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심부 지오시스템 특성 평가기술 개발
Development of the Characterization Technology for the Deep Geosystem

  • 과제명

    심부 지오시스템 특성 평가기술 개발

  • 주관연구기관

    한국지질자원연구원
    Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources

  • 연구책임자

    박의섭

  • 참여연구자

    박철환   김현우   박정욱   박도현   그외 다수   선우춘   류동우   류창하   박찬   송원경  

  • 보고서유형

    연차보고서

  • 발행국가

    대한민국

  • 언어

    한국어

  • 발행년월

    2015-12

  • 과제시작년도

    2015

  • 주관부처

    미래창조과학부
    KA

  • 사업 관리 기관

    한국지질자원연구원
    Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources

  • 등록번호

    TRKO201600000636

  • 과제고유번호

    1711027251

  • 키워드

    대심도,지오시스템,암반응력,수리특성,장기파괴거동Deep depth,Geosystem,Rock stress,Hydraulic characteristics,Creep/Fatigue/Subcritical crack growth

  • DB 구축일자

    2016-04-23

  • 초록 


    Ⅳ. Results of the Work
    To propose the hydro‐mechanical correlation considering nonlinear flow and evaluate the cubic law under...

    Ⅳ. Results of the Work
    To propose the hydro‐mechanical correlation considering nonlinear flow and evaluate the cubic law under deep depth condition, the experimental equipment for evaluating the rock permeability under deep depth condition (high water pressure, high stress) was developed. This experimental system enables precise permeability test and effect analysis according to variable pressure and fracture geometry. To induce the radial permeability equation, the cylindrical and various‐sized fracture rock samples were prepared in consideration of size effect. Accuracy and durability of manufactured equipment were identified by preliminary permeability tests, which verified the performability of reliable flow tests under deep depth condition.
    The permeability experiments using the granite samples of E‐13 were conducted to examine the change in the fracture permeability at pH 13 and at 25 and 90°C. At 25°C, the permeability slightly decreased with time, whereas at 90°C it drastically decreased by two orders of magnitude smaller than the initial value.
    The microstructure was observed by SEM‐EDX, but the mechanisms controlling the permeability change were not clarified by the observation. A coupled T‐H‐M‐C numerical model was developed to examine the change in permeability of porous rocks. The developed model was applied to the estimation of the long‐term evolution of the rock permeability by simulating the burial of high‐level radioactive wastes in the deep subsurface. The predicted permeability close to the wastes decreased by one order of magnitude in 104 years when considering the pressure solution mechanism.
    An electrical resistivity measurement system and a monitoring program were designed and constructed for precise estimation of hydraulic conductivity under a deep depth rock condition. To verify the electrical resistivity measurement system and monitoring program, preparatory experiments were performed with system circuit mode and frequency using solid resistors and conductive fluid. In addition, operation for the monitoring was verified by continuous measurement of electrical resistivities with multi‐channels. The results of the measurement suggested that the designed monitoring system would obtain the electrical resistivity data with assured reliability.
    To improve the injection performance of rock grouting near deep‐depth underground facility, the flow test equipment for evaluating the rock grout behavior under deep‐depth condition (high temperature, high water pressure and high stress) was developed. Main influencing factors (fracture roughness, aperture size, fracture network, physical property of grout, temperature and injection pressure and flux) were determined for a further experimental study. We participated in the intranational collaboration ‐ TIGHT project and exchanged technical opinions. Through the data sharing network system in real time (E‐Room system), we collected the advanced latest data about Northern European rock grouting.
    Numerical method for simulating a hydro‐mechanical behavior of jointed rock mass due to viscous fluid injection was developed. Using the developed method, sensitivity analysis of design parameters (injection grout properties, geological characteristics of the jointed rock mass, injecting conditions and the characteristics of mechanical deformation of joint) was carried out so as to identify their influences on an injection performance (penetration length and injection rate). The penetration length was linearly decreased as the viscosity and yielding strength of the injected grout increased. The penetration length may be overestimated when time‐dependent increment of these material properties of the grout are not considered. The penetration length was linearly increased in proportion to the aperture of joint but, the injection rate was proportional to the square of the aperture. The penetration length obtained from the hydro‐mechanical analysis was greater than that from analytical solution, since the mechanical deformation of the joint induced by the grout injection pressure resulted in a non‐linear evolution of the aperture.
    A hydraulic fracturing equipment to measure in‐situ stress at a depth of 1 km was designed and partially manufactured. A literature review on deep‐depth rock condition was carried out to determine the detailed specifications of the equipment. By making modifications to an existing equipment in KIGAM that was applicable to shallow depth < 500 m, the specifications of a new equipment was customized to deep‐depth rock condition, and finally determined.
    A new pilot equipment to measure three dimensional rock stress was developed. This equipment would substitute the conventional tool made in Germany and be more efficient to use in‐situ than it. It is composed of two modules, a data storage module and a measuring module. Data logger system in the data storage module is allowed to consecutively store strain variation of rock core. Piston triggering system for the injection of resin is also equipped in the data storage module. These two components are expected to enhance the reliability and the convenience of the equipment during operation in place. Futhermore, a gyroscope sensor is equipped in PCB of data logger in order to automatically record the orientation of strain gages.
