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Building and environment 44건

  1. [해외논문]   Adjustments of the adaptive thermal comfort model based on the running mean outdoor temperature for Chinese people: A case study in Changsha China   SCIE

    Yang, Diyu (Department of Modern Art Design, HuNan Industry Polytechnic, Changsha 410082, China ) , Xiong, Jing (School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China ) , Liu, Weiwei (School of Energy Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 357 - 365 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract A method to develop an adaptive thermal comfort model based on the running mean outdoor temperature for Chinese people was proposed. The determination of two important parameters (neutral temperature and outdoor temperature) in the adaptive thermal comfort model was the focus of this work. A longitudinal survey was conducted from Jan. 2010 to Feb. 2011 in two naturally ventilated office buildings located in Changsha, China. During the survey, the thermal sensation of the subjects was investigated, and the indoor temperature was measured daily. Based on the field data, the neutral temperature and the running mean outdoor temperature were determined. Further, an adaptive thermal comfort model was established by quantifying the relationship between the neutral temperature and the running mean outdoor temperature. The results show that the adaptive thermal comfort model based on the running mean outdoor temperature can well reflect the change of neutral temperature in the two office buildings with the climate of Changsha China. This study provides a reliable method to adjust the adaptive thermal comfort model based on the running mean temperature for Chinese people. Highlights Running mean (RM) outdoor temperature is used in adaptive comfort model of China. 0.5 is a suitable Griffiths constant for the calculation of neutral temperature. 0.45 is the optimal time constant for calculation of RM outdoor temperature. People in Changsha adapt to outdoor temperature change more quickly than European. The proposed ATC model reflected the real change of neutral temperature very well.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   A methodology to evaluate the indoor natural ventilation in hot climates: Heat Balance Index   SCIE

    Castillo, J.A. (Corresponding author.) , Huelsz, G.
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 366 - 373 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Natural ventilation is an alternative to create comfortable and healthy indoor conditions. This work presents the development of a methodology to evaluate the thermal comfort produced by indoor natural ventilation in hot climates. This methodology includes the definition of the Heat Balance Index, H B I . It is based on models of the heat transfer of the human body to the surroundings. To estimate the comfort evaporation term a correlation between the Heat Balance Index (HBI) and the Predicted Mean Value (PMV) was made. The H B I gives the comfort air velocity range, which is useful to calculate the well-ventilated percentage of an indoor space for an specific climate condition in hot climates. A numerical simulation of a cross ventilated building is used as an application example. The numerical simulation is solved by using Computational Fluid Dynamics and is validated with experimental results. Highlights A methodology to evaluate the thermal comfort by indoor natural ventilation in hot climates. Heat Balance Index (HBI) with heat transfer models of the human body to the surroundings. HBI for the comfort air velocity range and for the well-ventilated percentage of an indoor space. CFD simulation of natural cross-ventilation in a room used as HBI application example. CFD simulation with 3D steady RANS and SST k-ω turbulence model experimentally validated. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Development of test reference year using ISO 15927-4 and the influence of climatic parameters on building energy performance   SCIE

