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  1. [해외논문]   Etude du dEphaseur d'un rEfrigErateur A tube A pulsation A inertance de 10 W/70 K   SCI SCIE

    Liu, Shaoshuai (School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093, China ) , Chen, Xi (School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093, China ) , Zhang, Ankuo (Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, 500 Yutian Road, Shanghai 200083, China ) , Wu, Yinong (Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, 500 Yutian Road, Shanghai 200083, China ) , Zhang, Hua (School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093, China)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 450 - 457 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract A 10 W/70 K inertance pulse tube refrigerator (IPTR) has been developed for cooling infrared focal-plane array in a space mission. To investigate the influences of the phase shifter (inertance tube and reservoir) on the cooling performance, simulation models of the IPTR were built and experimental studies were conducted. The effects of reservoir volume and the surface roughness inside the inertance tube on cooling performance of the IPTR were investigated in detail. The optimized parameters of the phase shifter were developed to improve the cooling performance of the IPTR. The results show that a large reservoir volume reduces the optimal operating frequency, decreases the losses in the regenerator and improves the cooling performance of the IPTR. Because of the small surface roughness inside the stainless steel inertance tube, the input electric power of the IPTR is decreased, with a cooling power of 10 W at 70 K. The IPTR achieves 14.75% of the relative Carnot efficiency at 70 K by optimizing the inertance tube and reservoir. Highlights The phase shifter of a 10 W/70 K inertance pulse tube refrigerator is investigated. Effects of reservoir volume on cooling performance are investigated. Effects of surface roughness of inertance tube on cooling performance are studied. Relative Carnot efficiency of 14.75% is obtained by optimizing the phase shifter.

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  2. [해외논문]   Utilisation de simples modEles de conductivitE thermique pour Evaluer la fiabilitE de donnEes mesurEes de conductivitE thermique   SCI SCIE

    Carson, James K. (University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Fax: + 6478385087.)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 458 - 464 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract Thermal conductivity data are important for modelling thermal processes and designing refrigeration systems. The literature contains a large number of data for food products, but many are questionable, whether due to typographical errors during publication, indirect measurement methods or inherent variability in the properties of the food itself. This paper describes a method by which the reliability of thermal conductivity data can be checked using simple thermal conductivity models and basic heat transfer theory, provided composition data for the foods are available, or may be assumed based on foods with similar composition. The method is applied to a variety of foods to serve as worked examples. It is recommended that these models be used to check the credibility of measured data before they are published, and also to check published data before they are used in any calculations. Highlights Simple models provide bounds for credible thermal conductivity values for foods. These bounds can be implemented simply provided composition data are known. Bounds should be used to check thermal conductivity data before publication or use.

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  3. [해외논문]   Effet de la structure vortique sur le transfert de chaleur dans l'Ecoulement transitionnel orientE vers l'arriEre   SCI SCIE

    Xie, W.A. (School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China ) , Xi, G.N. (School of Mechanical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, China ) , Zhong, M.B. (School of Energy and power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 465 - 474 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract This paper presents a direct numerical simulation of the vortical structure along the bottom wall and its effect on heat transfer enhancement in the transitional flow over a backward-facing step. The governing equations are solved with a computer program using FORTRAN code according to finite volume method. The heat transfer of the bottom wall is enhanced greatly for the transitional Reynolds numbers, especially in the range 6 ≤ x/H ≤ 14. In this range, the local Nusselt number distributions for various time instants of the periodic cycle exist three peak values at Re = 1200. The corresponding locations of Nu peak values in the vorticity contours are all between the negative vortex and the adjacent downstream positive vortex. This vortical structure appears due to the flow instability which causes the heat transfer enhancement of the bottom wall in the transitional flow. Highlights The heat transfer along the bottom wall is enhanced in the transitional flow regime. The vortical structure downstream of the reattachment region is effective on heat transfer enhancement. The relationship between the vortical structure and heat transfer enhancement is clarified.

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  4. [해외논문]   Utilisation des modEles ANN et ANFIS pour prEdire un compresseur A spirale A vitesse variable avec injection de vapeur   SCI SCIE

    Zendehboudi, Alireza (Corresponding author. Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Fax: +86 10 62773461.) , Li, Xianting , Wang, Baolong
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 475 - 487 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract The use of numerical models and experimental setups to evaluate various parameters of variable speed scroll compressors with vapor injection (VSSCV) seems to be time-consuming, expensive, and fairly complex for engineers; hence development of an intelligent predictive model that is quick, simple to use, robust, and accurate in this field of study is worthwhile and highly necessary for work. In this regard, the paper presents two intelligent modeling approaches using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for the first time to accurately calculate the suction, discharge and injection mass flow rates ( m ˙ SUC , m ˙ DIS , and m ˙ INJ ), compressor electrical power ( W ˙ COMP ), and refrigerant temperature at compressor discharge (T DIS ) for a VSSCV. The comparison between the developed models via statistical criteria showed the higher precision of applying the ANFIS approach as a suitable model for the prediction of VSSCV parameters compared to the ANN one. Highlights ANN and ANFIS approaches are developed to estimate the parameters of a variable speed scroll compressor with vapor injection. The outcomes of the paper are compared with the literature to appraise the reliability of the proposed models. Bright integrity of prediction was achieved using the ANFIS approach.

