructive system will require filling gaps in our knowledge by taking advantage of the lessons learned from recently built projects. Growing plants on a vertical surface gives the appearance of natural simplicity. However, achieving a successful living wall is a complex problem with many factors. These include: ensuring an appropriate support structure, maintaining the proper amount of water, oxygen, nutrients and pH levels, choosing plants which can survive seasonal climatic changes, and establishing the appropriate lighting conditions; not to mention affordability, sustainability and longevity. Satisfying these complex needs - mastering all of these factors - will be essential for living wall systems to mature beyond their use as vanity projects and gain acceptance by the construction industry. This article aims to aid those considering living walls and dispel some of the mystery surrounding them by studying precedents and addressing their commonly cited criticisms: living walls are too expensive and unsustainable, too complicated and prone to failure, and too decorative and superficial to the buildings they serve. Highlights Recent research and case studies could make living walls reliable and economical. Accepting the disadvantages of living walls can lead to optimized systems. Living walls can be sustainable if conceived as an entire system. The living wall industry must tether installation to maintenance. Beyond faCades: examples of architects using living walls to define building form. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   Frequency response limitation of heat flux meters   SCIE

    Naveros, I. (Univ Lyon, CNRS, INSA-Lyon, Université) , Ghiaus, C. (Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CETHIL UMR5008, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France ) , Ruí (Univ Lyon, CNRS, INSA-Lyon, Université) , z, D.P. (Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CETHIL UMR5008, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France )
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 233 - 245 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Heat flux meters are used for measuring the heat flux densities going through walls, usually at quasi-steady state. The limitations of heat flux meters under dynamic conditions are well documented in the literature; nonetheless there is a theoretical limitation which is mostly not considered and should be also taken into account. Since heat transfer is a dissipative process, it would be expected to obtain transfer functions which act as low pass filters. Nonetheless, this paper shows that the transfer functions modeling heat flow rate may become high pass filters, which is against the physical evidence. In order to show this theoretical limitation of the heat flux meters, the heat equation is transformed in different classes of models, from partial differential equations to transfer functions related to surface temperatures and heat flux density going through a wall. Highlights Heat equation is expressed as thermal networks by using finite element method. Heat flux meters response is analyzed in frequency domain. Transfer functions are deduced from thermal networks. The transfer function related to heat flux density is a high pass filter.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Influence of short-term thermal experience on thermal comfort evaluations: A climate chamber experiment   SCIE

    Ji, Wenjie (Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China ) , Cao, Bin (Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China ) , Luo, Maohui (Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China ) , Zhu, Yingxin (Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 246 - 256 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore how a short-term thermal experience influences thermal comfort evaluation. Thermal experience, which refers to the previous thermal environment, may result in the formation of some “memory” on humans. When people enter another environment where the temperature is different from the previous one, the previous experience may result in some different feelings and changes on the evaluations of thermal comfort, comparing with staying in a steady state condition. In this paper, we mainly focus on short-term thermal experience within the time scale of minutes to hours. Climate chamber experiments were conducted for analysis and discussion. The experiment we designed had three sets of conditions: 1) started and ended at an air temperature of 20 °C, and experienced higher temperatures in between; 2) started and ended at an air temperature of 25 °C, and experienced higher or lower temperatures in between, and 3) started and ended at an air temperature of 30 °C, and experienced lower temperatures in between. The evaluations of thermal comfort of the subjects at different temperature conditions were recorded by questionnaires. We found that both comfort and discomfort resulted from the contrast between the current and previous conditions. Even though the initially poor thermal environment was improved a little bit, the evaluation of the thermal comfort would be improved a lot. Additionally, the decrease of thermal sensation caused by cold stimulation was more obvious than the increase due to hot stimulation. People's evaluations could be considered as a combination of both the past and the present feelings.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Human responses to high humidity in elevated temperatures for people in hot-humid climates   SCIE