    Kim, Sughwan (Institute of Building Physics, Faculty of Civil, Geo and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstraße 21, 80333, Munich, Germany ) , Zirkelbach, Daniel (Fraunhofer-Institute for Building Physics (IBP), Department Hygrothermics, Fraunhoferstr. 10, 83626, Valley, Germany ) , Kü (Fraunhofer-Institute for Building Physics (IBP), Department Hygrothermics, Fraunhoferstr. 10, 83626, Valley, Germany ) , nzel, Hartwig M. (Passive House Institute Korea, Olympic-ro 577, Songpa-gu, 05520, Seoul, Republic of Korea ) , Lee, Jeong-Hun (Passive House Institute Korea, Olympic-ro 577, Songpa-gu, 05520, Seoul, Republic of Korea) , Choi, Jeongman
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 374 - 386 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Along with growing concern about energy consumption from the building sector, computer simulations play an important role to analyze the performance of buildings and building systems. A test reference year (TRY) is widely adopted as a representative weather data to get reliable outcomes from the simulations. TRYs of the major 18 locations in South Korea were determined using the method presented by ISO 15927-4 to assure the objectivity of the results from the building energy simulations. The TRY should represent the main climate parameters of the long-term data as close as possible. TRYs were compared with the long-term measured data of 10 years to evaluate their representativeness. According to the statistical results, TRYs in this study have a good representativeness of the weather data for South Korea. The relative influence factors of different climatic parameters on the building energy are important to establish the strategies to minimize the energy consumption. The relative impacts of climatic parameters – air temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiance and wind speed - were numerically determined using a dynamic energy simulation and different types of buildings. It is obvious that air temperature has a strong effect on the energy demand in winter, but on the other hand, solar irradiance is the primary climatic parameter in summer. The energy demand caused by the dehumidification in summer should be considered with solar irradiance and air temperature for the climate of South Korea. Wind speed has a minor effect on the energy demand all year round. Highlights Test reference years of 18 locations in South Korea were generated in accordance with ISO 15927-4. Test reference years in this study have a good representativeness of long-term climate conditions. Impact factors of different climatic parameters on building energy consumption are investigated. Temperature has a great influence on the energy demand in winter, and solar irradiance in summer. Building energy demand caused by the dehumidification in summer should be considered.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Correlation between health discomforts and temperature steps in winter of China   SCIE

    Xiong, Jing (Department of Architecture, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China ) , Lian, Zhiwei (Department of Architecture, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China ) , Zhang, Huibo (Department of Architecture, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China ) , Yoshino, Hiroshi (Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 387 - 396 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract The investigation was carried out in typical wintertime (January 2016) of China. Relationships between health discomforts, which includes physiological effects to the nervous system, digestive system, respiratory system, skin and mucous membranes, and temperature steps were analyzed with the adjustment of subjects' anthropometric information. The Odds Ratio (OR) was applied to evaluate the possibility of suffering from certain kinds of discomforts for different groups of people in comparison to the control group. If the OR is higher than 1.0 (P 1) since the rates of 8 kinds of discomforts for people who use air-conditioning both at their offices and homes were significant higher than the control group (people use air-conditioning neither in their homes nor offices) with OR ranging from 1.455 to 2.276. Adaptability also has significant impact on human discomforts, showing as people whose residential period are less than 10 years have higher relative risks in several discomforts than people living here for more than 10 years (OR varying from 1.342 to 1.954), especially the psychological and nervous system effects. Body mass index, gender and age are also remarkable factors associated with human discomforts in winter. Highlights A survey concerning temperature steps in winter was conducted. Association between health discomforts and winter climate was found. Relationship between air-conditioning and health problems was explored.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   Observational studies of mean radiant temperature across different outdoor spaces under shaded conditions in densely built environment   SCIE

    Lai, Alan (School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China ) , Maing, Minjung (School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China ) , Ng, Edward (School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 397 - 409 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract High-density urban environment affects urban microclimate, and thermal comfort of outdoor spaces. Shading by urban structure is the primary measure to reduce daytime mean radiant temperature (MRT) by blocking direct solar radiation. However, it is believed that overly-restricted Sky View Factor (SVF) limits the radiative cooling by the sky of lower effective temperature. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the relationship between SVF and MRT in built environment. To investigate the dependence of MRT on SVF via radiant fluxes, this study performed field measurement of six directional long-wave, short-wave fluxes and MRT across a number of outdoor spaces under shaded in densely built environment. Regression analysis was employed in examining desired relationships. Across different open spaces, MRT would increase by 1.6 K per 10 W/m 2 increase of either long-wave or short-wave radiant fluxes. Global solar radiation and air temperature are the most influential meteorological parameters affecting radiant fluxes components in MRT. Besides, this study suggests the use of long-wave mean radiant temperature (LMRT) representing effective surface temperature of surrounding objects. LMRT generally follows the temporal pattern of reference air temperature. In a case study, if SVF is decreased by 0.1, the weighted sum of long-wave fluxes would be increased by 10 W/m 2 . This would bring an increase of 1.6 K in MRT. But, SVF has weak explanatory power to variations in short-wave fluxes when under shaded. Larger SVF is preferred for cooling open space in hot and humid region if direct sunlight is already blocked by urban morphology. Highlights MRT increase by 1.6 K per 10 W/m 2 increase of weighted sum of long-wave or short-wave radiant fluxes. If SVF is decreased by 0.1, the W.SumL would be increased by 10 W/m 2 . Larger SVF is preferred for cooling open space in hot and humid region if direct sunlight is blocked by urban morphology. Horizontal SVF and radiant fluxes are important in MRT.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  6. [해외논문]   Micro-climatization and real-time digitalization effects on energy efficiency based on user behavior   SCIE

