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Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medic... 734건

  1. [해외논문]   Effect of Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction on the Repair of the Injured Enteric Nerve-Interstitial Cells of Cajal-Smooth Muscle Cells Network in Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome  

    Liu, Mu-Cang (Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Liaoning 116011, China ) , Xie, Ming-Zheng (Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Liaoning 116011, China ) , Ma, Bin (Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Liaoning 116011, China ) , Qi, Qing-Hui (Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Liaoning 116011, China)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 1 - 12 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) group, and Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD) group. The network of enteric nerves-interstitial cells of Cajal- (ICC-) smooth muscle cells (SMC) in small intestine was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the numbers of cholinergic/nitriergic nerves, and the deep muscular plexus of ICC (ICC-DMP) and connexin43 (Cx43) in small intestine with MODS were significantly decreased. The network integrity of enteric nerves-ICC-SMC was disrupted. The ultrastructures of ICC-DMP, enteric nerves, and SMC were severely damaged. After treatment with DCQD, the damages were repaired and the network integrity of enteric nerves ICC-SMC was significantly recovered. In conclusion, the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal motility dysfunction in MODS in part may be due to the damages to enteric nerves-ICC-SMC network and gap junctions. The therapeutic mechanism of DCQD in part may be that it could repair the damages and maintain the integrity of enteric nerves ICC-SMC network.

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  2. [해외논문]   Concurrent Use in Taiwan of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapies among Hormone Users Aged 55 Years to 79 Years and Its Association with Breast Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Study  

    Tsai, Yueh-Ting , Lai, Jung-Nien , Wu, Chien-Tung , Lin, Shun-Ku
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 1 - 9 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Background . The purpose of the present study was to analyze the concurrent use of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) among women aged 55 to 79 years who had also been prescribed hormonal therapies (HT) and its association with breast cancer risk. Methods . The use, frequency of service, and CHP prescribed among 17,583 HT users were evaluated from a random sample of 1 million beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A logistic regression method was used to identify the factors that were associated with the coprescription of a CHP and HT. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of breast cancer between the TCM nonusers and women who had undergone coadministration of HT and a CHP or CHPs. Results . More than one out of every five study subjects used a CHP concurrently with HT (CHTCHP patients). Shu-Jing-Huo-Xie-Tang was the most commonly used CHP coadministered with HT. In comparison to HT-alone users, the HRs for invasive breast cancer among CHTCHP patients were not significantly increased either in E-alone group or in mixed regimen group. Conclusions . The coadministration of hormone regimen and CHPs did not increase the risk of breast cancer.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial to Assess the Acute Diuretic Effect ofEquisetum arvense(Field Horsetail) in Healthy Volunteers  

    Carneiro, Danilo Maciel (Group of Toxicopharmacological Studies and Research, School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goias, Avenida Universitária, Q. 62, Setor Universitário, 74605-220 Goiânia, GO, Brazil ) , Freire, Ramias Calixto (Group of Toxicopharmacological Studies and Research, School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goias, Avenida Universitária, Q. 62, Setor Universitário, 74605-220 Goiânia, GO, Brazil ) , Honó (Group of Toxicopharmacological Studies and Research, School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goias, Avenida Universitária, Q. 62, Setor Universitário, 74605-220 Goiânia, GO, Brazil ) , rio, Tereza Cristina de Deus (Group of Toxicopharmacological Studies and Research, School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goias, Avenida Universitária, Q. 62, Setor Universitário, 74605-220 Goiânia, GO, Brazil ) , Zoghaib, Iury (Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rua João de Abreu Esquina c/Rua 09 No. 192 Qd. F-8, Lt. 24E, Sala A-141 a A-147, Setor Oeste, 74175-100 Goiânia, GO, Brazil ) , Cardoso, Fabiana Fernandes de S. e Silva (Gro) , Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique F. , de Paula, José , Realino , Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima , Jardim, Paulo Cé , sar Brandã , o Veiga , Cunha, Luiz Carlos da
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 1 - 8 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 36 healthy male volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups (n=12) that underwent a three-step treatment. For four consecutive days, we alternately administered a standardized dried extract of Equisetum arvense (EADE, 900 mg/day), placebo (corn starch, 900 mg/day), or hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/day), separated by a 10-day washout period. Each volunteer served as his own control, and the groups' results were compared. We repeated the same evaluation after each stage of treatment to evaluate the safety of the drug. The diuretic effect of EADE was assessed by monitoring the volunteers' water balance over a 24 h period. The E. arvense extract produced a diuretic effect that was stronger than that of the negative control and was equivalent to that of hydrochlorothiazide without causing significant changes in the elimination of electrolytes. There was no significant increase in the urinary elimination of catabolites. Rare minor adverse events were reported. The clinical examinations and laboratory tests showed no changes before or after the experiment, suggesting that the drug is safe for acute use. Further research is needed to better clarify the mechanism of diuretic action and the other possible pharmacological actions of this phytomedicine.