    Jin, Ling (College of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, South China Agricultural University, Wushan, Guangzhou, PR China ) , Zhang, Yufeng (State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, Department of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Wushan, Guangzhou, 510640, PR China ) , Zhang, Zhongjun (State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, Department of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Wushan, Guangzhou, 510640, PR China)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 257 - 266 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract The impact of high humidity at high temperatures on the thermal and humid responses of people in hot-humid climates is critical for ensuring a suitable indoor environmental quality and promoting the energy efficiency of buildings. Thirty healthy young people (15 males and 15 females), who were born and raised in hot-humid areas of China, were recruited as subjects. Six experimental conditions with high levels of air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH) (29°C/50%, 29°C/70%, 29°C/90%, 32°C/50%, 32°C/70%, 32°C/90%), with one extreme hot condition and two cool conditions, were tested. Both psychological and physiological responses were collected. The results indicate that the impact of humidity on human responses was not significant when the relative humidity was below 70% and was significant and increased with an increase in air temperature when the relative humidity was above 70%. The relationships between the thermal and humid responses and the ET* or RH were identified as linear or polynomial functions. The upper limit for people in hot-humid climates who engaged in sedentary activity and dressed in summer clothing (0.57 clo) was determined to be 30.3 °C in ET* for the 90% acceptable range and 32.3 °C in ET* for the 80% acceptable range. This study provides useful information for the humidity requirements of indoor environments in hot-humid climates. Highlights Thermal and humid physical and psychological responses of people in hot-humid climates are collected. Thermal and humid adaptation of subjects in hot-humid climates is analyzed. We report the combinations of Ta and RH for the upper limit for people in hot-humid climates.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   Multipoint measurement method for air temperature in outdoor spaces and application to microclimate and passive cooling studies for a house   SCIE

    Lee, TaeCheol (Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502, Japan ) , Asawa, Takashi (Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502, Japan ) , Kawai, Hidenori (Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502, Japan ) , Sato, Rihito (Misawa Homes Institute of Research and Development Co., Ltd., 1-1-19 Takaidonishi, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 168-0071, Japan ) , Hirayama, Yukari (Misawa Homes Institute of Research and Development Co., Ltd., 1-1-19 Takaidonishi, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 168-0071, Japan ) , Ohta, Isamu (Misawa Homes Institute of Research and Development Co., Ltd., 1-1-19 Takaidonishi, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 168-0071, Japan)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 267 - 280 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract We propose a multipoint measurement method for air temperature in outdoor spaces using polyvinyl chloride pipes with fan-aspirated ventilation. The method is applied to microclimate measurement in the outdoor space of a residential house, and the cooling effects of plants and natural ventilation on the house were evaluated. The accuracy of the proposed method was verified in the outdoor space. Average systematic errors of the method were 0.43 °C during daytime on sunny days and 0.16 °C on cloudy days. Application of the method to microclimate measurement shows that air temperatures were reduced by evapotranspiration of plants and watering in the planted space during daytime. By placing the plants near a floor-level window, wind speed inside the window was reduced, although the cooled air flowed into the indoor space through the window. The cooling effects of the plants and watering in the outdoor space kept indoor air temperature cooler during daytime. The period in which the sensible heat flux from the outdoor to indoor space showed positive values, i.e., when there was a sensible heat load in the room, diminished from 9 to 4 h through the cooling effects. Highlights A multipoint measurement method for air temperature is proposed. The method is verified in terms of average systematic error and confidence interval by comparing with a standard instrument using aspirated ventilation and shield. The method is applied to field measurements of microclimate and passive cooling of a house. Air temperatures were reduced by evapotranspiration of plants in daytime. The cooling effects reduced sensible heat flux into the indoor space and kept indoor air temperature cooler during daytime.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  6. [해외논문]   Wind tunnel tests of inter-flat pollutant transmission characteristics in a rectangular multi-storey residential building, part B: Effect of source location   SCIE

