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  1. [해외논문]   Etude de l'effet d'un systEme de recirculation de liquide A Ejecteur sur la performance d'un refroidisseur d'eau A film tombant avec du R134a   SCI SCIE

    Li, Ying Lin (Corresponding author. Engineering Laboratory for Energy System Process Conversion & Emission Control Technology of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210042, China. Fax: +86 (0)25 85481140.) , Wang, Ke , Wu, Wei , Xia, Xue Ying , Niu, Bao Lian , Zhang, Zhong Bin
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 333 - 344 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract To analyze the influence of liquid spraying flow rate on the performance of a falling-film evaporator with R134a, the finite difference model of the horizontal-tube falling-film evaporator is established, and a falling-film air-cooled water chiller with ejector liquid recirculation system (LRS) is presented; then the comparison between numerical simulation and experimental tests are performed. The analysis results show that the experimental and numerical evaporating capacities increase 9.5% and 6.7%, respectively, when the liquid recirculating ratio R l increases from 1.0 to 1.21; and the deviation between the experimental and numerical capacities of the evaporator is about 3.3%. And that the evaporated liquid flow rate rises quickly at first and then increases slightly as R l increases. Moreover, the results show that the optimum value of R l is about 1.2, the corresponding value of integrated falling-film factor φ with about 0.85. This suggests that attempting to eliminate completely the dryout patch outside of tubes is unadvisable. Highlights Liquid refrigerant recirculation system based ejector is proposed. A test facility of horizontal-tube falling-film water chiller is presented. Impact from liquid recirculating ratio on evaporator capacity is performed. The optimum of liquid recirculating ratio is about 1.2. Trying to wipe out dryout patch completely is not commendatory.

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  2. [해외논문]   Simulation par la mEcanique numErique des fluides (CFD) et validation expErimentale de l'adsorption de l'Ethanol sur un Echangeur de chaleur compact A charbon actif   SCI SCIE

    Jribi, Skander (Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-koen 6-1, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan ) , Miyazaki, Takahiko (Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-koen 6-1, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan ) , Saha, Bidyut Baran (International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan ) , Koyama, Shigeru (Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-koen 6-1, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan ) , Maeda, Shinnosuke (Global Technology Division, Calsonic Kansei Corporation, 8 Sakae-cho, Sano-shi, Tochigi 327-0816, Japan ) , Maruyama, Tomohiro (Global Technology Division, Calsonic Kansei Corporation, 8 Sakae-cho, Sano-shi, Tochigi 327-0816, Japan)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 345 - 353 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract Experimental validation of simulated adsorber/desorber beds for sorption cooling applications is essential to obtain reliable results. We have conducted rigorous simulation of the adsorption process occurring in a finned tube adsorber utilizing 2D-axisymmetric geometry. The adsorber uses activated carbon–ethanol as adsorbent–refrigerant pair. It is cooled with water at nearly 30 °C and experiencing a sharp pressure increase of ethanol from 0.95 kPa initially to 6 kPa. The simulated temperatures at adsorbent thicknesses of 0, 1, 5 and 10 mm from tube outer diameter showed an increase in adsorbent temperature up to 20 °C from its initial temperature. They were slightly higher at start of adsorption and were consistent with experimental data at higher flow time. The validated CFD model will serve as a base for evaluating and optimizing activated carbon–ethanol adsorption cooling cycle. It can be extended also to different adsorber designs and other adsorbent–adsorbate pairs. Highlights Temperature response of finned tube adsorber was simulated using Fluent software. Good agreement between experimental and simulated temperatures was obtained. Heat released by gas friction was higher than the heat of adsorption. Refrigerant gas shows difficulty in reaching adsorbent with higher thicknesses.