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  4. [해외논문]   Tanshinone IIA Downregulates HMGB1 and TLR4 Expression in a Spinal Nerve Ligation Model of Neuropathic Pain  

    Ma, Yu-Qing (Department of Anesthesiology, First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China ) , Chen, Yi-Rong (Department of Urology, People's Hospital of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China ) , Leng, Yu-Fang (Department of Anesthesiology, First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China ) , Wu, Zhi-Wei (Research Center of Molecular Biology Laboratory, Gansu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 1 - 8 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200~240 g were randomly divided into sham-operated group (sham group), vehicle-treated SNL group (model group), and Tan IIA-treated SNL group (Tan IIA group). Tan IIA was administered intraperitoneally to rats in the Tan IIA-treated group at a dose of 30 mg/kg daily for 14 days after SNL surgery. Paw withdrawal mechanical thresholds (PWTs) and paw withdrawal thermal latencies (PWLs) were measured. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and protein expression in the spinal cord were measured. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β ), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the spinal cord were measured, too. Both the mechanical and heat pain thresholds were significantly decreased. After Tan IIA treatment, HMGB1, and TLR4 mRNA and protein levels, the expression of TNF- α and IF-1 β was reduced significantly. In conclusion, Tanshinone IIA reversed SNL-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia and downregulated HMGB1 and TLR4 levels and inhibited the HMGB1-TLR4 pathway. Tanshinone IIA inhibited TNF- α and IL-1 β expression but not IF-10 expression in the spinal cords of SNL rats. These results indicate that Tanshinone IIA inhibited SNL-induced neuropathic pain via multiple effects, and targeting the HMGB1-TLR4 pathway could serve as the basis of new antinociceptive agents.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Flavonoids during the Preparation of Danggui Buxue Tang: An Outcome of Moderate Boiling of Chinese Herbal Mixture  

    Zhang, Wendy Li (Division of Life Science and Center for Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong ) , Chen, Jian-Ping (Division of Life Science and Center for Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong ) , Lam, Kelly Yin-Ching (Division of Life Science and Center for Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong ) , Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian (Division of Life Science and Center for Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong ) , Yao, Ping (Division of Life Science and Center for Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong ) , Dong, Tina Ting-Xia (Division of Life Science and Center for Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong ) , Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung (Division of Life Science and Center for Chinese Medicine, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 1 - 11 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Chemical change during boiling of herbal mixture is a puzzle. By using Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction that contains Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), we developed a model in analyzing the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides during the boiling of herbal mixture in water. A proper preparation of DBT is of great benefit to the complete extraction of bioactive ingredients. Boiling of DBT in water increased the solubility of AR-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7- O - β -D-glucoside, and ononin in a time- and temperature-dependent manner: the amounts of these chemicals reached a peak at 2 h. The glycosidic resides of AR, calycosin-7- O - β -D-glucoside, and ononin could be hydrolyzed during the moderate boiling process to form calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The hydrolysis efficiency was strongly affected by pH, temperature, and amount of herbs. Interestingly, the preheated herbs were not able to show this hydrolytic activity. The current results supported the rationality of ancient preparation of DBT in boiling water by moderate heat.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  6. [해외논문]   Comparison on the Effects and Safety of Tualang Honey and Tribestan in Sperm Parameters, Erectile Function, and Hormonal Profiles among Oligospermic Males  