    Mu, Di (Corresponding author.) , Shu, Chang , Gao, Naiping , Zhu, Tong
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 281 - 292 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract The pollutant behavior in and around a naturally ventilated building requires to be investigated quantitatively as the growing concern on air quality within the built environment. The objective of the present study is to further investigate the wind induced inter-flat pollutant transmission and cross contamination routes in typical buildings in Shanghai. In this paper, a set of experiments was carried out in a boundary layer wind tunnel using a 1:30 reduced scale model that represented the typical configuration of rectangular multi-storey residential buildings. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) was employed as a tracer gas in the wind tunnel tests. Two natural ventilation modes, single-sided ventilation and cross ventilation were considered. The conditions under prevailing wind direction with different source locations on the windward side were compared. The pressure coefficients on all of the building faCades and tracer gas concentration distributions were monitored and analysed. The experimental results elucidated that contaminant released from windward units could spread vertically and horizontally to other units on the source faCade and downstream units. The source location was a significant influence factor on the pollutant concentration in various units. In the single-sided ventilated building, the infected risks of leeward units were even higher than those in some windward units. In the cross ventilated building, the vertical transmission could be suppressed and the horizontal transmission was reinforced. The study is helpful for further understanding of the inter-flat airborne transmission within an isolated building. Highlights The inter-flat transmission characteristics of gaseous pollutants were further assessed using wind tunnel experiments. The possible negative effects of cross-contamination related to natural ventilation were concerned. The pollutant dispersion routes were expanded from source side to different facades. The leeward and sideward units got high risks of being infected for windward sources in a single-sided ventilated building. Cross ventilation obviously suppresses vertical transmission of pollutants from windward sources.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   CFD simulation of flow in a long street canyon under a perpendicular wind direction: Evaluation of three computational settings   SCIE

    Ai, Z.T. (Corresponding author.) , Mak, C.M.
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 293 - 306 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract A street canyon is an important platform for the understanding of local atmospheric flow and other related processes in the built environment. Many previous studies focused on long street canyons under a perpendicular wind direction, as they represent the worst street canyon microclimate, such as stagnation of wind and accumulation of pollutants. While CFD simulations were widely applied to investigate atmospheric processes in street canyons, appropriate computational settings are important factors influencing the predictive reliability. A non-exhaustive literature review of CFD studies on atmospheric processes in long street canyons indicates an arbitrary selection of three important computational settings, namely computational domain configuration, domain dimensions and inflow boundary conditions. Based on previous water tunnel experimental data for street canyons with aspect ratio equal to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0, this study evaluates the influence of the three computational settings on CFD prediction of isothermal flow field inside the street canyons. Flow field inside an urban street canyon cannot be reasonably predicted using an isolated street canyon included in a conventional computational domain, which, however, can be well predicted using a T-shape computational domain where a street canyon is connected to a free flow layer above the canyon. A T-shape domain with the upstream length, downstream length and height above a street canyon all equal to the height of the street canyon is appropriate when considering both computational cost and predictive accuracy. It is reasonable to use uniform inflow boundary conditions to represent the free layer above street canyons. Highlights Three sets of water tunnel experimental data used to support below evaluations. Computational domain configurations evaluated and T-shape domain suggested. Computational domain dimensions evaluated and appropriate values suggested. Inflow boundary conditions evaluated and uniform inflow conditions suggested. Above evaluations made based on three aspect ratios, namely 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   A review of structural, thermo-physical, acoustical, and environmental properties of wooden materials for building applications   SCIE

    Asdrubali, F. (Roma Tre University, Department of Engineering, Via Vito Volterra, 62, Rome, Italy ) , Ferracuti, B. (Niccolò) , Lombardi, L. (Cusano University, Department of Engineering, Via Don Carlo Gnocchi, 3, Rome, Italy ) , Guattari, C. (Niccolò) , Evangelisti, L. (Cusano University, Department of Engineering, Via Don Carlo Gnocchi, 3, Rome, Italy ) , Grazieschi, G. (Roma Tre University, Department of Engineering, Via Vito Volterra, 62, Rome, Italy )
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 307 - 332 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract The current environmental and energetic crisis and the resulting regulations led to a new interest in using sustainable materials for building applications. Wood can be a material with high sustainable rates because it is recyclable, reusable and naturally renewable. Moreover, its excellent strength-to-weight ratios, thermal insulating and acoustical properties make it useful for different kinds of applications in buildings, ranging from structural beams and frames, insulating envelopes, windows, door frames, to wall and flooring materials and furniture. Although wood is commonly classified as a sustainable material, its real sustainability depends on different issues: appropriate forest management, manufacturing methods and site assembly, distance required for transportation and use of glues. Wood has also good seismic performances due to its lightweight and even if timber elements are not able to have a ductile behavior, using steel connection allows to build dissipative structure, as well platform frame and X-LAM panels systems. Insulation properties are related to low thermal conductivity values. Furthermore, wooden elements can be used to minimize sound transmission and they can be employed as sustainable materials as several Life Cycle Assessment studies demonstrate. This review paper aims to analyze the structural, thermal, acoustical and environmental properties of wooden materials for building applications; other properties such as fire resistance and durability were also taken into account. The work is completed by several tables and graphs with wood properties and by an updated and thorough reference list.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   Study on particle penetration through straight, L, Z and wedge-shaped cracks in buildings   SCIE

