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Materials & Design 51건

  1. [해외논문]   Carbon-rich superhard ruthenium carbides from first-principles   SCIE

    Zhao, Shipeng (International Centre for Quantum and Molecular Structures, Physics Department, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China ) , Yang, Yali (International Centre for Quantum and Molecular Structures, Physics Department, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China ) , Lu, Jian (International Centre for Quantum and Molecular Structures, Physics Department, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China ) , Wu, Wei (International Centre for Quantum and Molecular Structures, Physics Department, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China ) , Sun, Sheng (Material Genome Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China ) , Li, Xi (State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China ) , Zhao, Xinluo (International Centre for Quantum and Molecular Structures, Physics Department, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China ) , Cao, Shixun (International Centre for Quantum and Molecular Structures, Physics Department, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China ) , Zhang, Jincang (Material Genome Instit) , Ren, Wei
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 353 - 362 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract Compounds formed by transition metals and light elements have attracted increasing attention owing to superior functionalities. Here, high throughput first-principles calculations are employed to investigate the crystal structures and physical properties of ruthenium carbides with various stoichiometries. It is found that the R 3 ¯ m -Ru 2 C, R 3 ¯ m -RuC, P 3 ¯ m 1-Ru 2 C 3 , P 3 ¯ m 1-RuC 2 , P 3 ¯ m 1-RuC 3 and C 2 /c -RuC 4 are the ground states for the respective chemical compositions at ambient pressure, from a systematical investigation of both thermodynamic and mechanical stabilities, as well as phonon dispersions. Further calculations indicate that P 3 ¯ m 1-RuC 3 and P 6 3 / mmc- RuC 4 are ultra-incompressible with high bulk and shear modulus. Subsequent empirical calculations predict that the carbon-rich P 3 ¯ m 1-RuC 3 and P 6 3 / mmc- RuC 4 are superhard materials with a large Vickers hardness of 45.1GPa and 41.5GPa, respectively. In addition, a strong covalent CC bonding was observed from the electronic localization function contours of all the ground states, which is crucial for their excellent mechanical properties. Highlights Ruthenium carbides with various stoichiometries were studied by density functional theory calculations. Ground states of Ru 2 C, RuC, Ru 2 C 3 , RuC 2 , RuC 3 and RuC 4 are found, pressure-induced phase transitions are uncovered. Two carbon-rich structures are found to have large Vickers hardness 45.1 GPa and 41.5 GPa. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  2. [해외논문]   Microstructure and physical performance of laser-induction nanocrystals modified high-entropy alloy composites on titanium alloy   SCIE

    Li, Jianing (School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101, China ) , Craeghs, Werner (Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT/Chair for Laser Technology LLT, RWTH Aachen, Steinbachstraβe 15, D-52074 Aachen, Germany ) , Jing, Cainian (School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101, China ) , Gong, Shuili (Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024, China ) , Shan, Feihu (Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024, China)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 363 - 370 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract Ultrafine nanocrystals (UNs) modified high-entropy alloy composites (HEACs) were fabricated by laser-melted deposition (LMD) of the yttria partially stabilized ZrO 2 (YPSZ) and the FeCoCrAlCu mixed powders on the aviation turbine blade made of the additive manufacturing (AM) TC17 titanium alloy. Such HEACs exhibited the finer microstructure free of micro-crack under an action of YPSZ, also relative stable atomic group of UNs owned the short-range order was produced attached to such HEACs matrix. Formation mechanisms of the AlCu 2 Zr UNs, amorphous and the nanoscale icosahedral quasicrystals (I-phase) with five-fold symmetry in HEACs were explored extensively by mean of the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM); also, under the actions of these various phases, such laser-induction HEACs exhibited the better wear performance than that of the FeCoCrAlCu LMD high-entropy alloy. With SiB 2 addition, lots of the one-dimensional nanostructure materials (nanorods) were produced, retained UNs can be easily reunited due to a surface effect, retarding growth of nanorods in a certain extent. This research may provide the essential theoretical and experimental basis to improve the quality of the laser 3D print composites. Highlights Ultrafine nanocrystals modified high-entropy alloy composites (HEACs) were fabricated. With YPSZ addition, the HEACs exhibited the finer microstructure free of the micro-crack. Relative stable atomic group of UNs owned short-range order was produced. Nanoscale icosahedral quasicrystals with five-fold symmetry are obtained in HEACs. With SiB 2 addition, lots of one-dimensional nanostructure materials were produced. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  3. [해외논문]   The effect of ultrasonic impact treatment on the deformation behavior of commercially pure titanium under uniaxial tension   SCIE