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  3. [해외논문]   Visualisation d'un Ecoulement transcritique diphasique supersonique de CO2 dans un Ejecteur d'un systEme frigorifique   SCI SCIE

    Zhu, Yinhai (Corresponding author. Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Fax: +86 01062794664.) , Wang, Zhecheng , Yang, Yiping , Jiang, Pei-Xue
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 354 - 361 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract Supersonic two-phase flow of CO 2 in an ejector was investigated in flow visualization experiments. The ejector was installed in a transcritical CO 2 ejector-expansion refrigeration system with a convergent primary nozzle and a rectangular mixing chamber. The flow fields in the suction chamber and the mixing chamber of the ejector were visualized by direct photography for various operating conditions. The results showed that the liquid in the primary flow after the primary nozzle exit increased with increasing primary flow and secondary flow pressures. The expansion angle of the primary flow at the nozzle exit decreased with increasing secondary flow pressures. The primary flow was blocked in some cases at the mixing chamber entrance due to the large expansion angle which reduced the entrainment performance. The entrainment ratio was inversely related to the expansion angle. The primary and the secondary flows had a short mixing region in the mixing chamber with the mixed flow quickly becoming uniform. Highlights Two-phase flow in a supersonic CO2 ejector was visualized. The liquid fraction after nozzle exit increases with increasing inlet pressures. The expansion angle at nozzle exit decreases with increasing secondary flow pressures. The entrainment ratio is inversely related to the expansion angle.

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  4. [해외논문]   Application mathEmatique pour analyser le comportement thermique d'un rEfrigErateur domestique: Influence de l'emplacement des EtagEres   SCI SCIE

    Ledesma, Sergio (Corresponding author. School of Engineering Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, University of Guanajuato. Carretera Salamanca-Valle de Santiago, km 3.5+1.8 Comunidad de Palo Blanco, Salamanca 36885 Mexico. Fax: +52 (464) 6479940 ext. 2311.) , Belman-Flores, J.M.
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 362 - 370 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract This paper presents a mathematical application in the thermal analysis of a domestic refrigerator. The main idea of this work is to observe and analyze the thermal effect in the fresh food compartment when the glass shelves are changed of location. Thus, the use of the moving variance is proposed to analyze the thermal distribution of the refrigerator compartments and the use of finite differences to examine the temperature change rate by computing the temperature derivative with respect to time. Additionally, the use of 2D interpolation methods is proposed to build thermal maps in order to analyze the mean and variance of the temperature when the locations of the shelves change. These maps are a very important tool to find a good combination of the shelves locations to attain a proper temperature for the best conservation of perishable food. Highlights Mathematical methods are used to analyze the thermal behavior of the compartments. Thermal maps were used to find the most appropriate shelves location. The moving variance in freezer is 43 times higher than in fresh food compartment. Temperature derivatives allowed the precise detection of stability. Temperature derivative is 6 times higher in freezer than in fresh food compartment.

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  5. [해외논문]   Comparaison thermodynamique de cycles de refroidissement A Ejecteur. CaractErisation d'Ejecteur aux moyens du ratio d'entrainement et du rendement de compression   SCI SCIE

    Expó (Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Departamento de Máquinas y Motores Térmicos, Universidad de Cádiz, Avenida de la Universidad, 11519 Puerto Real, Spain ) , sito Carrillo, J.A. (Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Departamento de Máquinas y Motores Térmicos, Universidad de Cádiz, Avenida de la Universidad, 11519 Puerto Real, Spain ) , Sá (Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Grupo de termotecnia, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos S/N, 41092 Sevilla, Spain) , nchez de La Flor, F.J. , Salmeró , n Lissé , n, J.M.
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 371 - 384 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract Most of the energy consumed in cooling cycles comes from fossil fuels, whose reserves are becoming depleted. The aim of this article is to show the potential benefits of using ejectors in cooling systems to improve its energetic efficiency. A review of different configurations of ejector cooling systems has been carried out for being compared against a conventional compressor cycle. The same cooling capacity and working conditions were imposed by using refrigerants R134a, R1234yf and R600a. The results showed that the Coefficient of Performance could increase up to 26%. Ejectors have been characterised by correlations of entrainment ratio and a new definition of ejector compression efficiency. Those correlations have been obtained by means of a pseudo-one dimensional method of ejector analysis. Ejector cooling systems were proven to be a potential alternative to conventional vapour compression cycles. Highlights An ejector cooling cycle model has been implemented to study the performance of the cycles. Comparison between different typologies of ejector cooling cycles and refrigerants has been assessed. A good agreement between experimental data found in literature and the ejector model has been obtained. A new ejector efficiency has been proposed as a function of the area ratio and the entrainment ratio. The results show a methodology which makes easier the simulation of the working conditions of an ejector cooling cycle. Thanks to the model proposed, the best combination between the cycle configuration, the refrigerant and the working conditions has been found.