    Li, Angui (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710055, PR China ) , Ren, Tong (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710055, PR China ) , Yang, Changqing (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710055, PR China ) , Lv, Wenchao (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710055, PR China ) , Zhang, Feng (School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710055, PR China)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 333 - 343 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract There is a significant concern about the outdoor particles due to the recurrent smog days around the world. The penetration of outdoor particles through building cracks has a great impact on indoor environment. In this study, various crack models such as straight, L-shaped, Z-shaped and wedge-shaped cracks were investigated. Discrete Particle Model (DPM) in the Lagrangian coordinates was selected to simulate the particle transport through different cracks by employing the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) under different calculation conditions. Moreover, the reliability and practicality of the crack model were well verified by comparing with the literature data. The influence of crack shape, crack size and differential pressure on the particle penetration factor was analyzed and compared in detail. The results showed that increasing crack height ( H ) and differential pressure ( Δ p ) or decreasing crack depth ( L ) can result in a higher particle penetration factor. For particles size less than 3 μm, the penetration factor is higher than 0.93 for cracks with 1 mm height regardless of their depth or differential pressure. For particles size from 3 to 8 μm, the faster penetration factor drops rapidly in the corresponding interval when there is more number of right-angles ( n ). There is a negative correlation between particle penetration factor and wedge-shaped crack tilt angle. The penetration factor decreases along with the increase in wedge-shaped crack tilt angle ( α ). The current study is useful to understand particle penetration through different shapes of building cracks. Highlights Four kinds of cracks are selected for investigation, including straight, L, Z and wedge-shaped crack. DPM is selected to simulate the particles through different cracks by CFD in different calculation conditions. The factors affecting the penetration factor are analyzed and compared among four kinds of cracks. Crack tilt angle (α) and the number of right-angles ( n ) have a significant impact on particle penetration factor.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   On the minimal thermal habitability conditions in low income dwellings in Spain for a new definition of fuel poverty   SCIE

    Sá (School of Architecture (ETSAM), Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Spain, Avda. Juan de Herrera 4, 28040, Madrid, Spain ) , nchez-Guevara Sá (Institute for Environmental Design and Engineering (IEDE), The Bartlett School of Environment, Energy and Resources (BSEER), UCL Faculty of the Built Environment, Central House, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London WC1H 0NN, United Kingdom ) , nchez, Carmen (School of Architecture (ETSAM), Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Spain, Avda. Juan de Herrera 4, 28040, Madrid, Spain) , Mavrogianni, Anna , Neila Gonzá , lez, Fco. Javier
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 344 - 356 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Fuel poverty can be defined as “the inability to afford adequate warmth in the home”. The concept was firstly developed due to health risks related to cold among low income households. However, in the last few decades, especially since the summer heat wave of 2003 that caused 35,000 deaths across Europe, a lot of research has been conducted about the health risks related to high temperatures. Along with advances in knowledge related to the health risks associated with inadequate temperatures, several directives of the European Commission related to energy regulation urge Member States to develop their own fuel poverty definitions. This need of a methodological development for new definitions poses several questions. First, what should be the temperature thresholds for the overheated season? But, furthermore, are existing temperature baselines adequate for the Spanish context and climate? This paper presents a preliminary approach to define these new temperature thresholds for the Spanish context through the adaptive comfort model criteria. For that purpose, a statistically representative dwelling building typology of vulnerable household spaces was used to analyze indoor thermal temperatures and hence, to establish minimal energy requirements so as to achieve minimal habitability conditions. Highlights Minimal thermal habitability conditions for Spanish dwellings are set by using adaptive thermal comfort criteria. The energy required by fuel poor households is appraised and defined as adaptive demand. Overheating temperature baselines are being incorporated in the fuel poverty definition. The adaptive demand presents lower energy requirements than conventional calculations used for building energy rating.

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