    Panin, A.V. (Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the SB RAS, Tomsk 634055, Russia ) , Kazachenok, M.S. (Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the SB RAS, Tomsk 634055, Russia ) , Kozelskaya, A.I. (Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the SB RAS, Tomsk 634055, Russia ) , Balokhonov, R.R. (Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the SB RAS, Tomsk 634055, Russia ) , Romanova, V.A. (Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the SB RAS, Tomsk 634055, Russia ) , Perevalova, O.B. (Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the SB RAS, Tomsk 634055, Russia ) , Pochivalov, Yu I. (Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the SB RAS, Tomsk 634055, Russia)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 371 - 381 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract The deformation behavior of commercially pure titanium specimens subjected to surface hardening by ultrasonic impact treatment followed by uniaxial tension was investigated experimentally and numerically. The microstructure of the ultrasonically treated ~100μm thick surface layer undergoing uniaxial tension was revealed, using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Non-equiaxed 100–200nm α-Ti grains composed of 2nm diameter TiC and Ti 2 C nanoparticles, ω- and α″-phase crystallites were found in the 10μm thick uppermost layer. Fine and coarse α-Ti grains containing dislocations and twins were observed at depths of 20 and 50μm below the specimen surface, respectively. A non-crystallographic deformation (shear banding) mechanism at work in the nanostructured surface layer of the specimens under study was revealed. The evolution of shear bands was studied by the finite difference method, with the fine-grained structure being explicitly accounted for in the calculations. Shear band self-organization was described, using the energy balance approach similar to that based on Griffith's energy balance criterion for brittle fracture. The tensile deformation of the hardened layer lying at a depth of 50μm was implemented by the glide of dislocations and growth of deformation twins induced by preliminary ultrasonic impact treatment. Highlights Ultrasonic impact treatment produces a gradient nano-to-micron-grained structure in the surface layer of CP titanium. Dislocation glide, twinning and shear banding mechanisms are at work at different depths below the surface under tension. Shear bands in hardened surface layer develop alternatively in conjugate directions of maximum tangential stresses. Shear band evolution and self-organization are analyzed using the energy balance approach. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  4. [해외논문]   Enhanced nucleation and refinement of eutectic Si by high number-density nano-particles in Al–10Si–0.5Sb alloys   SCIE

    Guo, Fengxiang (Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ocean Environment Monitoring Technology, Institute of Oceanographic Instrumentation of Shandong Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266001, China ) , Wang, Wei (College of Materials Science and Engineering, the National Base of International Science and Technology Cooperation on Hybrid Materials, Qingdao University, 308, Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071, China ) , Yu, Wenhui (Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 17923, Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061, China ) , Zhang, Yong (Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 17923, Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061, China ) , Pan, Shaopeng (Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 17923, Jingshi R) , Zhou, Zhonghai , Liu, Dan , Qin, Jingyu , Wang, Yao , Tian, Xuelei
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 382 - 389 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract The mechanism of refinement of eutectic Si with Sb additions in an Al–10wt.% Si alloy is studied. The increased holding time designates a transition of the eutectic nucleation temperature from a decreased value to an increased one, accompanied by a morphological transformation of eutectic Si from lamellar to a shorter, rod-like shape. By ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, the chemical short-range order of −0.002 demonstrates weak affinity in the Al–Sb pair, which does not favor the existence of AlSb clusters in the melts. Sb–Sb segregation and the Sb–Si repulsive force are revealed, which promote the formation of Al-enriched precursors and the accumulation of Si atoms adjacent to precursors, inducing precursor nucleation. Continuous attachment of precursors and individual Si atoms during Si growth results in the high number-density nano-particles and suppresses the formation of twin grains within eutectic Si. Highlight The addition of 0.5wt.% Sb with a holding time over 60 min leads to the disappearance of twin and the formation of high number-density Al-rich nano-particles in eutectic Si, which act as nucleation precursors and promote the eutectic nucleation in Al–10Si alloy; A mechanism of precursor nucleation and microstructure transition is proposed, based on the formation of high number-density Al-rich nano-particles; The existence of AlSb clusters in the Al–10Si–0.5Sb melts is eliminated, while Sb–Si repulsive force and Sb–Sb segregation lead to aggregation of Si atoms and precursors, respectively. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  5. [해외논문]   Novel magnetic properties of uniform NiTe x nanorods selectively synthesized by hydrothermal method   SCIE

