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International journal of refrigeration = Revbue in... 60건

  1. [해외논문]   Optimisation de forme d'un Ejecteur diphasique pour les systEmes frigorifiques au CO2   SCI SCIE

    Palacz, Michal (Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland ) , Smolka, Jacek (Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland ) , Nowak, Andrzej J. (Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland ) , Banasiak, Krzysztof (SINTEF Energy, Kolbjørn Hejes v. 1D, Trondheim 7465, Norway ) , Hafner, Armin (Department of Energy and Process Engineering, NTNU, Kolbjørn Hejes vei 1d, Trondheim 7465, Norway)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 212 - 223 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract The shape optimisation of four CO 2 ejectors is presented in this study. The considered ejectors were originally designed for a multi-ejector supermarket CO 2 refrigeration system. The objective function was formulated to consider the multiple operating regimes, where the goal of the optimisation was to maximise the device efficiency. Six geometrical parameters were considered in the optimisation procedure. The applied optimisation scheme was a combination of a genetic algorithm coupled with the effective and validated CFD tool, ejectorPL. The optimisation results showed that the ejector efficiency improved by 6%. The shape modification trends were similar for all of the considered ejectors. All of the shape modifications resulted in a smoother expansion inside the motive nozzle, less intense turbulence inside the mixing section and a more uniform velocity field inside the mixing section. The obtained results showed that the presented methodology can be effectively used for ejector design for numerous applications. Highlights The CFD-based shape of the two-phase ejector is presented. The robust and efficient computational tool was used to perform the optimisation. The mixing section shape influences the ejector performance notably. The relatively high improvements of the ejector performance were obtained.

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  2. [해외논문]   Evaluation de la performance saisonniEre de systEmes de production d'eau chaude sanitaire fonctionnant au propane et de pompes A chaleur au CO2   SCI SCIE

    Tammaro, M. (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Sezione ETEC, Università) , Montagud, C. (degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, P.le V. Tecchio 80, Napoli 80125, Italy ) , Corberá (Instituto de Ingeniería Energética, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia 46022, Spain ) , n, J.M. (Instituto de Ingeniería Energética, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia 46022, Spain ) , Mauro, A.W. (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Sezione ETEC, Università) , Mastrullo, R. (degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, P.le V. Tecchio 80, Napoli 80125, Italy )
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 224 - 239 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract Heat pump water heaters can increase the energy efficiency in sanitary hot water production, which is a relevant share of the final energy consumption in multiresidential and tertiary buildings. Refrigerants for these heat pumps are changing due to the F-Gas Regulation which bans high-GWP fluids. While CO 2 is an established solution, propane is a promising low-GWP alternative for heat pump water heaters serving large users in the tertiary sector, where refrigerant charge limits (due to propane's flammability) can be bypassed by installing the heat pump outdoors. Here, the components of a CO 2 and a propane air-water heat pump systems of 40 kW are sized and their COPs are compared in different climates; then, the two heat pumps are coupled to a storage tank and a user demand profile (hospital and school). For three different locations, tank size necessary to maintain users' comfort and seasonal performance factor are evaluated through simulation. Highlights CO 2 and propane heat pumps for sanitary hot water production are modelled and sized. Their COPs and heating capacities are compared in different climates. A TRNSYS model with a realistic hospital and school load profile is simulated. Propane unit's seasonal performance factor is higher in warm and average climates. Control logic of these systems has a significant impact on energy performance.