    To evaluate the applicability of the techniques that indirectly measures the in‐situ stresses of deep bedrock, the previous research studies regarding the rock failure phenomena such as core disking, borehole breakout and so on were reviewed. In order to evaluate the reliability of numerical analysis on indirectly estimating the in‐situ stresses of rock mass, the FRACOD code based on fracture mechanics, which has been developed by the international collaboration research project, was used for simulating core disking and borehole breakout.
    Compilation of existing stress measurement data in Korea and quality classification of the data based on World Stress Map quality ranking scheme was conducted. Using high quality data derived from the quality classification, we conducted statistical analysis and interpretation of shallow stress states in Korea peninsula. In addition, we investigated similarity and difference between the shallow stress states and the deep stress states from earthquake focal mechanism inversion. The investigation results showed that shallow stress states analyzed by hydraulic fracturing stress measurement data are similar to those by earthquake focal mechanism inversion.
    We investigated and compared the existing optimization techniques for back analysis and developed a simulation tool in combination with a response surface method and a continuum numerical analysis code FLAC2D, which can be used for estimating the deformation modulus and stress ratio of the rock mass surrounding tunnels. From a performance analysis of the developed tool, it was demonstrated that the present approach could produce satisfactory results in parameter estimation and computational efficiency, which confirms its applicability to the parameter estimation of tunnels.
    A methodology to predict multiple sets of ground conditions by using simulated annealing (SA) and sequential indicator simulation (SIS) was developed, which is geostatistical simulation technique, and then evaluates excavation costs and durations of a tunneling schedule via Building Information Modeling (BIM). For integration of SA and BIM, we extended existing BIM to accept multiple sets of ground conditions. To validate the effectiveness of our methodology, we applied it to a tunnel. Based on the application, we highlight that our methodology makes it possible to formally evaluate risks in excavation costs and durations of tunnel construction with complete information about ground conditions acquired before construction.
    It is necessary to develop practical Mode II subcritical crack growth test for the evaluation of long‐term stability of rock structure because shear and mixed mode are dominant phenomena in the rock mass in general. Mode II subcritical crack growth tests were carried out by combining developed mode II fracture toughness test, Short Core in Compression (SCC) with probabilistic SCG test concept using granite. The SCG parameters n and A were obtained and compared with those of mode I test. In addition, it was confirmed that damage accumulation during the delayed failure of rock can be visualized by acoustic emission.
    Considering the long design life and the location at depth of underground structures, time‐dependent aspects of the mechanical properties of rock mass are potentially important. We reviewed various mathematical models proposed for describing creep behavior of rock mass, which have been used to analyze long‐term stability of the rock mass surrounding underground excavations. We examined the constitutive equations used in numerical studies, and compared the features of continuum versus discontinuum methods for simulating rock fracture.
    A biaxial loading testing machine was manufactured, which would be used to evaluate the deformation and failure characteristics of physical model and rock core specimen in the deep geological environment. For the reliability and durability of the equipment, the detailed design, reinforcement of machine deployment area and the structural stability analysis were performed. The manufactured biaxial loading testing machine is equipped with servo‐control system for load and displacement in both vertical and horizontal directions.
    A numerical technique to simulate the mechanical behavior of rock at a deep depth was developed, based on a polygonal grain‐based model (GBM) combined with distinct element method (DEM). The mechanical behavior of rock at laboratory scale was reproduced, and the relationships between micro‐parameters of grains and their interfaces and macro‐responses of assembly were examined. The methodology for simulating the behavior of isotropic and anisotropic rocks was suggested and the failure mechanism was observed from the micro‐cracks and stress distribution in shear and normal directions, by taking advantage of DEM calculation schemes. The numerically estimated and experimentally measured mechanical responses showed good agreement, which indicates the capability of the developed technique to capture the behavior of rock at microscopic‐scale.
    To verify the explosion modeling method for blast‐damaged zone (BDZ) around underground cavern, a series of small‐scale test blasts were conducted using the concept of momentum trap. The input parameters to the numerical model (LS‐DYNA) were corrected based on experimental results. Laboratory tests for simulating the explosion of explosive in blasthole were conducted using a rectangular rock plate with a center hole, and the results were reproduced by the numerical simulations using PFC3D. In the laboratory tests, a specially designed wedge system was used to approximate the magnitude of the source blow. It is expected that the wedge system can be usefully applied to experimental studies concerning with explosion and their numerical verifications.