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  6. [해외논문]   Evaluation de performance d'une pompe A chaleur aErothermique sous des phEnomEnes de dEgivrage non nEcessaires pour neuf villes typiques de la Chine   SCI SCIE

    Liu, Jingdong (Corresponding author. Department of Building Environment and Facility Engineering, College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, No.100 Pingleyuan Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124, China. Fax: +86 010 67393373.) , Sun, Yuying , Wang, Wei , Zhu, Jiahe
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 385 - 398 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract Defrosting under unnecessary conditions is a typical and undesirable operating phenomenon for air source heat pump (ASHP). This paper aims to evaluate the ASHP performance under unnecessary defrosting phenomena in different regions of China. Firstly, energy loss for two kinds of unnecessary defrosting phenomena was quantified by 60 days field test. Secondly, a method was developed to predict unnecessary defrosting times. The prediction accuracy can be controlled within 10%. Furthermore, the ASHP performance of unnecessary defrosting was evaluated for nine typical cities in China. It was found that the average unnecessary defrosting rate was 53% for northern cities, 38% for mid-land cities, and 15% for southern cities during a heating season. Correspondingly, the total energy loss was 233 MJkW −1 , 161 MJkW −1 , and 44 MJkW −1 . These results indicate that unnecessary defrosting processes should not have been ignored. It is a valuable work to improve the defrosting control method. Highlights The characteristics of ASHP under unnecessary defrosting phenomena were studied. Energy loss for two kinds of unnecessary defrosting phenomena was quantified. A method was proposed to predict times of unnecessary defrosting operations. Performance loss of unnecessary defrosting was evaluated for typical cities in China. It indicates unnecessary defrosting processes should not have been ignored.

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  7. [해외논문]   MEcanisme de dEcomposition thermique du HFO-1234yf par une Etude de la DFT   SCI SCIE

    Zhang, Hao (Key Laboratory of Low-Grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education, College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China ) , Liu, Chao (Key Laboratory of Low-Grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education, College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China ) , Xu, Xiaoxiao (Key Laboratory of Low-Grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education, College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China ) , Li, Qibin (College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 399 - 411 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract Twenty-two chemical reaction pathways of thermal decomposition of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (HFO-1234yf, CF 3 CFCH 2 ) are proposed to investigate the formation mechanism of some possible products (CF 3 H, CF 4 , HF, H 2 ) by using density function theory (DFT) simulations with M06-2X/6–311++(d,p) level of theory. The results point out that the ground state CF 3 CFCH 2 will excite into the lowest triplet state CF 3 CF-CH 2 favorably in the first step with an energy barrier of 264.67 kJ mol −1 and pathway 5 is the most preferred route of homolytic cleavage reactions with the lowest energy barrier of 205.70 kJ mol -1 . F radical is hard to generate during thermal decomposition processes because of its higher energy barrier. H radical and CF 3 radical play a dominant role in thermal decomposition of HFO-1234yf. H-abstraction and F-abstraction reactions are proposed in subsequent radical attacking chain reactions. CF 3 H and H 2 are easier to be generated due to their lower energy barriers. Our work presents the mechanism of thermal decomposition of HFO-1234yf from the molecule level and provides a reference for studying the thermal stability of other working fluids. Highlights The mechanism of thermal decomposition of CF 3 CFCH 2 is investigated firstly by using DFT method. Twenty-two reaction pathways and seven products of thermal decomposition of CF 3 CFCH 2 are discussed. The excited triplet state of CF 3 CFCH 2 plays an important role in the initial decompositions stage. H radical and CF 3 radical play a dominant role in thermal decomposition of HFO-1234yf.

