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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of... 104건

  1. [해외논문]   Mucosal vaccination overcomes the barrier to recombinant vaccinia immunization caused by preexisting poxvirus immunity.  

    Belyakov, I M , Moss, B , Strober, W , Berzofsky, J A
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4512 - 4517 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination.

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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  2. [해외논문]   A novel lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription factor regulating tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression: molecular cloning, sequencing, characterization, and chromosomal assignment.  

    Myokai, F , Takashiba, S , Lebo, R , Amar, S
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4518 - 4523 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent stimulator of monocytes and macrophages, causing secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and other inflammatory mediators. Given the deleterious effects to the host of TNF-alpha, it has been postulated that TNF-alpha gene expression must be tightly regulated. The nature of the nuclear factor(s) that control TNF-alpha gene transcription in humans remains obscure, although NF-kappaB has been suggested. Our previous studies pertaining to macrophage response to LPS identified a novel DNA-binding domain located from -550 to -487 in the human TNF-alpha promoter that contains transcriptional activity, but lacks any known NF-kappaB-binding sites. We have used this DNA fragment to isolate and purify a 60-kDa protein binding to this fragment and obtained its amino-terminal sequence, which was used to design degenerate probes to screen a cDNA library from THP-1 cells. A novel cDNA clone (1.8 kb) was isolated and fully sequenced. Characterization of this cDNA clone revealed that its induction was dependent on LPS activation of THP-1 cells; hence, the name LPS-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF). Inhibition of LITAF mRNA expression in THP-1 cells resulted in a reduction of TNF-alpha transcripts. In addition, high level of expression of LITAF mRNA was observed predominantly in the placenta, peripheral blood leukocytes, lymph nodes, and the spleen. Finally, chromosomal localization using fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that LITAF mapped to chromosome 16p12-16p13.3. Together, these findings suggest that LITAF plays an important role in the activation of the human TNF-alpha gene and proposes a new mechanism to control TNF-alpha gene expression.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  3. [해외논문]   A novel lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription factor regulating tumor necrosis factor gene expression: Molecular cloning, sequencing, characterization, and chromosomal assignment  

    Myokai, F. , Takashiba, S. , Lebo, R. , Amar, S.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4518 - 4523 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent stimulator of monocytes and macrophages, causing secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and other inflammatory mediators. Given the deleterious effects to the host of TNF-alpha, it has been postulated that TNF-alpha gene expression must be tightly regulated. The nature of the nuclear factor(s) that control TNF-alpha gene transcription in humans remains obscure, although NF-kappaB has been suggested. Our previous studies pertaining to macrophage response to LPS identified a novel DNA-binding domain located from -550 to -487 in the human TNF-alpha promoter that contains transcriptional activity, but lacks any known NF-kappaB-binding sites. We have used this DNA fragment to isolate and purify a 60-kDa protein binding to this fragment and obtained its amino-terminal sequence, which was used to design degenerate probes to screen a cDNA library from THP-1 cells. A novel cDNA clone (1.8 kb) was isolated and fully sequenced. Characterization of this cDNA clone revealed that its induction was dependent on LPS activation of THP-1 cells; hence, the name LPS-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF). Inhibition of LITAF mRNA expression in THP-1 cells resulted in a reduction of TNF-alpha transcripts. In addition, high level of expression of LITAF mRNA was observed predominantly in the placenta, peripheral blood leukocytes, lymph nodes, and the spleen. Finally, chromosomal localization using fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that LITAF mapped to chromosome 16p12-16p13.3. Together, these findings suggest that LITAF plays an important role in the activation of the human TNF-alpha gene and proposes a new mechanism to control TNF-alpha gene expression.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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  4. [해외논문]   Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea.  

    Haqqi, T M , Anthony, D D , Gupta, S , Ahmad, N , Lee, M S , Kumar, G K , Mukhtar, H
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4524 - 4529 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Identification of common dietary substances capable of affording protection or modulating the onset and severity of arthritis may have important human health implications. An antioxidant-rich polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (green tea polyphenols, GTPs) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties in experimental animals. In this study we determined the effect of oral consumption of GTP on collagen-induced arthritis in mice. In three independent experiments mice given GTP in water exhibited significantly reduced incidence of arthritis (33% to 50%) as compared with mice not given GTP in water (84% to 100%). The arthritis index also was significantly lower in GTP-fed animals. Western blot analysis showed a marked reduction in the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase 2, IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the arthritic joints in GTP-fed mice demonstrated only marginal joint infiltration by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing cells as opposed to massive cellular infiltration and fully developed pannus in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice. The neutral endopeptidase activity was approximately 7-fold higher in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice in comparison to nonarthritic joints of unimmunized mice whereas it was only 2-fold higher in the arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Additionally, total IgG and type II collagen-specific IgG levels were lower in serum and arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Taken together our studies suggest that a polyphenolic fraction from green tea that is rich in antioxidants may be useful in the prevention of onset and severity of arthritis.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지
  5. [해외논문]   Reconstitution of functional L-selectin ligands on a cultured human endothelial cell line by cotransfection of alpha1-->3 fucosyltransferase VII and newly cloned GlcNAcbeta:6-sulfotransferase cDNA.  