    Lei, Yu-Xi (School of Physics & Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, People's Republic of China ) , Zhou, Jian-Ping (School of Physics & Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, People's Republic of China ) , Wang, Jing-Zhou (School of Physics & Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, People's Republic of China ) , Miao, Nan-Xi (School of Physics & Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, People's Republic of China ) , Guo, Ze-Qing (School of Physics & Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, People's Republic of China ) , Hassan, Qadeer-Ul (School of Physics & Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, People's Republic of China)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 390 - 395 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract NiTe x nanorods ( x = 1.00, 1.15, 1.33, 1.60, 1.80, 2.00) with average diameter of 150nm have been selectively synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process. The nanorods with various x share similar hexagonal structure and morphology. NiTe nanorods present paramagnetic property at both high and low temperature while NiTe 2 nanorods exhibit a diamagnetic characteristic at high temperature and a paramagnetic behavior below 58K. The magnetic moment reduces with the increase in tellurium content. The difference in magnetic behaviors of NiTe x nanorods is mainly attributed to the competition between the diamagnetism and paramagnetism based on the experimental observation. Highlights Series NiTe x nanorods with excellent crystallinity were synthesized. NiTe exhibits paramagnetic behavior. While NiTe 2 change from diamagnetism to paramagnetism at 57.8K Te atoms enhance the diamagnetism and reduce the transition temperature. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  6. [해외논문]   Static and dynamic crushing responses of CFRP sandwich panels filled with different reinforced materials   SCIE

    Zhang, Yanqin (School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou City 510006, China ) , Zong, Zhijian (School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou City 510006, China ) , Liu, Qiang (School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou City 510006, China ) , Ma, Jingbo (School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou City 510006, China ) , Wu, Yinghan (School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou City 510006, China ) , Li, Qing (School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Sydney University, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 396 - 408 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract This study aims to investigate the crashworthiness of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) sandwich panels filled with different reinforced materials under quasi-static compression and low velocity impact loading. Four lightweight filler materials (namely EPP foam, aluminum honeycomb, rubber foam balls and plastic hollow balls) were chosen and a series of static and dynamic tests were carried out to explore the damage mechanism, load bearing capacity, energy absorption and cushioning properties of these different sandwich panels. The complete core crushing contributed to the loading resistance and energy absorption under the static compression leaving the top and bottom CFRP facesheet intact. Three distinct load-displacement categories, classified as no rebound (unfilled), incomplete rebound (filled with aluminum honeycomb and plastic balls) and complete rebound (filled with EPP and rubber balls) were observed in the impact tests; the localized facesheet rupture and core crushing were dedicated to significant energy absorption during impact. The specimens filled with aluminum honeycomb and plastic hollow balls exhibited superior energy absorption capabilities (2.8 and 4.8J/g, respectively) in the static compression testes, while the specimens filled with aluminum honeycomb and EPP foam exhibited superior capability of energy absorption (0.8 and 0.9J/g, respectively) in the impact tests. Highlights Static and dynamic crash tests were conducted for sandwich panels with different cores. Typical load-displacement curves and energy absorption behaviors were identified. Specimens with Al honeycomb and plastic balls performed better energy absorption capabilities under static compression. Specimens with Al honeycomb and EPP foam performed better energy absorption capabilities under dynamic impact. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  7. [해외논문]   Corrigendum to “Development of complete color palette based on spectrophotometric measurements of steel oxidation results for enhancement of color laser marking technology” [Mater. Des. 89 (2016) 684–688]   SCIE

