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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of... 110건

  1. [해외논문]   The distribution and copy number of copia-like retrotransposons in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and their implications in the organization and evolution of the rice genome.  

    Wang, S , Liu, N , Peng, K , Zhang, Q
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6824 - 6828 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    We used 22 fragments corresponding to the reverse transcriptase domain of copia-like retrotransposons as representatives to study the organization and distribution of these elements in the rice genome. The loci detected by these 22 fragments were assigned to 47 locations in the molecular-linkage map involving all 12 chromosomes. The distributional features of copia-like retrotransposons found in the rice genome indicated that (i) the loci detected were located mainly in one arm of each chromosome; (ii) one fragment usually detected several loci that were mapped to similar locations of different chromosomes; (iii) retrotransposons sharing high identity in nucleotide sequences were usually assigned to similar locations of the chromosomes; and (iv) concurrences of multiple loci, detected by different fragments, in similar locations or stretches of different chromosomes were common in the rice genome. We also determined that the copy number of copia-like retrotransposons in rice genome may be as low as approximately 100 per haploid genome. The restricted distribution, along with low copy number, suggested that copia-like retrotransposons in rice were relatively inactive during evolution compared with those in other plants. The distributional features of the copia-like retrotransposons suggested the existence of possible lineages among the rice chromosomes, which in turn suggested that chromosome duplication and diversification may be a mechanism for the origin and evolution of the rice chromosomes. The information provided by fine mapping of the retroelements in the genetic linkage map may also be useful for gene tagging and molecular cloning.

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  2. [해외논문]   A new structure for the murine Xist gene and its relationship to chromosome choice/counting during X-chromosome inactivation.  

    Hong, Y K , Ontiveros, S D , Chen, C , Strauss, W M
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6829 - 6834 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    In this report, we present structural data for the murine Xist gene. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that the murine Xist transcript is at least 17.4 kb, not 14.3 kb as previously reported. The new structure of the murine Xist gene described herein has seven exons, not six. Exon VII encodes an additional 3.1 kb of information at the 3' end. Exon VII contains seven possible sites for polyadenylation; four of these sites are located in the newly discovered 3' end. Consequently, it is possible that several distinct transcripts may be produced through differential polyadenylation of a primary transcript. Alternative use of polyadenylation signals could result in size changes for exon VII. Two major species of Xist are detectable by Northern analysis, consistent with differential polyadenylation. In this paper, we propose a model for the role of the Xist 3' end in the process of X-chromosome counting and choice during embryonic development.

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  3. [해외논문]   GCN5-dependent histone H3 acetylation and RPD3-dependent histone H4 deacetylation have distinct, opposing effects on IME2 transcription, during meiosis and during vegetative growth, in budding yeast.  

    Burgess, S M , Ajimura, M , Kleckner, N
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6835 - 6840 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Diploid yeast undergo meiosis under certain conditions of nutrient limitation, which trigger a transcriptional cascade involving two key regulatory genes. IME1 is a positive activator of IME2, which activates downstream genes. We report that Gcn5, a histone H3 acetylase, plays a central role in initiation of meiosis via effects on IME2 expression. An allele, gcn5-21, was isolated as a mutant defective in spore formation. gcn5-21 fails to carry out meiotic DNA replication, recombination, or meiotic divisions. This mutant also fails to induce IME2 transcription; IME1 transcription, however, is essentially normal. Further investigation shows that during wild-type meiosis the IME2 promoter undergoes an increase in the level of bound acetylated histone H3. This increase is contemporaneous with meiotic induction of IME2 transcription and is absent in gcn5-21. In contrast, the RPD3 gene, which encodes a histone H4 deacetylase and is known to be required for repression of basal IME2 transcription in growing yeast cells, is not involved in induction of IME2 transcription or IME2 histone acetlyation during meiosis. These and other results suggest that Gcn5 and Rpd3 play distinct roles, modulating transcription initiation in opposite directions under two different cellular conditions. These roles are implemented via opposing effects of the two gene products on acetylation of two different histones. Finally, we find that gcn5 and rpd3 single mutants are not defective in meiosis if acetate is absent and respiration is promoted by a metabolically unrelated carbon source. Perhaps intracellular acetate levels regulate meiosis by controlling histone acetylation patterns.

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  4. [해외논문]   Human XIST yeast artificial chromosome transgenes show partial X inactivation center function in mouse embryonic stem cells.  