    Kimura, N , Mitsuoka, C , Kanamori, A , Hiraiwa, N , Uchimura, K , Muramatsu, T , Tamatani, T , Kansas, G S , Kannagi, R
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4530 - 4535 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Recently, we proposed sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X as a major carbohydrate-capping group of the L-selectin ligands on high endothelial venules in human lymph nodes. In this study we succeeded in reconstituting functional L-selectin ligands on a cultured human endothelial cell line, ECV304, by transfecting the alpha1-->3fucosyltranseferase VII (Fuc-T VII) and newly cloned GlcNAcbeta:6-sulfotransferase (6-Sul-T) cDNAs. The ECV304 cells transfected with Fuc-T VII cDNA expressed conventional sialyl Lewis X detected with specific antibodies including 2H5, whereas the cells transfected with 6-Sul-T cDNA expressed sialyl 6-sulfo lactosamine as well as MECA-79-defined carbohydrate determinants, but these singly transfected cells failed to express sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X, as detected with the antisialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X mAb G152. Sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X appeared only on the cells that were cotransfected with both 6-Sul-T and Fuc-T VII cDNAs. Significant adhesion of L-selectin-expressing cells was seen only to the doubly transfected ECV304 cells and was inhibited by G152. No adhesion was observed to the cells transfected either with 6-Sul-T or with Fuc-T VII cDNA alone. The mRNAs of the two enzymes were expressed or were inducible upon interleukin 1 stimulation in human endothelial cells. These results indicate that a set of carbohydrate determinants synthesized by the concerted action of the two enzymes, as typically represented by the sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X-capping group, serves as an essential component of the ligand for L-selectin and that the reagents 2H5 and MECA-79, utilized in earlier studies to detect L-selectin ligand on high endothelial venules, recognize two different aspects of the same set of synthetic products.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  6. [해외논문]   Reconstitution of functional L-selectin ligands on a cultured human endothelial cell line by cotransfection of 1->3 fucosyltransferase VII and newly cloned GlcNAc :6-sulfotransferase cDNA  

    Kimura, N. , Mitsuoka, C. , Kanamori, A. , Hiraiwa, N. , Uchimura, K. , Muramatsu, T. , Tamatani, T. , Kansas, G. S. , Kannagi, R.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4530 - 4535 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Recently, we proposed sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X as a major carbohydrate-capping group of the L-selectin ligands on high endothelial venules in human lymph nodes. In this study we succeeded in reconstituting functional L-selectin ligands on a cultured human endothelial cell line, ECV304, by transfecting the alpha1-->3fucosyltranseferase VII (Fuc-T VII) and newly cloned GlcNAcbeta:6-sulfotransferase (6-Sul-T) cDNAs. The ECV304 cells transfected with Fuc-T VII cDNA expressed conventional sialyl Lewis X detected with specific antibodies including 2H5, whereas the cells transfected with 6-Sul-T cDNA expressed sialyl 6-sulfo lactosamine as well as MECA-79-defined carbohydrate determinants, but these singly transfected cells failed to express sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X, as detected with the antisialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X mAb G152. Sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X appeared only on the cells that were cotransfected with both 6-Sul-T and Fuc-T VII cDNAs. Significant adhesion of L-selectin-expressing cells was seen only to the doubly transfected ECV304 cells and was inhibited by G152. No adhesion was observed to the cells transfected either with 6-Sul-T or with Fuc-T VII cDNA alone. The mRNAs of the two enzymes were expressed or were inducible upon interleukin 1 stimulation in human endothelial cells. These results indicate that a set of carbohydrate determinants synthesized by the concerted action of the two enzymes, as typically represented by the sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X-capping group, serves as an essential component of the ligand for L-selectin and that the reagents 2H5 and MECA-79, utilized in earlier studies to detect L-selectin ligand on high endothelial venules, recognize two different aspects of the same set of synthetic products.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  7. [해외논문]   Millimeter-scale positioning of a nerve-growth-factor source and biological activity in the brain.  