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  3. [해외논문]   PropriEtEs de dispersion du changement de phase, modElisation de la capacitE thermique apparente   SCI SCIE

    Fischer, L.J. (Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, HSLU, Switzerland ) , von Arx, S. (Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, HSLU, Switzerland ) , Wechsler, U. (Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, HSLU, Switzerland ) , Zü (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland ) , st, S. (Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, HSLU, Switzerland) , Worlitschek, J.
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 240 - 253 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract The authors present values and an application of a phase change dispersion (PCD). As the heat transfer during phase change takes place at constant temperature, the heat transfer fluid itself remains at nearly constant temperature while absorbing heat. Isothermal heating and cooling of devices with a fluid is possible. A quasi-homogenous model is used to characterize the PCD with emphasis on the calculation of the “apparent specific heat capacity”. The application of cooling a machine spindle with high thermal load at 24 °C ± 0.4 °C will be presented together with basic research work of calculating heat transfer within liquids practically not changing in temperature. Highlights Phase change dispersions allow for storing and releasing of heat. PCD enable isothermal cooling at constant temperature. An appropriate emulsifier results in low viscosity and high stability. The phase content of the PCD has to be optimized with respect to viscosity.

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  4. [해외논문]   MEthode d'analyse du diagramme tempErature-quantitE de chaleur pour un cycle frigorifique A adsorption physique de rEcupEration de chaleur prenant un cycle multiEtagE comme exemple   SCI SCIE

    Xu, S.Z. (Corresponding author. Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China. Fax: +86 21 3420 6548.) , Wang, R.Z. , Wang, L.W.
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 254 - 268 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract The method of temperature–heat ( T – Q ) diagram analysis was proposed in this article. In T – Q diagram, the area between two process curves along the temperature axis represents the irreversibility degree of heat transfer, which has the same dimension with entransy dissipation. T – Q diagram can be used to optimize the heat exchange configuration and the heat exchanger network of adsorption refrigeration systems. The proposed T – Q diagram and traditional energy, exergy and entropy analyses were adopted to a multi-stage heat recovery adsorption refrigeration system. Results show that the optimal heat recovery schemes determined through T – Q diagram and cycle entropy production analyses are identical, while T – Q diagram is more intuitional since the analysis procedure is done graphically. T – Q diagram can also be applied to analyze experiment related results of process temperatures, and is capable of giving an estimation of the performance improvement for heat recovery cycle. Highlights The method of temperature–heat ( T – Q ) diagram analysis was proposed. Area along T axis represents the irreversibility degree in heat transfer process. Multi-stage heat recovery physical adsorption refrigeration cycles were analyzed. Heat exchange configuration or heat exchanger network can be optimized. T – Q diagram optimization is actually intuitional entropy production minimization.

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  5. [해외논문]   Evaluation de la performance EnergEtique du R1234yf, du R1234ze(E), du R600a, du R290 et du R152a comme alternatives A faible GWP au R134a   SCI SCIE

    Sá (Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Jaume I University, Campus de Riu Sec s/n, E-12071 Castellón, Spain ) , nchez, D. (Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Jaume I University, Campus de Riu Sec s/n, E-12071 Castellón, Spain ) , Cabello, R. (Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Jaume I University, Campus de Riu Sec s/n, E-12071 Castellón, Spain ) , Llopis, R. (Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Jaume I University, Campus de Riu Sec s/n, E-12071 Castellón, Spain ) , Arauzo, I. (Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Jaume I University, Campus de Riu Sec s/n, E-12071 Castellón, Spain ) , Catalá (Department of Applied Thermodynamics, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera, 14, E-46022 Valencia, Spain) , n-Gil, J. , Torrella, E.
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 269 - 282 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract In 2014, the Directive 517/2014 was introduced by European Parliament to reduce the use of high-GWP greenhouse gases in the European area in order to limit global climate change in accordance with the objectives marked by the EU Research and Innovation programme Horizon 2020. These restrictions affect the large majority of artificial refrigerants among which R134a is included due to its relatively high GWP 100 (1301). The widely used of R134a in the refrigeration and air conditioning fields reveals the need to identify new low-GWP alternatives. Accordingly, in this work five low-GWP R134a possible choices have been tested and compared in an identical refrigerating facility equipped with a hermetic compressor, under the same operating conditions. The refrigerants used in this analysis are: R290 and R600a (HCs); R134a and R152a (HFCs), and finally, R1234yf and R1234ze(E) (HFOs). All of them have been assayed without changes in the facility, that is, as direct drop-ins . The results obtained from the experimental tests are presented and commented in this work from the energetic point of view. Highlights A refrigerating facility was experimentally tested with five low-GWP alternatives. The results had been compared with R134a in the same operating conditions. R290 presented an increment of COP, cooling capacity and compressor power consumption. R152a and R1234yf presented a slight variation in terms of COP and cooling capacity. R600a and R1234ze(E) presented an important reduction in cooling capacity and COP.