    Heard, E , Mongelard, F , Arnaud, D , Chureau, C , Vourc'h, C , Avner, P
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6841 - 6846 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Initiation of X chromosome inactivation requires the presence, in cis, of the X inactivation center (XIC). The Xist gene, which lies within the XIC region in both human and mouse and has the unique property of being expressed only from the inactive X chromosome in female somatic cells, is known to be essential for X inactivation based on targeted deletions in the mouse. Although our understanding of the developmental regulation and function of the mouse Xist gene has progressed rapidly, less is known about its human homolog. To address this and to assess the cross-species conservation of X inactivation, a 480-kb yeast artificial chromosome containing the human XIST gene was introduced into mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The human XIST transcript was expressed and could coat the mouse autosome from which it was transcribed, indicating that the factors required for cis association are conserved in mouse ES cells. Cis inactivation as a result of human XIST expression was found in only a proportion of differentiated cells, suggesting that the events downstream of XIST RNA coating that culminate in stable inactivation may require species-specific factors. Human XIST RNA appears to coat mouse autosomes in ES cells before in vitro differentiation, in contrast to the behavior of the mouse Xist gene in undifferentiated ES cells, where an unstable transcript and no chromosome coating are found. This may not only reflect important species differences in Xist regulation but also provides evidence that factors implicated in Xist RNA chromosome coating may already be present in undifferentiated ES cells.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  5. [해외논문]   An experimental solution for the Luria-Delbruck fluctuation problem in measuring hypermutation rates  

    Bachl, J. , Dessing, M. , Olsson, C. , von Borstel, R. C. , Steinberg, C.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6847 - 6849 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Initiation of X chromosome inactivation requires the presence, in cis, of the X inactivation center (XIC). The Xist gene, which lies within the XIC region in both human and mouse and has the unique property of being expressed only from the inactive X chromosome in female somatic cells, is known to be essential for X inactivation based on targeted deletions in the mouse. Although our understanding of the developmental regulation and function of the mouse Xist gene has progressed rapidly, less is known about its human homolog. To address this and to assess the cross-species conservation of X inactivation, a 480-kb yeast artificial chromosome containing the human XIST gene was introduced into mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The human XIST transcript was expressed and could coat the mouse autosome from which it was transcribed, indicating that the factors required for cis association are conserved in mouse ES cells. Cis inactivation as a result of human XIST expression was found in only a proportion of differentiated cells, suggesting that the events downstream of XIST RNA coating that culminate in stable inactivation may require species-specific factors. Human XIST RNA appears to coat mouse autosomes in ES cells before in vitro differentiation, in contrast to the behavior of the mouse Xist gene in undifferentiated ES cells, where an unstable transcript and no chromosome coating are found. This may not only reflect important species differences in Xist regulation but also provides evidence that factors implicated in Xist RNA chromosome coating may already be present in undifferentiated ES cells.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  6. [해외논문]   An experimental solution for the Luria-Delbr?ck fluctuation problem in measuring hypermutation rates.  

    Bachl, J , Dessing, M , Olsson, C , von Borstel, R C , Steinberg, C
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6847 - 6849 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    A cell line harboring all trans-acting elements necessary for hypermutation was transfected with a plasmid harboring the major cis-acting elements plus a green fluorescent protein gene containing a premature chain-termination codon. Transfected cells do not fluoresce unless the stop codon reverts. When a sizable cell population is purged of revertants by sorting, the frequency of mutants increases linearly with time, and there is no Luria-Delbr?ck fluctuation effect. Moreover, as mutant frequencies seemed to vary less than cell numbers in replicate cultures, it is suggested that hypermutation might not be coupled closely to cell division.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  7. [해외논문]   Different mutator phenotypes in Mlh1- versus Pms2-deficient mice.  