    최종 목표
    ○ 1 km급 심부 열-수리-역학적 연계특성 평가기술 개발
    - 심부 수리특성 평가기술 개발
    - 심부 암반응력 평가기술 개발
    - 심부암반 장기 파괴거동 분석 기술 개발
    개발내용 및 결과
    ○ ...

    최종 목표
    ○ 1 km급 심부 열-수리-역학적 연계특성 평가기술 개발
    - 심부 수리특성 평가기술 개발
    - 심부 암반응력 평가기술 개발
    - 심부암반 장기 파괴거동 분석 기술 개발
    개발내용 및 결과
    ○ 고심도 조건의 암반투수 특성평가 실험장치 구축
    ○ 고온, 고압, pH 조건에서 균열암석의 투수특성 변화 규명
    ○ 암반절리 수리전도도 평가를 위한 전기비저항 모니터링 시스템 구축
    ○ 고심도 조건의 암반 그라우팅 유동평가 실험장치 구축
    ○ 암반절리 내 점성유체 주입에 따른 수리-역학적 거동 해석기법 개발
    ○ 1 km급 수압파쇄 시험장비 설계 및 일부제작
    ○ 3차원 암반응력 측정장치 설계 및 시제품 제작
    ○ 간접 응력측정 기법의 신뢰도와 상관성 분석
    ○ 수압파쇄시험 자료 해석법 정립과 국내 응력측정 원시자료 분석
    ○ 심부암반의 역학적 특성 평가를 위한 역해석 기법 조사와 분석
    ○ 심부 현지암반의 시공간 자료 추정법 비교 검토
    ○ Mode II 장기강도특성 평가 시험법 개발
    ○ 암반 장기안정성 평가를 위한 균열성장 모델링
    ○ 이축 하중변위 서보제어 실험장치 설계와 제작
    ○ 고심도 조건하 암석의 파괴특성 수치모델링
    ○ 지하공동 굴착발파 폭압 모델링
    기대효과
    ○ 심부 지오시스템 특성 규명을 통한 지구환경/에너지자원산업 분야 기반기술 확보(환경위해물질 차폐, 신재생에너지 개발)
    ○ 전 지구적 에너지/환경 문제해결 및 지각재해에 대한 안전확보와 국민편익 증진
    ○ 심부 Bio-Geo-Physics 관련 융복합 연구기회 확대 및 신산업ㆍ신시장 개척을 위한 미래성장동력 창출 기회 확보
    적용분야
    ○ 심지층공간 구축을 위한 타당성 조사 및 부지선정
    ○ 심지층 에너지저장(CNG/CAES) 및 지하연구시설(천체우주물리관측 실험실)과 같은 중요 심지층공간의 Long-term 안전설계
    ○ 방사성폐기물, 심부 지열, 셰일가스, CO2 지중저장, 심부 채광


  • 목차(Contents) 