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  6. [해외논문]   Cycle A plusieurs niveaux de pression-Une nouvelle approche du cycle de Lorenz   SCI SCIE

    Cao, Xiang (Corresponding author. Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China.) , Zhang, Chun-Lu , Zhang, Zi-Yang
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 283 - 294 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract Refrigerant vapor-compression cycle usually works with variable temperature heat sources in reality, which causes remarkable irreversible losses in heat exchange process. This paper proposed the stepped pressure cycle to modify the vapor-compression cycle using refrigerant, particularly pure refrigerant. Refrigerant is designed to flow through a series of heat transfer units with stepped pressures so that the irreversible losses can be reduced. Theoretical proof confirmed the stepped pressure cycle with pure refrigerant can approach the Lorenz cycle, the most efficient cycle under variable temperature heat sources. Numerical analysis on cycle performance demonstrated that a dual-step suction and discharge pressure cycle using R32 can achieve 11.5% cooling COP improvement for residential air conditioner, while a dual-step discharge pressure cycle using R134a can bring 9.8% heating COP increase for heat pump water heater. A pilot system was made and preliminarily tested. Compared to the single cycle system, 12.3% and 18.7% COP increase were achieved in the pilot system by applying dual and triple subcycles, respectively. Highlights Stepped pressure cycle is proposed for vapor-compression refrigeration systems. Stepped pressure cycle can help refrigerants approach the Lorenz cycle. A pilot system with dual-step and triple-step pressures was made and tested. Dual-step, triple-step pressure cycle can improve COP by 12.3%, 18.7%, respectively.

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  7. [해외논문]   Etude expErimentale d'un systEme frigorifique biEtagE A Ejecteur alimentE par deux sources de chaleur   SCI SCIE

    Chen, Guangming (Key Laboratory of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Technology of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China ) , Zhang, Rongtao (Key Laboratory of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Technology of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China ) , Zhu, Daibin (Ningbo Aux Electric Co., Ltd, Ningbo, China ) , Chen, Shaojie (Key Laboratory of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Technology of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China ) , Fang, Lingyun (Key Laboratory of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Technology of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China ) , Hao, Xinyue (Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, China)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 295 - 303 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract In this paper, an experimental study on a two-stage ejector refrigeration system driven by two heat sources is carried out involving system design, setup, operation and experimental evaluation. It is looked at by means of changing temperatures of evaporation, condensation, low and high temperature generation independently for the variation tendency of system performance (including total entrainment ratio and COP) and comparison to the conventional single-stage ejector refrigeration system at variable condensation temperatures that is achieved by the valve switching in this system. In terms of refrigerants, R236fa is selected for stability of the system operation. Total entrainment ratio and COP are increasing as the temperatures of evaporation, high and low temperature generation go up. Different from the conventional single-stage ejector refrigeration system, this two-stage system is finally found to be capable of supplying more refrigerating effect in situations where the condensation temperature is lower than 21.7 °C. Highlights Two-stage ejector refrigeration system driven by two heat sources is studied. The system is designed, setup and operated for experimental results. The variable tendencies of system performance are achieved and analyzed. Comparison to the single-stage ejector refrigeration system is stated.