    Yao, X , Buermeyer, A B , Narayanan, L , Tran, D , Baker, S M , Prolla, T A , Glazer, P M , Liskay, R M , Arnheim, N
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6850 - 6855 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Deficiencies in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) result in increased mutation rates and cancer risk in both humans and mice. Mouse strains homozygous for knockouts of either the Pms2 or Mlh1 MMR gene develop cancer but exhibit very different tumor spectra; only Mlh1(-/-) animals develop intestinal tumors. We carried out a detailed study of the microsatellite mutation spectra in each knockout strain. Five mononucleotide repeat tracts at four different chromosomal locations were studied by using single-molecule PCR or an in vivo forward mutation assay. Three dinucleotide repeat loci also were examined. Surprisingly, the mononucleotide repeat mutation frequency in Mlh1(-/-) mice was 2- to 3-fold higher than in Pms2(-/-) animals. The higher mutation frequency in Mlh1(-/-) mice may be a consequence of some residual DNA repair capacity in the Pms2(-/-) animals. Relevant to this idea, we observed that Pms2(-/-) mice exhibit almost normal levels of Mlh1p, whereas Mlh1(-/-) animals lack both Mlh1p and Pms2p. Comparison between Mlh1(-/-) animals and Mlh1(-/-) and Pms2(-/-) double knockout mice revealed little difference in mutator phenotype, suggesting that Mlh1 nullizygosity is sufficient to inactivate MMR completely. The findings may provide a basis for understanding the greater predisposition to intestinal cancer of Mlh1(-/-) mice. Small differences (2- to 3-fold) in mononucleotide repeat mutation rates may have dramatic effects on tumor development, requiring multiple genetic alterations in coding regions. Alternatively, this strain difference in tumor spectra also may be related to the consequences of the absence of Pms2p compared with the absence of both Pms2p and Mlh1p on as yet little understood cellular processes.

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    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  8. [해외논문]   A novel mechanism for P element homing in Drosophila.  

    Taillebourg, E , Dura, J M
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6856 - 6861 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    P element insertion is essentially random at the scale of the genome. However, P elements containing regulatory sequences from Drosophila engrailed and polyhomeotic genes and from the Bithorax and Antennapedia complexes show some insertional specificity by frequently inserting near the parent gene (homing) and/or near genes containing Polycomb group response elements (preferential insertion). This phenomenon is thought to be mediated by Polycomb group proteins. In this report, we describe a case of homing of P elements containing regulatory sequences of the linotte gene. This homing occurs with high frequency (up to 20% of the lines) and high precision (inserted into a region of

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  9. [해외논문]   The role of transient hypermutators in adaptive mutation in Escherichia coli.  

    Rosche, W A , Foster, P L
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6862 - 6867 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Microbial populations under nonlethal selection can give rise to mutations that relieve the selective pressure, a phenomenon that has come to be called "adaptive mutation." One explanation for adaptive mutation is that a small proportion of the cells experience a period of transient hypermutation, and that these hypermutators account for the mutations that appear. The experiments reported here investigated the contribution that hypermutators make to the mutations occurring in a Lac- strain of Escherichia coli during selection for lactose utilization. A broad mutational screen, loss of motility, was used to compare the frequency of nonselected mutations in starved Lac- cells, in Lac+ revertants, and in Lac+ revertants carrying yet another nonselected mutation. These frequencies allowed us to calculate that the hypermutating subpopulation makes up approximately 0.06% of the population and that its mutation rate is elevated approximately 200-fold. From these numbers we conclude that the hypermutators are responsible for nearly all multiple mutations but produce only approximately 10% of the adaptive Lac+ mutations.

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  10. [해외논문]   Paternal monoallelic expression of the paired immunoglobulin-like receptors PIR-A and PIR-B.  

    Chen, C C , Hurez, V , Brockenbrough, J S , Kubagawa, H , Cooper, M D
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.12 ,pp. 6868 - 6872 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    A diverse pattern of polymorphism is defined for the paired Ig-like receptors (PIRs) that serve as activating (PIR-A) and inhibitory (PIR-B) receptors on B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and myeloid-lineage cells in mice. The monoclonal anti-PIR antibody 10.4 is shown to recognize an allelic PIR-A/PIR-B determinant on cells from BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice. Other strains of inbred mice also can be typed on the basis of their expression of this PIR allelic determinant. Analysis of (BALB/c x C57BL/6) F1 hybrid offspring indicates that PIR molecules bearing the paternal PIR allotype are expressed whereas PIR-A and PIR-B molecules bearing the maternal allotype are not. The monoallelic expression of the polymorphic PIR-A and PIR-B molecules, and possibly of their human Ig-like transcript/leukocyte Ig-like receptor/monocyte/macrophage Ig-like receptor and killer cell inhibitory receptor relatives, may influence innate and specific immune responses in outbred populations.

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