    1. 표지 ... 1
    2. 제출문 ... 2
    3. 연차보고서 요약서 ... 4
    4. 요약문 ... 5
    5. SUMMARY ... 10
    6. CONTENTS ... 17
    7. 목차 ... 19
    8. 제1장 연구개발과제의 개요 ... 22
    9. 제1절 연구개발의 목적 및 필요성 ... 22...
    1. 표지 ... 1
    2. 제출문 ... 2
    3. 연차보고서 요약서 ... 4
    4. 요약문 ... 5
    5. SUMMARY ... 10
    6. CONTENTS ... 17
    7. 목차 ... 19
    8. 제1장 연구개발과제의 개요 ... 22
    9. 제1절 연구개발의 목적 및 필요성 ... 22
    10. 1. 연구개발의 목적 ... 22
    11. 2. 연구개발의 필요성 ... 22
    12. 제2절 연구개발 범위 ... 23
    13. 제2장 국내외 기술개발 현황 ... 26
    14. 제1절 심지층 지하공간 활용 현황 ... 26
    15. 1. 국외 현황 ... 26
    16. 2. 국내 현황 ... 35
    17. 제2절 심부 지오시스템 핵심 평가기술 현황 ... 39
    18. 1. 국외 기술개발 현황 ... 39
    19. 2. 해외 유관기관 주요 연구개발 현황 ... 43
    20. 3. 국내 기술개발 현황 ... 48
    21. 제3절 심지층공간 활용을 위한 심부 지오시스템 특허 현황 ... 52
    22. 1. 기술개발 분야 특허 동향 ... 52
    23. 2. 국가별 특허 동향 ... 52
    24. 3. 기술별 동향 ... 53
    25. 제3장 연구개발수행 내용 및 결과 ... 56
    26. 제1절 심부 수리특성 평가기술 개발 ... 56
    27. 1. 고심도 조건의 실내 수리실험장치 설계구축 ... 56
    28. 2. 고온, 고압, pH 조건에서 균열암석의 투수특성 변화 규명 ... 66
    29. 3. 암반절리 수리전도도 평가를 위한 전기비저항 모니터링 시스템 구축 ... 80
    30. 4. 고심도 조건의 암반 그라우팅 유동평가 실험장치 구축 ... 91
    31. 5. 절리 암반 내 점성유체 주입에 따른 수리역학적거동 해석기법 개발 ... 101
    32. 제2절 심부 암반응력 평가기술 개발 ... 119
    33. 1. 1 km급 수압파쇄 시험장비 설계 및 일부 제작 ... 119
    34. 2. 3차원 암반응력 측정장치 설계 및 시제품 제작 ... 122
    35. 3. 간접 응력측정 기법의 신뢰도와 상관성 분석 ... 131
    36. 4. 수압파쇄시험 자료 해석법 정립과 국내 응력측정 원시자료 분석 ... 142
    37. 4. 수압파쇄시험 자료 해석법 정립과 국내 응력측정 원시자료 분석 ... 142
    38. 5. 심부암반의 역학적 특성 평가를 위한 역해석 기법 조사와 분석 ... 161
    39. 6. 심부 현지암반의 시공간 자료 추정법 비교 검토 ... 169
    40. 제3절 암반 장기 파괴거동 분석기술 개발 ... 186
    41. 1. Mode II 장기강도특성 평가 시험법 개발 ... 186
    42. 2. 암반 장기안정성 평가를 위한 균열성장 모델링 ... 203
    43. 3. 이축 하중변위 서보제어 실험장치 설계와 제작 ... 212
    44. 4. 고심도 조건하 암석의 파괴특성 수치모델링 ... 218
    45. 5. 지하공동 굴착발파 폭압 모델링 ... 240
    46. 제4장 목표달성도 및 관련분야에의 기여도 ... 254
    47. 제1절 목표달성도 ... 254
    48. 1. 최종 연구목표의 달성도 ... 254
    49. 2. 당해연도 목표의 달성도 ... 255
    50. 제2절 관련분야에의 기여도 ... 257
    51. 1. 기술적 측면 ... 257
    52. 2. 경제․산업적 측면 ... 257
    53. 3. 정책적 측면 ... 257
    54. 제5장 연구개발결과의 활용계획 ... 260
    55. 제6장 연구개발과정에서 수집한 해외과학기술 정보 ... 262
    56. 제1절 해외 연구동향 ... 262
    57. 제2절 논문 ... 266
    58. 제7장 참고문헌 ... 274
    59. 끝페이지 ... 287
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