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  8. [해외논문]   Conception et Etude expErimentale d'un gEnErateur A film tombant de type plaque pour une pompe A chaleur A absorption au LiBR/H2O   SCI SCIE

    Hu, Tianle (Corresponding author. Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Fax: 86-10-62770544.) , Xie, Xiaoyun , Jiang, Yi
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 304 - 312 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract A novel plate-type falling-film generator for a LiBr/H 2 O absorption heat pump and the resulting generator/condenser unit prototype are presented in this paper. The generator consists of a directly-connected overflow solution distributor. This novel structure can ensure uniform solution distribution and stable falling-film flow; it is also more compact and provides greater feasibility to regulate capacity by plate assembly compared to conventional distributors for falling film. Visual flow pattern experiments were conducted in a vacuum atmosphere. Split flows and obvious parabolic dry areas were shown to exist. The method to improve the wetting rate was also investigated. Thermal performance tests show that the heat transfer coefficient of the generator ranged from 0.735 kW⋅m −2 ⋅K −1 to 0.856 kW⋅m −2 ⋅K −1 . The flow and thermal experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of the plate-type falling-film generator for a LiBr/H 2 O absorption heat pump. The concept of the novel generator can be used for all absorption heat pump components and thus greatly increase the generalizability of the absorption technology. Highlights Pate-type falling-film generator for LiBr/H 2 O absorption heat pump is presented. A directly-connected overflow solution distributor for falling-film is proposed. Visual vacuum solution falling-film flow pattern experiments were conducted. The wetting rate increased when the plates were heated or wetted in advance. Tested heat transfer coefficient range of the generator is 0.735~0.856 kW⋅m −2 ⋅K −1 .

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   Une corrElation semi-empirique pour prEdire la densitE de givre sur des substrats hydrophiles et hydrophobes   SCI SCIE

    Sommers, Andrew D. (Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Miami University, 56 Garland Hall, 650 East High Street, Oxford, OH 45056, USA ) , Napora, Andrew C. (Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Miami University, 56 Garland Hall, 650 East High Street, Oxford, OH 45056, USA ) , Truster, Nicholas L. (Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Miami University, 56 Garland Hall, 650 East High Street, Oxford, OH 45056, USA ) , Caraballo, Edgar J. (Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Miami University, 56 Garland Hall, 650 East High Street, Oxford, OH 45056, USA ) , Hermes, Christian J.L. (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Paraná, 81531990 Curitiba, PR, Brazil)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 313 - 323 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract A new semi-empirical correlation for the prediction of frost density on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. The proposed correlation is a function of the modified Jakob number and contains two correction terms, one for surface contact angle and another for relative humidity. Whereas most frost correlations exclude surface wettability as a parameter, our research has shown that the surface contact angle can be important when trying to accurately predict the properties of a growing frost layer. The correlation was developed using data from three different surfaces. On each surface, the frost was grown for three hours and then defrosted. The proposed correlation predicted more than 93% of the data to within a ±20% error band and is proposed for use on surfaces with contact angles 45° θ T w Highlights Surface energy can influence frost density on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. A new semi-empirical correlation for the prediction of frost density is proposed. New correlation predicts more than 93% of the data (n = 522) to within ±20%. Correlation is proposed for use on surfaces with contact angles 45° θ Larger frost density values are predicted on hydrophilic surfaces.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   Simulation de systEmes frigorifiques magnEtocaloriques A l'Etat solide avec des ElEments de Peltier comme diodes thermiques   SCI SCIE

    Monfared, Behzad (Department of Energy Technology, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvägen 68, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden. Fax: +46 8 20 41 61.)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 324 - 332 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract Magnetic refrigeration as an alternative for vapor-compression technology has been the subject of many recent studies. Most of the studies focus on systems with limited cycle frequency in which a fluid transfers heat to and from the magnetocaloric material. A suggested solution for increasing the frequency is use of solid-state magnetic refrigeration in which thermal diodes guide the heat from the cold end to the warm end. In this work a solid-state refrigeration system with Peltier elements as thermal diodes is modeled in details unprecedented. The performance of Peltier elements and magnetocaloric materials under their transient working conditions after reaching cyclic steady state are simulated by two separate computer models using finite element method and finite volume method. The models, in parts and as a whole, are verified. The verified finite element model is used for a parametric study and the results are analyzed. Highlights Magnetic refrigeration system with Peltier elements as thermal diodes is modeled. The physical and numerical models are explained in great detail. The model is verified and used for a parametric study. The effect of key parameters in the performance of the system is discussed.

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