    Habibi, Shahryar
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 410 - 428 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract An approach to intelligent building energy management systems at the workplace level has the potential to save energy through the use of building information modeling (BIM) and smart sensor systems. Its development focuses on micro-climatization and real-time digitalization systems from an architect's point of view. Intelligent management systems (IMSs) have significant potential for energy savings, but they have not been fully used in buildings and cities. Smart sensor systems based on user behavior will improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and user comfort. A cost-effective strategy has been implemented by using a low-technology and high-performance approach. This work aims to reduce energy consumption and provide comfort conditions by learning user behavior. Furthermore, it seeks to create a real-time system with regard to the functions of developed technologies. In order to improve energy efficiency and comfort conditions, smart sensor systems and digital simulation tools play a crucial role in finding optimal solutions to optimization problems. Highlights Intelligent building energy management systems has the potential to save energy through the use of BIM and smart sensor systems. Building users have a considerable impact on the performance of indoor environments. To provide an efficient real-time energy use feedback, it is important to develop opportunities for users to interact with control systems.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   Urban residential energy consumption modeling in the Integrated Urban Metabolism Analysis Tool (IUMAT)   SCIE

    Mostafavi, Nariman (Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Curtis 251, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA ) , Farzinmoghadam, Mohamad (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609, USA ) , Hoque, Simi (Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Curtis 251, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 429 - 444 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract The Integrated Urban Metabolism Analysis Tool (IUMAT) is a system-based computational platform for quantifying the environmental impacts of urban development scenarios. IUMAT's EWM module is a bottom-up approach to generate energy, water, and material resources demand profiles based on building and neighborhood characteristics. This paper presents the EWM approach using national and regional datasets to identify the relationships between environmental impacts and resource use determinants within a simulation platform for urban metabolism analysis. We focus on residential energy consumption, which serves as a template for how the EWM module will be used to simulate commercial and industrial demand profiles. Quantile regression methods are applied to Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) 2009 data to describe the impacts of physical and socio-economic parameters on end use residential energy profiles and create a modeling framework for residential energy prediction. Also, a method for quantifying CO 2 emissions and water consumption associated with energy production is outlined. Highlights Quantile regression is used to predict residential energy use categories. A method for calculating GHG emissions for residential energy use is introduced. The use of actual datasets for energy modeling and policy making is evaluated. Prediction power for HVAC energy use is scale-dependent, unlike other categories. Pricing and retrofit strategies do not impact energy savings in some categories.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   Theoretical and experimental study of departure duration of condensate droplets from radiant cooling ceiling surfaces   SCIE

    Tang, Haida (Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China ) , Zhang, Tao (Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China ) , Liu, Xiaohua (Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China ) , Jiang, Yi (Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China)
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 445 - 454 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract In this paper, a mathematical model for predicting the departure duration of the first condensate droplet from a radiant ceiling surface was proposed on the basis of the condensation water mass. The simulation results indicate a dependence of condensation water mass on the apparent contact angle of the substrate, but almost in no relation with the surface temperature. The condensation water mass firstly increases with the increase of the apparent contact angle. It reaches a maximum weight of 522 g/m 2 at an apparent contact angle of 110°, and then decreases. A visualization experiment of condensation on a radiant ceiling panel with a conventional aluminum alloy surface was performed in a climate chamber to measure the departure duration of the droplet. The measured departure duration fluctuates due to the variance of apparent contact angle and the randomness of condensation process, but it decreases sharply with the sub-cooled degree (air dew point minus surface temperature). And the average departure duration is 10 h with a sub-cooled degree of 5 °C. The theoretical model is validated as the average relative biases between the experimental and theoretical results are within 25%. Highlights Departure duration of condensate droplets from radiant cooling ceiling was studied. A model was developed to predict droplet departure duration and condensation mass. The effect of the contact angle on departure duration was investigated theoretically. Measured departure duration fluctuates but it decreases with the sub-cooled degree.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   The right to comfort: A field study on adaptive thermal comfort in free-running primary schools in Chile   SCIE

