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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of... 110건

  1. [해외논문]   Rapid and reversible relocalization of heat shock factor 1 within seconds to nuclear stress granules.  

    Jolly, C , Usson, Y , Morimoto, R I
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6769 - 6774 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is essential for the stress-induced expression of heat shock genes. On exposure to heat shock, HSF1 localizes within seconds to discrete nuclear granules. On recovery from heat shock, HSF1 rapidly dissipates from these stress granules to a diffuse nucleoplasmic distribution, typical of unstressed cells. Subsequent reexposure to heat shock results in the rapid relocalization of HSF1 to the same stress granules with identical kinetics. Although the appearance of HSF1 stress granules corresponds to the hyperphosphorylated, trimeric DNA-binding state of HSF1 and correlates temporally with the inducible transcription of heat shock genes, they are also present in heat-shocked mitotic cells that are devoid of transcription. This finding suggests a role for HSF1 stress granules as a nuclear compartment for the temporal regulation and spatial organization of HSF1 activity and reveals new features of the dynamics of nuclear organization.

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  2. [해외논문]   Acute cholesterol depletion inhibits clathrin-coated pit budding.  

    Subtil, A , Gaidarov, I , Kobylarz, K , Lampson, M A , Keen, J H , McGraw, T E
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6775 - 6780 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Many biologically important macromolecules are internalized into cells by clathrin-coated pit endocytosis. The mechanism of clathrin-coated pit budding has been investigated intensively, and considerable progress has been made in characterizing the proteins involved in internalization. Membrane lipid composition and the lateral organization of lipids and proteins within membranes are believed to play an important role in the regulation of membrane-trafficking processes. Here we report that membrane cholesterol plays a critical role in clathrin-coated pit internalization. We show that acute cholesterol depletion, using beta-methyl-cyclodextrin, specifically reduces the rate of internalization of transferrin receptor by more than 85%, without affecting intracellular receptor trafficking back to the cell surface. The effect on endocytosis is attributable to a failure of coated pits to detach from the plasma membrane, as visualized by using a green fluorescent protein-clathrin conjugate in living cells. Ultrastructural studies indicate that acute cholesterol depletion causes accumulation of flat-coated membranes and a corresponding decrease in deep-coated pits, consistent with the possibility that flat clathrin lattices are direct precursors of indented pits and endocytic vesicles in intact cells. We conclude that clathrin is unable to induce curvature in the membrane depleted of cholesterol.

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  3. [해외논문]   Chromosome healing in mouse embryonic stem cells.  

    Sprung, C N , Reynolds, G E , Jasin, M , Murnane, J P
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6781 - 6786 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    The addition of new telomeres to the ends of broken chromosomes, termed chromosome healing, has been extensively studied in unicellular organisms; however, its role in the mammalian cell response to double-strand breaks is unknown. A system for analysis of chromosome healing, which involves the integration of plasmid sequences immediately adjacent to a telomere, has been established in mouse embryonic stem cells. This "marked" telomere contains a neo gene for positive selection in G418, an I-SceI endonuclease recognition sequence for introducing double-strand breaks, and a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene for negative selection with ganciclovir for cells that have lost the telomere. Transient expression of the I-SceI endonuclease results in terminal deletions involving telomeric repeat sequences added directly onto the end of the broken chromosome. The sites of addition of the new telomeres contain short regions of complementarity to telomeric repeat sequences. The most common site of addition is the last A of the ATAA 3' overhang generated by the I-SceI endonuclease, without the loss of a single nucleotide from the end of the chromosome. The next most frequent site involved 5 bp of complementarity, which occurred after the loss of four nucleotides from the end of the chromosome. The new telomeres are generally much shorter than in the parental cell line, and most increase in size with time in culture. These results demonstrate that chromosome healing is a mechanism for repair of chromosome breaks in mammalian cells.

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  4. [해외논문]   Mitochondrial Lon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a ring-shaped protease with seven flexible subunits.  