    Ismail, Shaiful Bahari (School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia ) , Bakar, Mohd. Bustamanizan (School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia ) , Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina (School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia ) , Norhayati, Mohd Noor (School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia ) , Sulaiman, Siti Amrah (School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia ) , Jaafar, Hasnan (School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia ) , Draman, Samsul (International Islamic University, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia ) , Ramli, Roszaman (International Islamic University, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia ) , Wan Yusoff, Wan Zahanim (Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, 15200 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 1 - 10 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Introduction. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tualang honey on sperm parameters, erectile function, and hormonal and safety profiles. Methodology. A randomized control trial was done using Tualang honey (20 grams) and Tribestan (750 mg) over a period of 12 weeks. Sperm parameters including sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were analyzed and erectile function was assessed using IIEF-5 questionnaire. Hormonal profiles of testosterone, FSH, and LH were studied. The volunteers were randomized into two groups and the outcomes were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results. A total of 66 participants were involved. A significant increment of mean sperm concentration(P Conclusion. Tualang honey effect among oligospermic males was comparable with Tribestan in improving sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. The usage of Tualang honey was also safe with no reported adverse event.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   Mechanisms Underlying the Analgesic Effect of Moxibustion on Visceral Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review  

    Huang, Renjia (Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China ) , Zhao, Jimeng (Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China ) , Wu, Luyi (Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China ) , Dou, Chuanzi (Key Laboratory of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Immunological Effects, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 650 South Wanping Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200030, China ) , Liu, Huirong (Key Laboratory of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Immunological Effects, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 650 South Wanping Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200030, China ) , Weng, Zhijun (Key Laboratory of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Immunological Effects, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 650 South Wanping Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200030, China ) , Lu, Yuan (Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China ) , Shi, Yin (Key Laboratory of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Immunological Effects, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 650 S) , Wang, Xiaomei , Zhou, Cili , Wu, Huangan
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 1 - 7 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder that causes recurrent abdominal (visceral) pain. Epidemiological data show that the incidence rate of IBS is as high as 25%. Most of the medications may lead to tolerance, addiction and toxic side effects. Moxibustion is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine and has been used to treat IBS-like abdominal pain for several thousand years in China. As a mild treatment, moxibustion has been widely applied in clinical treatment of visceral pain in IBS. In recent years, it has played an irreplaceable role in alternative medicine. Extensive clinical studies have demonstrated that moxibustion for treatment of visceral pain is simple, convenient, and inexpensive, and it is being accepted by an increasing number of patients. There have not been many studies investigating the analgesic mechanisms of moxibustion. Studies exploring the analgesic mechanisms have mainly focused on visceral hypersensitivity, brain-gut axis neuroendocrine system, and immune system. This paper reviews the latest developments in moxibustion use for treatment of visceral pain in IBS from these perspectives. It also evaluates potential problems in relevant studies on the mechanisms of moxibustion therapy to promote the application of moxibustion in the treatment of IBS.

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  8. [해외논문]   Effects of Chaihu-Shugan-San and Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San on p38 MAPK Pathway in Kupffer Cells of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis  

    Yang, Qin-He , Xu, Yong-Jian , Liu, Yi-Zhen , Liang, Yin-Ji , Feng, Gao-Fei , Zhang, Yu-Pei , Xing, Hui-Jie , Yan, Hai-Zhen , Li, Yuan-Yuan
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 1 - 8 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Chaihu-Shugan-San (CSS), Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (SLBZS), and integrated recipe of the above two recipes on inflammatory markers and proteins involved in p38 MAPK pathway in Kupffer cells of NASH rats induced by high fat diet (HFD). Rats were administered at low or high dose of CSS, SLBZS, and integrated recipe except normal group and model group for 16 weeks. The levels of hepatic lipid, TNF- α , IL-1, and IL-6 in liver tissues were measured. Kupffer cells were isolated from livers to evaluate expressions of TLR4, p-p38 MAPK, and p38 MAPK by Western blotting. The results showed that the NASH model rats successfully reproduced typical pathogenetic and histopathological features. Levels of hepatic lipid and liver tissues inflammatory factors in high-dose SLBZS group and integrated recipe group were all lower than that of model group decreased observably. Expressions of TLR4, p-p38 MAPK, and p38 MAPK in Kupffer cells were decreased in all treatment groups, but there was no significant difference between treatment groups. The high-dose SLBZS group had the lowest expression levels of TLR4, and the most visible downtrend in the expression levels of p-p38 MAPK and p38 MAPK was found in the high-dose integrated recipe group. The ratio of p-p38 MAPK to total p38 MAPK protein was obviously increased in all treatment groups. Therefore, our study showed that the activation of p38 MAPK pathway in Kupffer cells might be related to the release of inflammatory factors such as TNF- α , IL-1, and IL-6 in NASH rats. High dose of SLBZS and integrated recipe might work as a significant anti-inflammatory effect in Kupffer cells of NASH rats induced by HFD through suppression of p38 MAPK pathway. It indicated that p38 MAPK pathway may be the possible effective target for the recipes.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  9. [해외논문]   Effects of Chinese Medicine Tong xinluo on Diabetic Nephropathy via Inhibiting TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition  