    Veiko, Vadim (ITMO University, 49 Kronverksky Pr., St. Petersburg 197101, Russia ) , Odintsova, Galina (ITMO University, 49 Kronverksky Pr., St. Petersburg 197101, Russia ) , Gorbunova, Elena (ITMO University, 49 Kronverksky Pr., St. Petersburg 197101, Russia ) , Ageev, Eduard (ITMO University, 49 Kronverksky Pr., St. Petersburg 197101, Russia ) , Shimko, Alexandr (Centre for Optical and Laser Materials Research, St. Petersburg State University, 5A Ul'yanovskaya St., Peterhof, St. Petersburg 198504, Russia ) , Karlagina, Yulia (ITMO University, 49 Kronverksky Pr., St. Petersburg 197101, Russia ) , Andreeva, Yaroslava (ITMO University, 49 Kronverksky Pr., St. Petersburg 197101, Russia)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 409 - 409 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract This study aims to investigate the crashworthiness of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) sandwich panels filled with different reinforced materials under quasi-static compression and low velocity impact loading. Four lightweight filler materials (namely EPP foam, aluminum honeycomb, rubber foam balls and plastic hollow balls) were chosen and a series of static and dynamic tests were carried out to explore the damage mechanism, load bearing capacity, energy absorption and cushioning properties of these different sandwich panels. The complete core crushing contributed to the loading resistance and energy absorption under the static compression leaving the top and bottom CFRP facesheet intact. Three distinct load-displacement categories, classified as no rebound (unfilled), incomplete rebound (filled with aluminum honeycomb and plastic balls) and complete rebound (filled with EPP and rubber balls) were observed in the impact tests; the localized facesheet rupture and core crushing were dedicated to significant energy absorption during impact. The specimens filled with aluminum honeycomb and plastic hollow balls exhibited superior energy absorption capabilities (2.8 and 4.8J/g, respectively) in the static compression testes, while the specimens filled with aluminum honeycomb and EPP foam exhibited superior capability of energy absorption (0.8 and 0.9J/g, respectively) in the impact tests. Highlights Static and dynamic crash tests were conducted for sandwich panels with different cores. Typical load-displacement curves and energy absorption behaviors were identified. Specimens with Al honeycomb and plastic balls performed better energy absorption capabilities under static compression. Specimens with Al honeycomb and EPP foam performed better energy absorption capabilities under dynamic impact. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  8. [해외논문]   The design and manufacturing of a titanium alloy beak for Grus japonensis using additive manufacturing   SCIE

    Song, Changhui (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China ) , Wang, Anming (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China ) , Wu, Zijun (Leader Animal Hosipital, Guangzhou 510640, China ) , Chen, Ziyu (Guangzhou YMe Advanced Material Technology Co. Ltd., Guangzhou 510663, China ) , Yang, Yongqiang (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China ) , Wang, Di (School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 410 - 416 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract In this paper, we report the design and fabrication of a titanium alloy beak for an individual Grus japonensis bird, the second rarest crane species in the world. The bird could not feed itself due to a broken beak. We employed a detailed geometric and structural analysis of the upper beak and used a computational design and additive manufacturing to fabricate a suitable replacement. The combination of fused deposition modeling (FDM) with selective laser melting (SLM) allowed a quick response to the design requirements, fabrication and installation of the customized titanium alloy beak. Half an hour after the operation, the bird was able to feed itself. We present an analysis that shows the complementarity of FDM and SLM and their relevance to customized medicine. Our work provides insights into the delivery of personalized veterinary care to animals using computational design and additive manufacturing. Highlights A bird with a broken beak of endangered Grus japonensis species was saved by additive manufacturing. Prototyping by fused deposition modelling (FDM) with polymer (polylactic acid) allowed bespoke validated design. Selective laser melting (SLM) allowed the fabrication of final light weight, strong and corrosion-resistant beak. Case study shows how personalized medical care can be provided efficiently, accurately and cost-effectively. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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  9. [해외논문]   An analysis of premature cracking associated with microstructural alterations in an AISI 52100 failed wind turbine bearing using X-ray tomography   SCIE