    Stahlberg, H , Kutejov?, E , Suda, K , Wolpensinger, B , Lustig, A , Schatz, G , Engel, A , Suzuki, C K
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6787 - 6790 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Lon (or La) is a soluble, homooligomeric ATP-dependent protease. Mass determination and cryoelectron microscopy of pure mitochondrial Lon from Saccharomyces cerevisiae identify Lon as a flexible ring-shaped heptamer. In the presence of ATP or 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate, most of the rings are symmetric and resemble other ATP-driven machines that mediate folding and degradation of proteins. In the absence of nucleotides, most of the rings are distorted, with two adjacent subunits forming leg-like protrusions. These results suggest that asymmetric conformational changes serve to power processive unfolding and translocation of substrates to the active site of the Lon protease.

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  5. [해외논문]   A quantitative analysis of signal transduction from activin receptor to nucleus and its relevance to morphogen gradient interpretation.  

    Shimizu, K , Gurdon, J B
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6791 - 6796 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Previous work has shown that Xenopus blastula cells sense activin concentration by assessing the absolute number of occupied receptors per cell (100 and 300 molecules of bound activin activate Xbra and Xgsc transcription, respectively; a difference of only 3-fold). We now ask how quantitative differences in the absolute number of occupied receptors lead to the qualitatively distinct gene responses in the nucleus through SMAD2, a transducer of concentration-dependent gene responses to activin. We show that the injection of 0.2 or 0.6 ng of Smad2 mRNA activates Xbra or Xgsc transcription, respectively, involving, again, only a 3-fold difference. Furthermore, Xbra transcription is down-regulated by overexpression of SMAD2 as it is after activin signaling. We have developed a method to isolate nuclei from animal cap cells and subsequently have quantified the amount of nuclear SMAD2 protein. We find that the injection of 0.2 or 0.6 ng of Smad2 mRNA into an egg leads to only a 3-fold difference in the amount of SMAD2 protein in the nuclei of the blastula cells that express Xbra or Xgsc. We conclude that a 3-fold difference in the absolute number of occupied activin receptors can be maintained only as a 3-fold difference in the level of nuclear SMAD2 protein. Therefore, in this example of morphogen action, there appears to be no amplification of a key cytoplasmic transduction response, and a small but developmentally important change in extracellular signal concentration is relayed directly to the nucleus.

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  6. [해외논문]   The Rpd3 histone deacetylase is required for segmentation of the Drosophila embryo.  

    Mannervik, M , Levine, M
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6797 - 6801 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Previous studies have implicated histone deacetylation and chromatin condensation as critical mechanisms of transcription repression in yeast and mammals. A specific histone deacetylase, Rpd3, interacts with a variety of sequence-specific transcriptional repressors, including Mad-Max heterodimers and members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Here, we present evidence that a strong hypomorphic mutation in the Drosophila Rpd3 gene causes embryonic lethality and a specific pair-rule segmentation phenotype. The analysis of a number of segmentation genes suggests that the repressor function of Even-skipped (Eve) may be diminished, causing an indirect loss of Ftz-mediated activation of engrailed. The relatively mild defects observed in Rpd3 mutants suggest that the recently identified Groucho and dCtBP corepressor proteins do not function solely through the recruitment of histone deacetylases. We discuss the possibility that Eve mediates multiple mechanisms of repression, so that Rpd3 mutants disrupt the regulation of just a subset of Eve target genes.

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  7. [해외논문]   Activity regulation of Hox proteins, a mechanism for altering functional specificity in development and evolution.  

    Li, X , McGinnis, W
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6802 - 6807 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    The closely related Hox transcription factors Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and Antennapedia (Antp) respectively direct first abdominal (A1) and second thoracic (T2) segment identities in Drosophila. It has been proposed that their functional differences derive from their differential occupancy of DNA target sites. Here we show that a hybrid version of Ubx (Ubx-VP16), which possesses an enhanced transcriptional activation function, no longer directs A1 denticle pattern in embryonic epidermal cells. Instead, it mimics Antp in directing T2 denticle pattern, and it can rescue the cuticular loss-of-function phenotype of Antp mutants. In cells that do not produce denticles, Ubx-VP16 appears to have largely retained its normal repressive regulatory functions. These results suggest that the modulation of Hox activation and repression functions can account for segment-specific morphological differences that are controlled by different members of the Hox family. Our results also are consistent with the idea that activity regulation underlies the phenotypic suppression phenomenon in which a more posterior Hox protein suppresses the function of a more anterior member of the Hox cluster. The acquisition of novel activation and repression potentials in Hox proteins may be an important mechanism underlying the generation of subtle morphological differences during evolution.