    Zhang, Na (School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, No. 10, Youanmenwai, Xitoutiao, Fengtai District, Beijing 100069, China ) , Gao, Yanbin (School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, No. 10, Youanmenwai, Xitoutiao, Fengtai District, Beijing 100069, China ) , Zou, Dawei (School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, No. 10, Youanmenwai, Xitoutiao, Fengtai District, Beijing 100069, China ) , Wang, Jinyang (School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, No. 10, Youanmenwai, Xitoutiao, Fengtai District, Beijing 100069, China ) , Li, Jiaoyang (School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, No. 10, Youanmenwai, Xitoutiao, Fengtai District, Beijing 100069, China ) , Zhou, Shengnan (School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, No. 10, Youanmenwai, Xitoutiao, Fengtai District, Beijing 100069, China ) , Zhu, Zhiyao (School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, No. 10, Youanmenwai, Xitoutiao, Fengtai District, Beijing 100069, China ) , Zhao, Xuan (School) , Xu, Liping , Zhang, Haiyan
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 1 - 12 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of chronic kidney failure and characterized by interstitial and glomeruli fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DN. Tong xinluo (TXL), a Chinese herbal compound, has been used in China with established therapeutic efficacy in patients with DN. To investigate the molecular mechanism of TXL improving DN, KK-Ay mice were selected as models for the evaluation of pathogenesis and treatment in DN. In vitro, TGF- β 1 was used to induce EMT. Western blot (WB), immunofluorescence staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were applied to detect the changes of EMT markers in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Results showed the expressions of TGF- β 1 and its downstream proteins smad3/p-smad3 were greatly reduced in TXL group; meantime, TXL restored the expression of smad7. As a result, the expressions of collagen IV (Col IV) and fibronectin (FN) were significantly decreased in TXL group. In vivo, 24 h-UAER (24-hour urine albumin excretion ratio) and BUN (blood urea nitrogen) were decreased and Ccr (creatinine clearance ratio) was increased in TXL group compared with DN group. In summary, the present study demonstrates that TXL successfully inhibits TGF- β 1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in DN, which may account for the therapeutic efficacy in TXL-mediated renoprotection.

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  10. [해외논문]   Inhibition of Adipogenesis by Oligonol through Akt-mTOR Inhibition in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

    Park, Jae-Yeo (Department of Clinical Nursing Science, Yonsei University College of Nursing, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea ) , Kim, Younghwa (Department of Emergency Medical Technology, Kyungil Univeristy, Gyeongsan, Kyungbook 712-701, Republic of Korea ) , Im, Jee Ae (Sport and Medicine Research Center, INTOTO Inc., 401 Dawoo BD, 90-6 Daeshin-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-160, Republic of Korea ) , You, Seungkwon (Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea ) , Lee, Hyangkyu (Department of Clinical Nursing Science, Yonsei University College of Nursing, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea)
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM v.2014 ,pp. 1 - 11 , 2014 , 1741-427x ,

    초록

    Polyphenols have recently become an important focus of study in obesity research. Oligonol is an oligomerized polyphenol, typically comprised of catechin-type polyphenols from a variety of fruits, which has been found to exhibit better bioavailability and bioreactivity than natural polyphenol compounds. Here, we demonstrated that Oligonol inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by reducing adipogenic gene expression. During adipogenesis, Oligonol downregulated the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBPα), and δ (C/EBP δ ) in a dose-dependent manner and the expression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. The antiadipogenic effect of Oligonol appears to originate from its ability to inhibit the Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by diminishing the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), a downstream target of mTOR and forkhead box protein O1 (Foxo1). These results suggest that Oligonol may be a potent regulator of obesity by repressing major adipogenic genes through inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway, which induces the inhibition of lipid accumulation, ultimately inhibiting adipogenesis.

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