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  5. [해외논문]   Une Etude complexe des propriEtEs thermophysiques des nanofluides R600a-huile minErale-Al2O3 et R600a-huile minErale-TiO2   SCI SCIE

    Zhelezny, V.P. (Corresponding author. Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies, 112 Kanatnaya str., Odessa 65039, Ukraine. Fax: +38 (048) 723 11 45.) , Lukianov, N.N. , Khliyeva, O.Ya. , Nikulina, A.S. , Melnyk, A.V.
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 488 - 504 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract This paper presents experimental data for the density, solubility, viscosity and capillary constant for solutions of the natural refrigerant isobutane (R600a) with mineral compressor oil and nanoparticles Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 over a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. Based on obtained information for the capillary constant, the surface tension of the solutions isobutane/mineral oil/Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles and isobutane/mineral oil/TiO 2 nanoparticles is determined. SP-QSPR (Scaling Principles–Quantitative Structure Property Relationship) model has been successfully applied for fitting the experimental data obtained for solutions of isobutane with mineral compressor oil and nanoparticles Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 . It was shown that the nanoparticle additives lead to increase of the viscosity and reduce surface tension of the refrigerant/oil solutions. Highlights Experimental information for thermophysical properties of the nanofluids is presented. Influence the nanoparticle additives on thermophysical properties is studied. SP-QSPR model is successfully applied for predicting the thermophysical properties.

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  6. [해외논문]   CaractErisation des effets de l'huile lubrifiante sur la performance des compresseurs A piston dans des pompes A chaleur air-eau   SCI SCIE

    Afshari, Faraz (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey ) , Comakli, Omer (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey ) , Lesani, Asghar (Department of Nano Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey ) , Karagoz, Sendogan (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 505 - 516 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract Lubricating oils play several key roles in compressors, such as lubrication of the parts exposed to friction, prevention of gas leakage at the compression chamber, and cooling of the pieces heated by friction. Oil viscosity and possibility of mixing with refrigerant are the significant factors that should be considered in choosing compatible lubricants. Generally, high viscosity lubricants reduce the efficiency and lubricants with low viscosity cause to direct contact between the metal parts in the compressor. In this study, an experimental procedure has been carried out to investigate the influences of oil circulation in the compressor working with R-404a refrigerant. Although this study has been devoted to a detailed attempt to identify the effects of oil viscosity on energy consumption, an innovative way to analyze this critical parameter has been carried out in parallel with other parameters including refrigerant charge amount, condenser water flow rate and air temperature in the evaporator. The sample oils selected for experiments are SL22, SL68 and SL220. The basic nature of the lubricants and their mixtures with refrigerant, COP value, compressor efficiency and exergetic efficiency of the system has been analyzed under different working conditions. Highlights Thermodynamic properties of the oils and oil/refrigerant mixture are presented. Compressor oil samples (SL22, SL68 & SL220) with various viscosities are analyzed. Open-type reciprocating compressor is evaluated by using R-404a refrigerant. For every lubricant, COP and compressor efficiency are experimentally obtained. Exergetic efficiency and effect of secondary fluids on performance are analyzed.

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  7. [해외논문]   Analyse de performance d'un cycle A compression de vapeur combinE et d'un cycle A Ejecteur pour la cogEnEration de froid   SCI SCIE

    Megdouli, K. (Unité) , Tashtoush, B.M. (de Recherche Energétique et Environnent, Ecole National d'ingénieur de Tunis, 37 Le Belvédère, Tunis, Tunisia ) , Nahdi, E. (Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan ) , Elakhdar, M. (Unité) , Mhimid, A. (de Recherche Energétique et Environnent, Ecole National d'ingénieur de Tunis, 37 Le Belvédère, Tunis, Tunisia ) , Kairouani, L. (Unité)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 517 - 527 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract A hybrid vapor compression refrigeration (HVCR) system, which combines a vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) system and an ejector refrigeration (ER) system, was developed. The waste heat energy from the gas cooler in the VCR system is applied as driven source towards ER system. Thermodynamic investigations on the performance of the HVCR system, using CO 2 as a refrigerant, are performed with energetic and exergetic methods, and the comparative analyses with the VCR system are conducted. Comprehensive effects of key operating parameters on the system performance are also studied. The results indicate that for the same cooling capacity, the coefficient of performance (COP) of the HVCR system shows 25% higher COP and the total mechanical power consumption is reduced by 20% than that of conventional VCR system, respectively. The performance characteristics of the proposed cycle show its application potential in cooling and air-conditioning. Highlights Waste heat utilization can reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. A hybrid vapor compression refrigeration system (HVCR) with CO 2 is proposed. The effects of some thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance are evaluated. The work shows that the HVCR system is quite promising.