    Gould, Benjamin (Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, United States ) , Greco, Aaron (Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, United States ) , Stadler, Kenred (Technology and Specifications, SKF GmbH, Schweinfurt, Germany ) , Xiao, Xianghui (Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, United States)
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 417 - 429 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract Crack surrounded by local areas of microstructural alteration deemed “White etching cracks” (WECs) lead to unpredictable and premature failures within a multitude of applications including wind turbine gearbox bearings. While the exact cause of these failures remains unknown, a large number of hypotheses exist as to how and why these cracks form. The aim of the current work is to elucidate some of these hypotheses by mapping WEC networks within failed wind turbine bearings using high energy X-ray tomography, in an attempt to determine the location of WEC initiation, and the role of defects within the steel, such as inclusions or carbide clusters. Four completely subsurface WECs were found throughout the presented analysis, thereby confirming subsurface initiation as method of WEC formation. Additionally, a multitude of small butterfly like cracks were found around inclusions in the steel, however further analysis is needed to verify if these inclusions are initiation sites for WECs. Highlights Crack networks were mapped using X-Ray Tomography in order to study crack morphology and inclusion interaction Subsurface crack initiation was verified as the dominant method of premature failure formation within wind turbine bearings Serial sectioning and etching were used to observe the presence of microstructural alterations surrounding all cracking Instances of small cracking around inclusions were observed, and are likely the initiation points for larger crack networks. The detected failures likely occurred due to an accelerated fatigue process as opposed to classical rolling contact fatigue. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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  10. [해외논문]   Opto-mechanical design for sight windows under high loads   SCIE

    Ihracska, Balazs (University of Hertfordshire, School of Engineering and Technology, College Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 9AB, UK ) , Crookes, Roy James (School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK ) , Montalvã (Department of Design and Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB, UK ) , o, Diogo (University of Hertfordshire, School of Engineering and Technology, College Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 9AB, UK ) , Herfatmanesh, Mohammad Reza (University of Hertfordshire, School of Engineering and Technology, College Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 9AB, UK ) , Peng, Zhijun (Department of Mechanical Engineering (KSK Campus), University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan ) , Imran, Shahid (Parks College of Engineering, Aviation and Technology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63103, USA) , Korakianitis, Theodosios
    Materials & Design v.117 ,pp. 430 - 444 , 2017 , 0264-1275 ,

    초록

    Abstract In this study, the design aspects of optically accessible pressure vessels are investigated via a case study of a High Pressure Combustor experimental rig. The rig was designed to take optical measurements of combustion, simulating the conditions found in internal combustion engines and turbines. Although, it is not new to equip chambers and reactors with sight windows, important aspects of design and relevant information regarding optical access is missing or are insufficiently explored or not readily accessible in the existing literature. A comprehensive review of requirements for optical access to such high-pressure, high-temperature systems has been conducted. It is shown in a readily-navigable format as function of application and precision, with data and technical correlations hitherto not found in a ‘user-friendly’ style. The material selection procedure is detailed and supported by a complete comparison of optical materials and relevant properties. The review revealed a significant inconsistency in mechanical properties claimed in the literature for optical materials. As a response to this, increased safety factor values are suggested as function of level of uncertainties and effects of failure, typically three to four times higher than the industrial standard. Moreover, newly developed equations are presented linking performance analysis to the design criteria. Highlights The relevant properties of practical optical materials were collected and presented in a readily navigable format. Mechanical properties of optical materials are found to be inconsistent for elevated temperatures and for fatigue loads. In response to the unreliable material data increased safety factors are required, detailed recommendations are provided. As function of application, clear design criteria recommendations are shown. Aspects of opto-mechanical performance were described in depth and newly developed equations and relations are presented. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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