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  8. [해외논문]   Phytoremediation of methylmercury pollution: merB expression in Arabidopsis thaliana confers resistance to organomercurials.  

    Bizily, S P , Rugh, C L , Summers, A O , Meagher, R B
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6808 - 6813 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Methylmercury is an environmental toxicant that biomagnifies and causes severe neurological degeneration in animals. It is produced by bacteria in soils and sediments that have been contaminated with mercury. To explore the potential of plants to extract and detoxify this chemical, we engineered a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, to express a modified bacterial gene, merBpe, encoding organomercurial lyase (MerB) under control of a plant promoter. MerB catalyzes the protonolysis of the carbon---mercury bond, removing the organic ligand and releasing Hg(II), a less mobile mercury species. Transgenic plants expressing merBpe grew vigorously on a wide range of concentrations of monomethylmercuric chloride and phenylmercuric acetate. Plants lacking the merBpe gene were severely inhibited or died at the same organomercurial concentrations. Six independently isolated transgenic lines produced merBpe mRNA and MerB protein at levels that varied over a 10- to 15-fold range, and even the lowest levels of merBpe expression conferred resistance to organomercurials. Our work suggests that native macrophytes (e.g., trees, shrubs, grasses) engineered to express merBpe may be used to degrade methylmercury at polluted sites and sequester Hg(II) for later removal.

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  9. [해외논문]   Four intracellular genomes direct weevil biology: nuclear, mitochondrial, principal endosymbiont, and Wolbachia.  

    Heddi, A , Grenier, A M , Khatchadourian, C , Charles, H , Nardon, P
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6814 - 6819 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Cell physiology in the weevil Sitophilus oryzae is coordinated by three integrated genomes: nuclear, mitochondrial, and the "S. oryzae principal endosymbiont" (SOPE). SOPE, a cytoplasmic bacterium (2 x 10(3) bacteria per specialized bacteriocyte cell and 3 x 10(6) bacteria per weevil) that belongs to the proteobacteria gamma3-subgroup, is present in all weevils studied. We discovered a fourth prokaryotic genome in somatic and germ tissues of 57% of weevil strains of three species, S. oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, and Sitophilus granarius, distributed worldwide. We assigned this Gram-negative prokaryote to the Wolbachia group (alpha-proteobacteria), on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence and fluorescence in situ DNA-RNA hybridization (FISH). Both bacteria, SOPE and Wolbachia, were selectively eliminated by combined heat and antibiotic treatments. Study of bacteria involvement in this insect's genetics and physiology revealed that SOPE, which induces the specific differentiation of the bacteriocytes, increases mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through the supply of pantothenic acid and riboflavin. Elimination of this gamma3-proteobacterium impairs many physiological traits. By contrast, neither the presence nor the absence of Wolbachia significantly affects the weevil's physiology. Wolbachia, disseminated throughout the body cells, is in particularly high density in the germ cells, where it causes nucleocytoplasmic incompatibility. The coexistence of two distinct types of intracellular proteobacteria at different levels of symbiont integration in insects illustrates the genetic complexity of animal tissue. Furthermore, evolutionary timing can be inferred: first nucleocytoplasm, then mitochondria, then SOPE, and finally Wolbachia. Symbiogenesis, the genetic integration of long-term associated members of different species, in the weevil appears to be a mechanism of speciation (with Wolbachia) and provides a means for animals to acquire new genes that permit better adaptation to the environment (with SOPE).

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  10. [해외논문]   Molecular genetics of ecological diversification: duplication and rapid evolution of toxin genes of the venomous gastropod Conus.  

    Duda, T F , Palumbi, S R
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6820 - 6823 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Predatory snails in the marine gastropod genus Conus stun prey by injecting a complex mixture of peptide neurotoxins. These conotoxins are associated with trophic diversification and block a diverse array of ion channels and neuronal receptors in prey species, but the evolutionary genesis of this functional diversity is unknown. Here we show that conotoxins with little amino acid similarity are in fact products of recently diverged loci that are rapidly evolving by strong positive selection in the vermivorous cone, Conus abbreviatus, and that the rate of conotoxin evolution is higher than that of most other known proteins. Gene duplication and diversifying selection result in the formation of functionally variable conotoxins that are linked to ecological diversification and evolutionary success of this genus.

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