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  8. [해외논문]   Limites des solutions uni-dimensionnelles pour des ailettes annulaires orthotropes fonctionnant dans des conditions de dEshumidification   SCI SCIE

    Pashah, S. (Corresponding author. Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, KFUPM Box # 1474, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia. Fax: +966 13 860 2949.) , Moinuddin, Abdurrahman , Zubair, Syed M.
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 412 - 424 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract Thermal performance characteristics of orthotropic material annular fins subjected to dehumidifying operating conditions are studied using two-dimensional finite element method. The method accounts for non-linear temperature–humidity ratio psychrometric relationship under both partially and fully wet operating conditions. Limits of one-dimensional solutions for orthotropic material fins subject to dehumidifying conditions are investigated in somewhat more detail by introducing dimensionless parameters. The dry fin parameter that fully governs fin efficiency under a set of operating conditions is also defined. The optimum fin dimensions are also estimated for a set of operating conditions and fixed fin volume. Highlights Dry fin parameter ( mL ) completely governs the fin efficiency for one-dimensional temperature distribution. For k r z ≤ 1 , the one-dimensional solution is valid for all considered aspect ratios. For 10 ≤ k r z ≤ 100 , the one-dimensional solution is valid for α ≥ 60. For the set of operating conditions, thermal conductivity ratio has a negligible effect on optimum fin dimensions.

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  9. [해외논문]   Transfert de chaleur lors de la condensation de reflux du R134a A l'intErieur d'un tube A micro-ailettes avec diffErentes inclinaisons de tube   SCI SCIE

    Yildiz, S. (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul 34349, Turkey ) , Duymaz, G. (FNSS Savunma Sistemleri A.Ş., Oğulbey Mahallesi, Kumludere Caddesi No:11, Gölbaşı, Ankara 06830, Turkey ) , Ziegler, F. (Institut fuer Energietechnik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, KT2, Marchstraße 18, Berlin D-10587, Germany ) , Auracher, H. (Institut fuer Energietechnik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, KT2, Marchstraße 18, Berlin D-10587, Germany)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 425 - 434 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract This study presents an experimental investigation of the heat transfer occurring during reflux condensation of refrigerant R134a in an inclined micro-fin tube (0.008 m OD, 0.5 m length). The experiments were carried out at a system pressure of 0.74 MPa and at inclination angles of 30°, 38°, 45°, 60° and 90° from the horizontal. The experiments indicated that the inclination angle has a significant effect on heat transfer during reflux condensation. The maximum reflux heat transfer coefficient was found at 30° inclination angle. At this arrangement, the heat transfer increased by a factor of 2.45 compared to the vertical case. A comparison with previous studies suggests that the heat transfer in a micro-fin tube is 2.2 times better than that in a plain tube, and 1.34 times better than that in a plain rectangular channel both at 30° inclination. Highlights Heat transfer during reflux condensation inside an inclined micro-fin tube is studied. The highest heat transfer rate is obtained at 30° from the horizontal. Heat transfer at 30° inclination is 2.45 times better compared to vertical orientation. Heat transfer in a micro-fin tube is 120% higher than in a plain tube at 30° from the horizontal. Heat transfer is 34% higher in a micro-fin tube than in a rectangular channel at 30° from the horizontal.

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  10. [해외논문]   Influence de la dEshumidification de l'air sur l'Evaporation de l'eau dans une usine agroalimentaire   SCI SCIE

    Lecoq, L. (Irstea, UR GPAN, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, 92761 Antony, France ) , Derens, E. (Irstea, UR GPAN, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, 92761 Antony, France ) , Flick, D. (UMR Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, AgroParisTech, INRA, Université) , Laguerre, O. (Paris-Saclay, 91300 Massy, France )
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 435 - 449 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract To reduce the proliferation of bacteria inside food plants, cleaning and disinfection are performed daily following production. These operations are followed by drying during which the drying rate should be as high as possible. This study shows the influence of a dehumidifier on the water mass evolution on surfaces during the drying of a food plant. The temperature, relative humidity and water mass evolution were monitored under two conditions: with and without a dehumidifier. Comparison of the results shows that the drying rate is about 1.5 times higher when a dehumidifier is used. These data were used to develop a simplified heat and mass transfer model allowing the prediction of the temperature and drying rate at different locations. The results can help the manufacturer to evaluate the benefits of a dehumidifier and consider the use of other devices to achieve better airflow distribution or greater heat supply for certain surfaces. Highlights Experimental results show the importance of a dehumidifier to enhance drying. Dehumidifier reduced relative humidity from about 90% to 60%. Model was developed to predict water evaporation rate on surfaces of a food plant. Good agreements between the model and the experimental results. Model can be generalized to other food plant to predict and improve drying.

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