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  8. [해외논문]   Nouvelle mEthodologie de caractErisation des compresseurs A spirale A injection de vapeur   SCI SCIE

    Tello-Oquendo, Fernando M. (Corresponding author. Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Ingeniería Energética, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, s/n, Valencia 46022, Spain. Fax: +34 963 879 126.) , Navarro-Peris, Emilio , Gonzá , lvez-Maciá , , José
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 528 - 539 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract This paper presents a characterization methodology for vapor-injection scroll compressors (SCVI). An SCVI was characterized in a modified calorimetric test bench, which is able to control the intermediate pressure and the injection superheat independently. Based on the characterization results, the injection mass flow rate was correlated with the intermediate pressure through a linear expression, and a modified AHRI polynomial was proposed to estimate the compressor power input. The correlations were used in a simple model to predict the intermediate conditions of the SCVI installed in a heat pump prototype with an economizer. The deviations obtained for the evaporator mass flow rate, injection mass flow rate, intermediate pressure, and compressor power input were lower than 5% in all cases. The proposed methodology allows evaluating SCVI in a wide range of operating conditions, being only dependent on compressor characteristics and totally independent of the system in which it is installed. Highlights Vapor-injection compressors characterization independently of the injection mechanism. Testing of a vapor-injection scroll compressor in a modified calorimetric test bench. Correlation of the intermediate conditions for vapor-injection scroll compressors. Validation of characterization methodology in a heat pump prototype with economizer. Deviations below 5% in mass flow rates and the compressor power input.

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  9. [해외논문]   Analyse de performance d'un nouveau cycle A injection de vapeur hybride avec un sous refroidisseur et un rEservoir de dEtente pour les pompes A chaleur aErothermiques   SCI SCIE

    Qi, Hongjie (Corresponding author. Department of Refrigeration & Cryogenic Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China. Fax: +86 29 82668725.) , Liu, Fuya , Yu, Jianlin
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 540 - 549 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract In this paper, a novel hybrid vapor injection cycle (HVIC) with subcooler and flash tank for air-source heat pumps is proposed. In the HVIC, an ejector is applied to realize the advantages of both the subcooler and flash tank vapor injection, which can efficiently reduce the irreversible thermodynamic loss and improve the system performance, especially at low ambient temperature conditions. The performance enhancement potential of HVIC is compared with conventional subcooler vapor injection cycle (SVIC) and flash tank vapor injection cycle (FTVC) using cycle simulations. The simulation results indicated that for the HVIC using R290 as refrigerant, the coefficient of performance (COP) and the volumetric heating capacity can be increased by 2.8–3.3% and 6.4–8.8% compared to the SVIC system, 1.1–2.0% and 3.2–6.0% compared to the FTVC system, respectively. In addition, improving the ejector efficiencies and adjusting the injection pressure could also enhance the performance of HVIC. Exergy analysis indicates that the total exergy destruction for the HVIC is lower than that of SVIC and FTVC due to the application of an ejector, and therefore resulting in higher exergy efficiency. Overall, the HVIC could be more effective to enhance heating capacity and system efficiency. Highlights A novel hybrid vapor injection cycle (HVIC) with subcooler and flash tank is proposed. The performance of HVIC can be improved due to an application of an ejector. The HVIC using R32 and R290 are evaluated with energy and exergy analysis methods. COP and volumetric heating capacity of HVIC are promoted compared to baseline cycles.

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  10. [해외논문]   Etude expErimentale et numErique des caractEristiques de transfert de chaleur grAce au bilan thermique dans un compresseur linEaire   SCI SCIE

    Park, Minchan (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Jangjeon-Dong, Geumjung-gu, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea ) , Lee, Jaekeun (Eco Energy Research Institute, Busan Metropolitan City, 1276 Jisa-dong, Gangseo-gu, Busan, Republic of Korea ) , Kim, Hyoungseok (LG Electronics, 391-2 Gaeumjeong-dong, Changwon City, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea ) , Ahn, Youngchull (Department of Architectural Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjung-gu, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea)
    International journal of refrigeration = Revbue internationale du froid v.74 ,pp. 550 - 559 , 2017 , 0140-7007 ,

    초록

    Abstract A linear compressor was divided into several control volumes, and its thermal performance was analyzed by maintaining the whole energy balance throughout the heat transfer analysis for each control volume. During the steady state performance test of the compressor, basic measurements of the temperature and pressure were performed by using a calorimeter. First, the energy flow of each control volume was defined using the results of the measurements, and then heat transfer analysis was conducted. Next, the thermal network was defined by using a correlation for the energy balance. A software tool for compressor simulation was developed using a thermal network analysis in order to estimate the energy efficiency ratio (EER) according to the changes in thermal properties of the compressor. Experimental results show that the simulation tool is satisfied up to a 5% change in the EER according to variations in the ambient temperature and mixing ratio of the refrigerant. Highlights A thermal analysis of the compressor was performed using a heat balance and control volume. The analysis method shows that the error rate between the experimental and simulation results is within 5%. The refrigerant mixing region that exists between the suction pipe and the suction muffler is the most sensitive part. The EER of the compressor is expected to be improved 0.2 by direct suction as a result of reducing the mixing ratio. The proposed analysis method can be used to analyze the thermal performance of a system with a complex configuration and multiple components.

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