    Trebilcock, Maureen (Department of Design and Theory of Architecture, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Concepción, Chile ) , Soto-Muñ (Department of Building Sciences, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Concepción, Chile ) , oz, Jaime (Department of Statistics, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Concepción, Chile ) , Yañ (Research Centre of Building Technologies CITEC UBB, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Concepción, Chile) , ez, Miguel , Figueroa-San Martin, Rodrigo
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 455 - 469 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract This paper presents the results of a field study on thermal comfort in school buildings in Chile, the aim of which was to determine the comfort temperature of primary school children. Results are given for twelve schools that are located in Santiago, a city with relatively low temperatures in winter and high temperatures in summer, and that are typically free-running, as they have neither a heating nor a cooling system. The methodology included measurements of thermal parameters complemented with questionnaires based on the adaptive comfort model and modified to be understood by 9–10 year-old students. The fieldwork was organised into two phases: winter (July–August) and spring (November–December), and in each phase students answered the questionnaire up to three times per day over a period of three to four days. The results show that indoor temperatures in the classrooms are extremely low during occupancy hours in winter and quite high in spring, but the students' thermal sensation votes show that they tend to adapt quite dramatically to this wide variation. Comfort temperature is significantly lower than that calculated from the adaptive comfort model as established for adults, with temperatures as low as 14.7 °C - 15.6 °C in winter and 22.5 °C – 23.1 °C in spring. Additionally, students from highly vulnerable schools voted for a lower comfort temperature in winter than those from less vulnerable realities, thereby implying that there is a strong relation between comfort temperature and the socio-economic background of school children in this context. Highlights This paper studies the adaptive thermal comfort of children in free-running schools. Results from fieldwork showed extremely low and high indoor temperatures. Students' thermal sensation votes show remarkable adaptation capacity. The comfort temperature of children is lower than that derived from standards. There is a correlation between comfort temperature and socio-economic background.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   Simulated and measured performance of displacement ventilation systems in large rooms   SCIE

    Mateus, Nuno M. (Corresponding author) , Carrilho da Graç , a, Guilherme
    Building and environment v.114 ,pp. 470 - 482 , 2017 , 0360-1323 ,

    초록

    Abstract Displacement ventilation (DV) systems were initially developed as an efficient buoyant pollutant removal strategy for Scandinavian industrial halls in the 1970´s. In the following decades these systems started to be used in mechanical cooling of office buildings and auditoriums. Designing displacement ventilation systems is more challenging than conventional overhead mixing systems. Most DV system designs require simplified modeling tools. Existing simplified models of DV were validated using air temperature measurements performed in test cells that cannot reproduce the conditions that exist in large rooms with thermally active boundary conditions. There is a lack of measurements that investigate the performance of DV systems in occupied large rooms. With the goal of reducing this knowledge gap, this paper presents a set of detailed temperature and CO 2 measurements in two occupied large rooms with recently designed DV systems. The measurements were performed in two recently refurbished rooms located in Lisbon: a large Concert hall and an adjacent Orchestra rehearsal room. The measurements and subsequent analysis were used to assess the actual performance of large room, state of the art, DV systems. In addition, these measurements were used to determine the modeling error of the three-node DV model implemented in EnergyPlus when simulating large rooms. Comparison between simulations and measurements revealed a good agreement: the average simulation error obtained by averaging the error of all measurements in all temperature nodes is 5.9%, with the largest deviation occurring in the floor level node (7.1% ≈ 0.4 °C) average simulation error of 5.9% (the average of error of all measurements in all nodes). Highlights Detailed measurements of stratification in state of the art DV systems were performed. The performance of the DV systems is adequate both in terms of temperature and CO 2 . The measurements confirmed that DV systems have a high local CO 2 removal efficiency (1.2–1.7). A three-node DV model is an adequate approach to simulate DV systems in large rooms. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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