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Neuroscience 45건

  1. [해외논문]   Bexarotene protects against traumatic brain injury in mice partially through apolipoprotein E  

    Zhong, J. ; Cheng, C. ; Liu, H. ; Huang, Z. ; Wu, Y. ; Teng, Z. ; He, J. ; Zhang, H. ; Wu, J. ; Cao, F. ; Jiang, L. ; Sun, X.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 434 - 448 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Bexarotene has been proved to have neuroprotective effects in many animal models of neurological diseases. However, its neuroprotection in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still unknown. This study aims to explore the neuroprotective effects of bexarotene on TBI and its possible mechanism. Controlled cortical impact (CCI) model was used to simulate TBI in C57BL/6 mice as well as APOE gene knockout (APOE-KO) mice. After CCI, mice were daily dosed with bexarotene or vehicle solution intraperitoneally. The motor function, learning and memory, inflammatory factors, microglia amount, apoptosis condition around injury site and main side-effects were all measured. The results showed that, after CCI, bexarotene treatment markedly improved the motor function and spatial memory in C57BL/6 compare to APOE-KO mice which showed no improvement. The inflammatory cytokines, microglia amount, cell apoptosis rate, and protein of cleaved caspase-3 around the injury site were markedly upregulated after TBI in both C57BL/6 and APOE-KO mice, and all these upregulation were significantly mitigated by bexarotene treatment in C57BL/6 mice, but not in APOE-KO mice. No side-effects were detected after consecutive administration. Taken together, bexarotene inhibits the inflammatory response as well as cell apoptosis and improves the neurological function of mice after TBI partially through apolipoprotein E. This may make it a promising candidate for the therapeutic treatment after TBI.

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  2. [해외논문]   Menopause-related brain activation patterns during visual sexual arousal in menopausal women: An fMRI pilot study using time-course analysis  

    Kim, G.W. ; Jeong, G.W.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 449 - 458 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    The aging process and menopausal transition are important factors in sexual dysfunction of menopausal women. No neuroimaging study has assessed the age- and menopause-related changes on brain activation areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of regional brain activity associated with sexual arousal evoked by visual stimulation in premenopausal and menopausal women, and further to assess the effect of menopause on the brain areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty volunteers consisting of 15 premenopausal and 15 menopausal women underwent the fMRI. For the activation condition, volunteers viewed sexually arousing visual stimulation. The brain areas with significantly higher activation in premenopausal women compared with menopausal women included the thalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using analysis of covariance adjusting for age (p

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  3. [해외논문]   Distinct development of the glycinergic terminals in the ventral and dorsal horns of the mouse cervical spinal cord  

    Sunagawa, M. ; Shimizu-Okabe, C. ; Kim, J. ; Kobayashi, S. ; Kosaka, Y. ; Yanagawa, Y. ; Matsushita, M. ; Okabe, A. ; Takayama, C.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 459 - 471 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    In the spinal cord, glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) are inhibitory neurotransmitters. However, the ontogeny of the glycinergic network remains unclear. To address this point, we examined the developmental formation of glycinergic terminals by immunohistochemistry for glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2), a marker of glycinergic terminals, in developing mouse cervical spinal cord. Furthermore, the developmental localization of GlyT2 was compared with that of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a marker of GABAergic terminals, and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), a marker of inhibitory terminals, by single and double immunolabeling. GlyT2-positive dots (glycinergic terminals) were first detected in the marginal zone on embryonic day 14 (E14). In the ventral horn, they were detected at E16 and increased in observed density during postnatal development. Until postnatal day 7 (P7), GAD-positive dots (GABAergic terminals) were dominant and GlyT2 immunolabeling was localized at GAD-positive dots. During the second postnatal week, GABAergic terminals markedly decreased and glycinergic terminals became dominant. In the dorsal horn, glycinergic terminals were detected at P0 in lamina IV and P7 in lamina III and developmentally increased. GlyT2 was also localized at GAD-positive dots, and colocalizing dots were dominant at P21. VGAT-positive dots (inhibitory terminals) continued to increase until P21. These results suggest that GABAergic terminals first appear during embryonic development and may often change to colocalizing terminals throughout the gray matter during development. The colocalizing terminals may remain in the dorsal horn, whereas in the ventral horn, colocalizing terminals may give rise to glycinergic terminals.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   AAV-mediated transfer of RhoA shRNA and CNTF promotes retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration  

    Cen, L.P. ; Liang, J.J. ; Chen, J.h. ; Harvey, A.R. ; Ng, T.K. ; Zhang, M. ; Pang, C.P. ; Cui, Q. ; Fan, Y.M.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 472 - 482 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated transfer of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and RhoA shRNA has additive effects on promoting the survival and axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve crush (ONC). Silencing effects of AAV-RhoA shRNA were confirmed by examining neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and by quantifying RhoA expression levels with western blotting. Young adult Fischer rats received an intravitreal injection of (i) saline, (ii) AAV green fluorescent protein (GFP), (iii) AAV-CNTF, (iv) AAV-RhoA shRNA, or (v) a combination of both AAV-CNTF and AAV-RhoA shRNA. Two weeks later, the ON was completely crushed. Three weeks after ONC, RGC survival was estimated by counting βIII-tubulin-positive neurons in retinal whole mounts. Axon regeneration was evaluated by counting GAP-43-positive axons in the crushed ON. It was found that AAV-RhoA shRNA decreased RhoA expression levels and promoted neurite outgrowth in vitro. In the ONC model, AAV-RhoA shRNA by itself had only weak beneficial effects on RGC axon regeneration. However, when combined with AAV-CNTF, AAV-RhoA shRNA significantly improved the therapeutic effect of AAV-CNTF on axon regeneration by nearly two fold, even though there was no significant change in RGC viability. In sum, this combination of vectors increases the regenerative response and can lead to more successful therapeutic outcomes following neurotrauma.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   Direct comparison of microglial dynamics and inflammatory profile in photothrombotic and arterial occlusion evoked stroke  

    Cotrina, M.L. ; Lou, N. ; Tome-Garcia, J. ; Goldman, J. ; Nedergaard, M.
    Neuroscience v.343 ,pp. 483 - 494 , 2017 , 0306-4522 ,

    초록

    Many focal cerebral ischemia models utilize the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) evoked by coagulation to induce ischemic damage in the cortex and mimic the pathology observed in human patients. A second, increasingly popular model, the photothrombotic stroke, uses a laser beam to irradiate the MCA after administration of a photosensitizing dye. This widely used procedure is slowly replacing the MCAO model because of the easiness of the surgical protocol and the reproducibility of the damage. However, the photochemical reaction also results in wider microvascular injury. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of these two types of stroke in the cell survival and evolution of stroke, focusing on microglial cells, the first responders to cell injury. Two groups of heterozygote Cx3CR1-GFP reporter mice (to follow microglia) were subject to stroke injury either with coagulator-mediated occlusion or photothrombotic MCA damage. Microglial cells' dynamics of activation and phagocytosis together with astrocytic response and leukocyte infiltration were characterized at 1, 3 and 7days after damage. Photothrombotic stroke delayed microglial and astrocytic invasion of the ischemic core and accumulation of phagocytic microglia. It also elicited higher levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and increased infiltration from the periphery. In addition, only the neurons in the MCAO stroke showed phenotype plasticity by downregulating the transcription factor NeuN. These data provide a better understanding of the exact temporal and spatial dynamics of the inflammatory response in these two animal models of stroke and identify more relevant targets for human therapy.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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