    Mahoney, M J , Saltzman, W M
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4536 - 4539 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Toxicity prevents the systemic administration of many therapeutic proteins, and attempts at protein targeting via the circulatory system (i.e., "magic bullets") have failed in all but a few special cases. Direct administration at the target site is a logical alternative, particularly in the central nervous system, but the limits of direct administration have not been defined clearly. Nerve growth factor (NGF) enhances survival of cholinergic neurons and, therefore, has generated considerable interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We tested the effectiveness of local delivery by implanting small polymer pellets that slowly released NGF into the central nervous system of adult rats at controlled distances from a target site containing transplanted fetal cholinergic cells. NGF-releasing implants placed within 1-2 mm of the treatment site enhanced the biological function of cellular targets, whereas identical implants placed approximately 3 mm from the target site of treatment produced no beneficial effect. Effective NGF therapy required millimeter-scale positioning of the NGF source, and efficacy correlated with the spatial distribution of NGF concentration in the tissue; this result suggests that NGF must be delivered within several millimeters of the target to be effective in treating Alzheimer's disease. Because the human brain is divided into functional regions that are typically several centimeters in diameter and often irregular in shape, new methods for sculpting larger-scale drug fields are needed. We illustrate a concept, called pharmacotectonics, in which drug-delivery systems are arranged spatially in tissues to shape concentration fields for potent agents.

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    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  8. [해외논문]   Roles of trk family neurotrophin receptors in medullary thyroid carcinoma development and progression.  

    McGregor, L M , McCune, B K , Graff, J R , McDowell, P R , Romans, K E , Yancopoulos, G D , Ball, D W , Baylin, S B , Nelkin, B D
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4540 - 4545 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Although initiating mutations in the ret protooncogene have been found in familial and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), the molecular events underlying subsequent tumor progression stages are unknown. We now report that changes in trk family neurotrophin receptor expression appear to be involved in both preneoplastic thyroid C cell hyperplasia and later tumor progression. Only a subset of normal C cells expresses trk family receptors, but, in C cell hyperplasia, the affected cells consistently express trkB, with variable expression of trkA and trkC. In later stages of gross MTC tumors, trkB expression was substantially reduced, while trkC expression was increased and often intense. In a cell culture model of MTC, exogenous trkB expression resulted in severely impaired tumorigenicity and was associated with 11-fold lower levels of the angiogenesis factor vascular endothelial growth factor. These results suggest that trk family receptor genes participate in MTC development and progression, and, in particular, that trkB may limit MTC tumor growth by inhibition of angiogenesis.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  9. [해외논문]   Distribution of human herpesvirus-8 latently infected cells in Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and primary effusion lymphoma.  

    Dupin, N , Fisher, C , Kellam, P , Ariad, S , Tulliez, M , Franck, N , van Marck, E , Salmon, D , Gorin, I , Escande, J P , Weiss, R A , Alitalo, K , Boshoff, C
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4546 - 4551 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, also called KSHV) is linked to the etiopathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The universal presence of HHV-8 in early KS has not yet been shown. We used a mAb (LN53) against latent nuclear antigen-1 (LNA-1) of HHV-8 encoded by ORF73 to study the distribution of the cell types latently infected by HHV-8 in patch, plaque, and nodular KS, MCD, and PEL. In early KS, HHV-8 is present in 90% of spindle cells, but not in normal vascular endothelium. In addition, HHV-8 colocalizes with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), a marker of lymphatic and precursor endothelium. In early KS lesions, VEGFR-3 is more extensively expressed than LNA-1, indicating that HHV-8 is not inducing the proliferation of VEGFR-3-positive endothelium directly. In MCD, HHV-8 is present in mantle zone large immunoblastic B cells. No staining for LNA-1 is seen in samples from multiple myeloma, prostate cancer, and angiosarcoma, supporting the absence of any etiological link between these diseases and HHV-8.

    원문보기

    원문보기
    무료다운로드 유료다운로드

    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

    NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.

    이미지

    Fig. 1 이미지
  10. [해외논문]   Defective CD95/APO-1/Fas signal complex formation in the human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, type Ia.  

    Martin, D A , Zheng, L , Siegel, R M , Huang, B , Fisher, G H , Wang, J , Jackson, C E , Puck, J M , Dale, J , Straus, S E , Peter, M E , Krammer, P H , Fesik, S , Lenardo, M J
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.96 no.8 ,pp. 4552 - 4557 , 1999 , 0027-8424 ,

    초록

    Heterozygous mutations in the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) receptor occur in most individuals with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and dominantly interfere with apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. We show that local or global alterations in the structure of the cytoplasmic death domain from nine independent ALPS CD95 death-domain mutations result in a failure to bind the FADD/MORT1 signaling protein. Despite heterozygosity for the abnormal allele, lymphocytes from ALPS patients showed markedly decreased FADD association and a loss of caspase recruitment and activation after CD95 crosslinking. These data suggest that intracytoplasmic CD95 mutations in ALPS impair apoptosis chiefly by disrupting death-domain interactions with the signaling protein FADD/MORT1.

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    원문보기
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    회원님의 원문열람 권한에 따라 열람이 불가능 할 수 있으며 권한이 없는 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 회원가입 및 유료구매가 필요할 수 있습니다.이동하는 사이트에서의 모든 정보이용은 NDSL과 무관합니다.

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    Fig. 1 이미지

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